Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Armys Way of War

Hardcover | April 30, 2014

byC. Christine Fair

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Pakistan's army has dominated the state for most of its 66 years. It has locked the country in an enduring rivalry with India to revise the maps in Kashmir and to resist India's slow but inevitable rise. To prosecute these dangerous policies, the army employs non-state actors under thesecurity of its ever-expanding nuclear umbrella. The Pakistan army started three wars with India over Kashmir in 1947, 1965, and 1999 and failed to win any of them. It has sustained a proxy war in Kashmir since 1989 using Islamist militants, some of whom have now turned their guns against thePakistani state. The Pakistan army has supported non-Islamist insurgencies throughout India as well as a country-wide Islamist terror campaign that have brought the two countries to the brink of war on several occasions. Despite Pakistan's efforts to coerce India, it has only achieved modest successes. Even though India vivisected Pakistan in 1971, Pakistan continues to see itself as India's equal and demands the world do the same. The tools that the army prefers to use, non-state actors under a nuclear umbrella,has brought international opprobrium upon the country and the army. In recent years, erstwhile proxies have turned their gun on the Pakistani state itself and its peoples. Why does the army persist in pursuing these revisionist policies that have come to imperil the very viability of the stateitself, from which the army feeds? This volume argues that the answer lies, at least partially, in the strategic culture of the army. From the army's distorted view of history, the army is victorious as long as can resist India's purported hegemony and the territorial status quo. To acquiesce isdefeat. Because the army is unlikely to abandon these preferences, the world must prepare for an ever more dangerous future Pakistan.

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Pakistan's army has dominated the state for most of its 66 years. It has locked the country in an enduring rivalry with India to revise the maps in Kashmir and to resist India's slow but inevitable rise. To prosecute these dangerous policies, the army employs non-state actors under thesecurity of its ever-expanding nuclear umbrella. Th...

C. Christine Fair is an Assistant Professor in the Security Studies Program within Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service. She previously served as a senior political scientist with the RAND Corporation, a political officer with the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan in Kabul, and a senior resea...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:368 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:April 30, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199892709

ISBN - 13:9780199892709

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments1. IntroductionThe Argument: Explaining Pakistan's Persistent Revisionism In the Face of Repeated DefeatsOrganization of this Volume2. Can Strategic Culture Explain the Pakistan Army's Persistent Revisionism?Pakistan's Enduring and Expanding RevisionismExplaining Persistent RevisionismStrategic Culture WarsPakistan: An Army with a CountryReproducing Culture: Recruitment in the Pakistan ArmyMethods and Sources of this Study3. Born an Insecure StateCracking the RajImagining PakistanThe Problem of the Princely StatesUntangling the PunjabBreaking Up the Indian ArmyHistorical Legacies: A Punjabi ArmyBuilding a Modern ArmyTable 2.1: Corps and LocationsImplications for the Pakistan Army's Strategic Culture4. The Army's Defense of Pakistan's 'Ideological Frontiers'The Ideology of PakistanThe Army's Embrace of the Ideology of PakistanThe Army's Methods of IslamizationThe Army's Instrumentalization of IslamImplications5. Pakistan's Quest for Strategic DepthBritish Management of the Frontier: The Great GamePakistan's Army Seeks Strategic Depth: Managing Pakistan's Frontier and BeyondThe Army Manages the Afghan ThreatThe Rise and Fall of the TalibanThe Army's and the Internal Threat on the 'Frontier'Implications: Is the Past Prologue for Afghanistan and the Frontier?6. India under the Pakistan Army's GazeMultiple Crises and Four WarsIndia: Through the Eyes of the Pakistan ArmyConclusions and Implications7. Seeking Security through AlliancesPursuing the Americans: An Alliance for SurvivalThe Pakistan TiltChasing China: The All-Weather FriendThe Strains of WarPakistan's Relations with the United States and China through the Eyes of the ArmyConclusions and Implications8. Seeking Security under a Nuclear UmbrellaOrigins of Pakistan's Nuclear ProgramProliferation Under the Eye of the StateNuclear Doctrine and UseRisk Taking Under an Expanding Nuclear UmbrellaAs Bad As it Gets?Table 8.1 Cross Tabulations of Conflict Months by Nuclear StatusTable 8.2: Conflict Rate by Nuclear PeriodConclusions and Implications9. Jihad under the Nuclear UmbrellaOrigins of Pakistan's Use of Non-state ActorsFrom Peoples' War to Low Intensity Conflict under a Nuclear UmbrellaPakistan's Militant AssetsPakistani Support for the Militants?The Internal Jihad: A Case Study of Lashkar-e-TaibaConclusions and Implications10. Is the Past PrologueEndogenous Game ChangersDemocratic Transition?Economic Shocks-For Better and for WorseCivil and Un-Civil Society: Impetus for Change?Change from Within the Army?Table 10.5. Punjabis versus Baloch in BalochistanExogenous Sources of Change?Conclusions: Prospects for Change from Within and Without?11. The Army's Strategic Culture and Implications for International SecurityManaging Pakistan's Persistent Revisionism?ReferencesAppendices: Maps