Field Guide to Wisconsin Streams: Plants, Fishes, Invertebrates, Amphibians, and Reptiles

Paperback | June 24, 2014

byMichael A. Miller, Katie Songer, Ron Dolen

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From bubbling spring-fed headwaters to quiet, marshy creeks and tannin-stained northern reaches, Wisconsin is home to 84,000 miles of streams. This guide is the ultimate companion for learning about the animals and plants in Wisconsin streams. A collaborative effort by dozens of biologists and ecologists, Field Guide toWisconsin Streams is accessible to anglers, teachers and students, amateur naturalists, and experienced scientists alike.
            More than 1,000 images illustrate the species in this field guide. These images are augmented by detailed ecological and taxonomic notes, descriptions of look-alike species, and distribution maps. The guide identifies:
• more than 130 common plants
• all 120 fishes known to inhabit Wisconsin streams
• 8 crayfishes
• 50 mussels
• 10 amphibians
• 17 reptiles
• 70 families of insects
• other commonly found invertebrates.

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From bubbling spring-fed headwaters to quiet, marshy creeks and tannin-stained northern reaches, Wisconsin is home to 84,000 miles of streams. This guide is the ultimate companion for learning about the animals and plants in Wisconsin streams. A collaborative effort by dozens of biologists and ecologists, Field Guide toWisconsin Stream...

Michael A. Miller is a stream ecologist with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources whose professional interests include watershed and stream ecology and management. Katie Songer is an environmental scientist, educator, and writer who has worked with AmeriCorps, the Peace Corps, and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources....

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:336 pages, 8.5 × 5.5 × 0.9 inPublished:June 24, 2014Publisher:University Of Wisconsin PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0299294544

