This book seeks to provide objective analysis of the role and effectiveness of multilaterals in general and the IMF and World Bank in particular. The IMF is a multilateral financial institution with a mandate to promote financial and macroeconomic stability, cooperative economic policies, anda balanced growth of international trade. More than two fifths of its 185 members are low-income countries and many others have substantial pockets of poverty in their populations. Since economic development and the reduction of poverty are the most important economic challenges that these countriesface, how can the IMF best help them? How can the imperative of macroeconomic and financial stability be reconciled with the requirements for sustained economic growth? This volume brings together the research of leading economists, political scientists, and historians to suggest ways for the IMF toaddress these issues effectively.