288 pages, 8.25 × 5.5 × 0.9 in
March 1, 2011
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
The following ISBNs are associated with this title:
ISBN - 10: 0547483163
ISBN - 13: 9780547483160
About the Book
What if there were a computer that could answer virtually any question? IBM engineers are developing such a machine, teaching it to compete on the quiz show "Jeopardy." Baker carries readers on a captivating journey from the IBM labs to the showdown in Hollywood.
Read from the Book
Introduction Watson paused. The closest thing it had to a face, a glowingorb on a flat-panel screen, turned from forest green toa dark shade of blue. Filaments of yellow and red streamedsteadily across it, like the paths of jets circumnavigating theglobe. This pattern represented a state of quiet anticipationas the supercomputer awaited the next clue. It was a Septembermorning in 2010 at IBM Research, in the hills north ofNew York City, and the computer, known as Watson, was annihilatingtwo humans, both champion players, in practicerounds of Jeopardy! Within months, it would be playing thegame on national television in a million-dollar man vs. machinematch against two of Jeopardy ’s all-time greats. As Todd Crain, an actor and the host of these test games,started to read the next clue, the filaments on Watson’s displaybegan to jag and tremble. Watson was thinking — or comingas close to it as a computer could. The $1,600 clue, in the categoryThe Eyes Have It, read: “This facial ware made Israel’sMoshe Dayan instantly recognizable worldwide.” The three players — two human and one electronic — couldread the words as soon as they appeared on the big Jeopardyboard. But they had to wait for Crain to read the entire cluebefore buzzing. That was the rule. As the host pronouncedthe last word, a light would signal that contestants could buzz.The first to hit the button could win $1,600 with the right answer— or lose the same amount with a wrong one. (In thesetest matches, they played
Table of Contents
1. The Germ of the Jeopardy Machine 19
2. And Representing the Humans 42
3. Blue J Is Born 62
4. Educating Blue J 81
5. Watson’s Face 104
6. Watson Takes On Humans 124
7. AI 148
8. A Season of Jitters 170
9. Watson Looks for Work 189
10. How to Play the Game 210
11. The Match 232
Sources and Further Reading 267
About the Author 269
From the Publisher
The thrilling story of the computer that can play Jeopardy! Alex Trebek: Meet Watson.
For centuries, people have dreamed of creating a machine that thinks like a human. Scientists have made progress: computers can now beat chess grandmasters and help prevent terrorist attacks. Yet we still await a machine that exhibits the rich complexity of human thought - one that doesn't just crunch numbers, or take us to a relevant Web page, but understands us and gives us what we need.
That vision has driven a team of engineers at IBM. Over three years, they created 'Watson' and prepared it for a showdown on Jeopardy!, where it would take on two of the game's all-time champions, Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter, in a nationally televised event. Final Jeopardy is the entertaining, illuminating story of that computer and that epic match.
It's a classic tale of Man vs. Machine. Like its human competitors, Watson has to understand language, including puns and irony, and master everything from history, literature, and science to arts, entertainment, and game strategy. After years of training, Watson can find the scrambled state capital in 'Hair Gel' ('What is Raleigh?') and even come up with the facial accessory that made Moshe Dayan recognizable worldwide ('What is an eye patch?'). Watson may just be the smartest machine on earth.
Final Jeopardy traces the arc of Watson's 'life,' from its birth in the IBM labs to its big night on the podium. We meet Hollywood moguls and Jeopardy! masters, genius computer programmers and ambitious scientists, including Watson's eccentric creator, David Ferrucci. We gain access to Ferrucci's War Room, where the IBM team works tirelessly to boost Watson's speed to the buzzer, improve its performance in 'train wreck' categories (such as 'Books in Espanol'), and fix glitches like the speech defect Watson developed during its testing phase, when it started adding a d to words ending in n ('What is Pakistand?').
Much is at stake, especially for IBM. A new generation of Watsons could transform medicine, the law, marketing, even science itself, as machines process huge amounts of data at lightning speed, answer our questions, and possibly come up with new hypotheses.
Showdown aside, it's clear that the future has arrived. But with it come questions: Where does it leave humans? What will Watson's heirs be capable of in ten or twenty years? Is it time to declare defeat in the realm of facts? What should we teach our children? And what should we carry around in our own heads?
Final Jeopardy takes on these questions and more in a narrative that's as fast and fun as the game itself. Baker shows us how smart machines will fit into our world - and how they'll disrupt it.
About the Author
STEPHEN BAKER was BusinessWeek 's senior technology writer for a decade, based first in Paris and later New York. He has also written for the Los Angeles Times , Boston Globe , and the Wall Street Journal . Roger Lowenstein called his first book, The Numerati , an eye-opening and chilling book." Baker blogs at finaljeopardy.net."
"The book is the place to go if you're really interested in this version of the quest for creating Artificial Intelligence (AI)....lively" -Seattle Times
"Baker skillfully weaves the two threads of the story together, and the book contains many passages that make the reader not only assess what they think but how they think, and how they have absorbed and stored the knowledge they possess. It’s books like this that remind us there is still so much we don’t understand about our own brains, and that the journey of discovery has only just begun." -Culture Mob
"Baker's narrative is both charming and terrifying...an entertaining romp through the field of artificial intelligence - and a sobering glimpse of things to come." -STARRED, Publishers Weekly