ISBN - 13:9780299294540

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

How to Use This Guide                    
What to Do If You Find an Invasive Species            
<1>Terrestrial Plants             
<2>Woody Plants
            Box elder (Acer negundo)
            Silver maple (Acer saccharinum)
            Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa)
            Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
            Dogwood (Cornus spp.)
            Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
            Eurasian bush honeysuckle (Lonicera X bella, L. maackii, L. morrowii, and L. tatarica)
            Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
            Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
            Buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.)
            Black willow (Salix nigra)
            Elderberry (Sambucus spp.)
            Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa)
            American basswood (Tilia americana)
            American elm (Ulmus americana)
            Viburnum (Viburnum spp.)
<2>Herbaceous Terrestrial Plants
            Nodding beggar-ticks (Bidens cernua)
            Fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium)
            Japanese hop (Humulus japonicas)
            Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis and I. pallida)
            Prairie blazing star (Liatris pycnostachya)
            Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)
            False dragonhead (Physostegia virginiana)
            Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica var. japonica)
            Nettles (Urticaceae spp.)
            Blue vervain (Verbena hastata)
<1>Aquatic Plants                 
<2>Emergent Plants
<3>Emergent Plants with Narrow Leaves
            Flowering-rush (Butomus umbellatus)
            Bristly sedge (Carex comosa)
            Creeping spike-rush (Eleocharis palustris)
            Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile)
            Northern manna grass (Glyceria borealis)
            Irises (Iris spp.)
            Soft rush (Juncus effusus)
            Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
            Phragmites (Phragmites australis)
            Hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus)
            Soft-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani)
            Bur-reeds (Sparganium spp.)
            Cattails (Typha spp.)
            Northern and southern wild rice (Zizania palustris and Z. aquatica)
<3>Emergent Plants with Broad Leaves
            Wild calla (Calla palustris)
            Swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus)
            Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
            Forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)
            Water cress (Nasturtium officinale)
            Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata)
            Arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.)
            Water speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica)
<2>Free-Floating Plants
            European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae)
            Small duckweed (Lemna minor)
            Forked duckweed (Lemna trisulca)
            Large duckweed (Lemna major)
<2>Floating-Leaf Plants
            Watershield (Brasenia shreberi)
            American lotus (Nelumbo lutea)
            Yellow pond lily (Nuphar advena)
            Small yellow pond lily (Nuphar microphylla)
            Spatterdock (Nuphar variegata)
            White water lily (Nymphaea odorata)
            Yellow floating heart (Nymphoides peltata)
            Water smartweed (Persicaria amphibia)
            Water chestnut (Trapa natans)
<2>Submersed Plants
<3>Submersed Plants with Opposite or Whorled Leaves
            Australian swamp crop (Crassula helmsii)
            Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa)
            Common waterweed (Elodea canadensis)
            Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)
            Oxygen-weed (Lagarosiphon major)
            Common water starwort (Callitriche palustris)
            Muskgrasses (Chara spp.)
            Nitella (Nitella spp.)
            Slender naiad (Najas flexilis)
            Brittle waternymph (Najas minor)
<3>Submersed Plants with Basal Leaves
            Needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis)
            Wild celery (Vallisneria americana)
<3>Submersed Plants with Alternate, Thin Leaves
            Water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia)
            Ribbon-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton epihydrus)
            Fries' pondweed (Potamogeton friesii)
            Floating-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton natans)
            Blunt-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton obtusifolius)
            Small pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus)
            Fern pondweed (Potamogeton robbinsii)
            Spiral-fruited pondweed (Potamogeton spirillus)
            Vasey's pondweed (Potamogeton vaseyi)
            Flat-stem pondweed (Potamogeton zosteriformis)
            Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata)
<3>Submersed Plants with Alternate, Broad Leaves
            Large-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolius)
            Alpine pondweed (Potamogeton alpinus)
            Curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus)
            Variable pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus)
            Illinois pondweed (Potamogeton illinoensis)
            Long-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus)
            White-stem pondweed (Potamogeton praelongus)
            Clasping-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton richardsonii)
<3>Submersed Plants with Finely-Divided Leaves
            Water marigold (Bidens beckii)
            Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana)
            Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum)
            Spiny hornwort (Ceratophyllum echinatum)
            Parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum)
            Northern water-milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum)
            Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
            White water crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis)
            Yellow water crowfoot (Ranunculus flabellaris)
            Creeping bladderwort (Utricularia gibba)
            Flat-leaf bladderwort (Utricularia intermedia)
            Common bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris)
            Filamentous green algae (class Chlorophyceae)
            Didymo (Didymosphenia geminata)
<1>Insects (Class Insecta)                
<2>Alderflies and Dobsonflies (order Megaloptera)
            Dobsonflies (Corydalidae)
            Alderflies (Sialidae)
<2>Beetles (order Coleoptera)
            Predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae)
            Riffle beetles (Elmidae)
            Whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae)
            Water pennies and false water pennies (Psephenidae)
<2>Caddisflies (order Trichoptera)
            Chimney case-maker caddisflies (Brachycentridae)
            Saddle case-maker caddisflies (Glossosomatidae)
            Snail case-maker caddisflies (Helicopsychidae)
            Net-spinning caddisflies (Hydropsychidae)
            Long-horned caddisflies (Leptoceridae)
            Northern caddisflies (Limnephilidae)
            Strong case-maker caddisflies (Odontoceridae)
            Finger-net caddisflies (Philopotamidae)
<2>Damselflies and Dragonflies (order Odonata)
<3>Damselflies (suborder Zygoptera)
            Broad-winged damselflies (Calopterygidae)
            Narrow-winged damselflies (Coenagrionidae)
<3>Dragonflies (suborder Anisoptera)
            Darner dragonflies (Aeshnidae)
            Spike-tail dragonflies (Cordulegastridae)
            Club-tail dragonflies (Gomphidae)
            Common skimmer dragonflies (Libellulidae)
<2>Mayflies (order Ephemeroptera)
            Blue-winged olives (Baetidae)
            Armored mayflies (Baetiscidae)
            Small square-gill mayflies (Caenidae)
            Spiny crawler mayflies (Ephemerellidae)
            Common burrowing mayflies (Ephemeridae)
            Flathead mayflies (Heptageniidae)
            Brush-legged mayflies (Isonychiidae)
            Little stout crawlers (Leptohyphidae)
            Prong-gilled mayflies (Leptophlebiidae)
<2>Stoneflies (order Plecoptera)
            Small winter stoneflies (Capniidae)
            Green stoneflies (Chloroperlidae)
            Brown stoneflies (Nemouridae)
            Common stoneflies (Perlidae)
            Patterned stoneflies (Perlodidae)
            Giant black stoneflies (Pteronarcyidae)
<2>True Bugs (order Hemiptera)
            Giant water bugs (Belostomatidae)
            Water boatmen (Corixidae)
            Water striders (Gerridae)
            Water scorpions (Nepidae)
<2>True Flies (order Diptera)
            Water snipe flies (Athericidae)
            Midges (Chironomidae)
            Black flies (Simuliidae)
            Crane flies (Tipulidae)
<2>Crustaceans (subphylum Crustacea)
            Scuds (order Amphipoda, families Gammaridae and Hyalellidae)
            Crayfishes (order Decapoda)
            Aquatic sowbugs (order Isopoda, family Asellidae)
<2>Earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta)
            Aquatic earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta)
<2>Leeches (subclass Hirudinea)
            Leeches (subclass Hirudinea)
<2>Mites and Spiders (class Arachnida)
            Fishing spiders (order Araneae, family Pisauridae)
            Water mites (order Trombidiformes)
<2>Mussels and Clams (class Bivalvia)
            Mussels and clams (class Bivalvia)
<2>Planarians (class Turbellaria)
            Planarians (class Turbellaria)
<2>Snails (class Gastropoda)
            Gill-breathing snails (Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Pleuroceridae, and Viviparidae)
            Lymnaeid snails (Lymnaeidae)
            Physid snails (Physidae)
            Planorbid snails (Planorbidae)
<2>Sponges (phylum Porifera)
            Freshwater sponges (Spongillidae)
            Devil crayfish (Cambarus diogenes)
            Calico crayfish (Orconectes immunis)
            Northern clearwater crayfish (Orconectes propinquus)
            Rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)
            Virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis)
            White river crayfish (Procambarus acutus)
            Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)
            Prairie crayfish (Procambarus gracilis)
Mussels and Clams                
<1>Native Freshwater Mussels
<2>Bumpy or Ridged (Not Smooth) Mussels
            Threeridge (Amblema plicata)
            Rock pocketbook (Arcidens confragosus)
            Purple wartyback (Cyclonaias tuberculata)
            Fluted-shell (Lasmigona costata)
            Washboard (Megalonaias nervosa)
            Threehorn wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa)
            Sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus)
            Winged mapleleaf (Quadrula fragosa)
            Monkeyface (Quadrula metanevra)
            Wartyback (Quadrula nodulata)
            Pimpleback (Quadrula pustulosa)
            Mapleleaf (Quadrula quadrula)
            Pistolgrip (Tritogonia verrucosa)
<2>Smooth Mussels
<3>Elongate or Oval (Smooth) Mussels
            Mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina)
            Cylindrical papershell (Anodontoides ferussacianus)
            Spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta)
            Eastern elliptio (Elliptio complanata)
            Spike (Elliptio dilatata)
            Plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium)
            Fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea)
            Yellow and slough sandshells (Lampsilis teres)
            Creek heelsplitter (Lasmigona compressa)
            Fragile papershell (Leptodea fragilis)
            Black sandshell (Ligumia recta)
            Giant floater (Pyganodon grandis)
            Salamander mussel (Simpsonaias ambigua)
            Creeper (Strophitus undulatus)
            Lilliput (Toxolasma parvus)
            Paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis)
            Ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis)
            Rainbow shell (Villosa iris)
<3>Triangular, Round, or Winged (Smooth) Mussels
            Elktoe (Alasmidonta marginata)
            Slippershell (Alasmidonta viridis)
            Flat floater (Anodonta suborbiculata)
            Butterfly (Ellipsaria lineolata)
            Elephant ear (Elliptio crassidens)
            Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
            Ebonyshell (Fusconaia ebena)
            Wabash pigtoe (Fusconaia flava)
            Higgins eye (Lampsilis higginsii)
            White heelsplitter (Lasmigona complanata)
            Hickorynut (Obovaria olivaria)
            Round pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia)
            Pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus)
            Pink papershell (Potamilus ohiensis)
            Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis)
            Deertoe (Truncilla truncata)
<2>Invasive Mussels
            Quagga mussel, zebra mussel (Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha)
<2>Family Pisidiidae
            Fingernail clams (family Pisidiidae)
<2>Family Corbiculidae
            Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)
<2>Bowfins (Amiidae)
            Bowfin (Amia calva)
<2>Bullhead Catfishes (Ictaluridae)
<3>Catfishes with Forked Tails
            Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)
<3>Bullheads (Ameiurus spp.)
            Black Bullhead (Ameiurus Melas)
            Yellow Bullhead (Ameiurus Natalis)
<3>Madtoms (Noturus spp.)
            Slender Madtom (Noturus Exilis )
            Stonecat (Noturus Flavus)
            Tadpole Madtom (Noturus Gyrinus)
<2>Cods (Gadidae)
            Burbot (Lota Lota)
<2>Drums (Sciaenidae)
            Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus Grunniens)
<2>Gars (Lepisosteidae)
            Longnose Gar (Lepisosteus Osseus)
<2>Gobies (Gobiidae)
            Round Goby (Neogobius Melanostomus)
<2>Killifishes and Topminnows (Fundulidae)
            Banded Killifish (Fundulus Diaphanous)
            Starhead Topminnow (Fundulus Dispar)
            Blackstripe Topminnow (Fundulus Notatus)
<2>Lampreys (Petromyzontidae)
            Chestnut Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus)
            Northern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon Fossor)
            Southern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon Gagei)
            Silver Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon Unicuspis)
            American Brook Lamprey (Lampetra Appendix)
            Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus)
<2>Livebearers (Poeciliidae)
            Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia Affinis)
<2>Minnows (Cyprinidae)
<3>Common Carp and Goldfish
            Goldfish (Carassius Auratus)
            Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio)
<3>Chubs, Dace, Minnows, and Stonerollers
            Central Stoneroller (Campostoma Anomalum)
            Largescale Stoneroller (Campostoma Oligolepis)
            Redside Dace (Clinostomus Elongates)
            Lake Chub (Couesius Plumbeus)
            Gravel Chub (Erimystax X-Punctatus)
            Brassy Minnow (Hybognathus Hankinsoni)
            Pearl Dace (Margariscus Margarita)
            Hornyhead Chub (Nocomis Biguttatus)
            Suckermouth Minnow (Phenacobius Mirabilis)
            Northern Redbelly Dace (Phoxinus Eos)
            Southern Redbelly Dace (Phoxinus Erythrogaster)
            Finescale Dace (Phoxinus Neogaeus)
            Bluntnose Minnow (Pimephales Notatus)
            Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas)
            Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys Cataractae)
            Western Blacknose Dace (Rhinichthys Obtusus)
            Western Blacknose Dace vs. Longnose Dace
            Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus)
<4>Shiners with Deep Bodies, Tall Lateral Line Scales
            Striped Shiner (Luxilus Chrysocephalus)
            Common Shiner (Luxilus Cornutus)
<4>Shiners with "Mouse Tracks" Along Lateral Line but No Lateral Stripe
            Bigmouth Shiner (Notropis Dorsalis)
            Sand Shiner (Notropis Stramineus)
            Mimic Shiner (Notropis Volucellus)
<4>Shiners with Black Lateral Stripes
            Pugnose Shiner (Notropis Anogenus)
            Blackchin Shiner (Notropis Heterodon)
            Blacknose Shiner (Notropis Heterolepis)
            Ozark Minnow (Notropis Nubilus)
            Weed Shiner (Notropis Texanus)
<4>Other Shiners
            Spotfin Shiner (Cyprinella Spiloptera)
            Redfin Shiner (Lythrurus Umbratilis)
            Golden Shiner (Notemigonus Crysoleucas)
            Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides)
            Spottail Shiner (Notropis Hudsonius)
            Carmine and Rosyface Shiners (Notropis Percobromus and N. Rubellus)
<2>Mudminnows (Umbridae)
            Central Mudminnow (Umbra Limi)
<2>New World Silversides (Atherinopsidae)
            Brook Silverside (Labidesthes Sicculus)
<2>Perches (Percidae)
            Mud Darter (Etheostoma Asprigene)
            Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma Caeruleum)
            Iowa Darter (Etheostoma Exile)
            Fantail Darter (Etheostoma Flabellare)
            Least Darter (Etheostoma Microperca)
            Johnny Darter (Etheostoma Nigrum)
            Banded Darter (Etheostoma Zonale)
            Logperch (Percina Caprodes)
            Gilt Darter (Percina Evides)
            Blackside Darter (Percina Maculate)
            Slenderhead Darter (Percina Phoxocephala)
<3>Other Members of the Perch Family
            Ruffe (Gymnocephalus Cernuus)
            Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens)
            Walleye (Sander Vitreus)
<2>Pikes (Esocidae)
            Grass Pickerel (Esox Americanus Vermiculatus)
            Northern Pike (Esox Lucius)
            Muskellunge (Esox Masquinongy)
<2>Pirate Perches (Aphredoderidae)
            Pirate Perch (Aphredoderus Sayanus)
<2>Salmon and Trout (Salmonidae)
            Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)
            Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis)
            Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta)
            Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus Gorbuscha)
            Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch)
            Chinoook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)
<2>Sculpins (Cottidae)
            Mottled Sculpin (Cottus Bairdi)
            Slimy Sculpin (Cottus Cognatus)
<2>Smelts (Osmeridae)
            Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus Mordax)
<2>Sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae)
            Brook Stickleback (Culaea Inconstans)
            Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus)
            Ninespine Stickleback (Pungitius Pungitius)
<2>Sturgeons (Acipenseridae)
            Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens)
<2>Suckers (Catostomidae)
<3>Redhorses (Moxostoma Spp.)
<4>Redhorses with Red Tails (Individuals > 10 cm)
            Shorthead Redhorse (Moxostoma Macrolepidotum)
            Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma Valenciennesi)
<4>Redhorses with Slate-Colored Tails (Individuals > 10 cm)
            Silver Redhorse (Moxostoma Anisurum)
            Golden Redhorse (Moxostoma Erythrurum)
<3>Other Suckers
            Quillback (Carpiodes Cyprinus)
            Longnose Sucker (Catostomus Catostomus)
            White Sucker (Catostomus Commersonii)
            Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon Sucetta)
            Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium Nigricans)
            Bigmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus Cyprinellus)
            Spotted Sucker (Minytrema Melanops)
<2>Sunfishes (Centrarchidae)
            White Crappie (Pomoxis Annularis)
            Black Crappie (Pomoxis Nigromaculatus)
<3>Largemouth and Smallmouth Bass
            Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus Dolomieu)
            Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides)
<3>Other Sunfishes
            Rock Bass (Ambloplites Rupestris)
            Green Sunfish (Lepomis Cyanellus)
            Pumpkinseed (Lepomis Gibbosus)
            Warmouth (Lepomis Gulosus)
            Orangespotted Sunfish (Lepomis Humilis)
            Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus)
            Longear Sunfish (Lepomis Megalotis)
<2>Temperate Basses (Moronidae)
            White Perch (Morone Americana)
            White Bass (Morone Chrysops)
<2>Trout-Perches (Percopsidae)
            Trout-Perch (Percopsis Omiscomaycus)
<1>Frogs (Order Anura)                   
<2>Toads (Bufonidae)
            Eastern American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus Americanus)
<2>Treefrogs (Hylidae)
            Eastern Cricket Frog (Acris Crepitans Crepitans)
<2>True Frogs (Ranidae)
            American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus)
            Northern Green Frog (Lithobates Clamitans Melanota)
            Pickerel Frog (Lithobates Palustris)
            Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates Pipiens)
            Mink Frog (Lithobates Septentrionalis)
<1>Salamanders (Order Caudata)                  
<2>Mudpuppies (Proteidae)
            Common Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculosus Maculosus)
<2>Newts (Salamandridae)
            Central Newt (Notophthalmus Viridescens Louisianensis)
<1>Snakes (order Squamata, family Colubridae)                  
            Common Watersnake (Nerodia Sipedon Sipedon)
            Queensnake (Regina Septemvitatta)
<1>Turtles (Order Testudines)                     
<2>Softshell Turtles (Trionychidae)
            Eastern and Western Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone Spinifera)
<2>Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae)
            Eastern Snapping Turtle (Chelydra Serpentina Serpentina)
<2>Box and Water Turtles (Emydidae)
            Midland and Western Painted Turtles (Chrysemys Picta Marginata and C. Picta Bellii)
            Blanding's Turtle (Emydoidea Blandingii)
            Wood Turtle (Glyptemys Insculpta)
            Northern Map Turtle (Graptemys Geographica)
Illustration Credits                 

Editorial Reviews

“Accessible for the professional biologist, as well as schoolteachers wanting students to identify stream life, or the general public interested in stream ecology. . . . Useful throughout the region as ranges of many of the species and taxonomic groups covered in this guide cross state lines into . . . Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, or Iowa.”—Ecological Restoration