Recent times have seen a downgrading of the relevance of fiscal policy, as a result of both the current need to reduce high levels of public deficit and debt, and the dominance of neoclassical theories. The institutional framework and the rules of fiscal policy operating in the European Union are built upon this theoretical basis. The Maastricht Treaty has imposed the reduction of fiscal imbalances as the main objective of national fiscal policies. The fear for a relaxation of this fiscal discipline has then led to the approval of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) , which was then reformed in 2005, in order to give more flexibility to national fiscal policies. More recently, the world-wide turmoil in the financial markets has generated support for a high level of fiscal activism, in order to alleviate the negative impact on the economy. Criticisms of the current framework of fiscal policy in the European Union are rising. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of current national fiscal policies in the European Union and European Monetary Union, and provides insights into the consequences of these fiscal policies on economic activity. With contributions from a range of experts, the book focuses on the coordination problems between the single monetary policy and national fiscal policies, and the negative impact on the capacity of fiscal policy to correct short-term economic fluctuations and to accelerate economic growth in the long-term in European economies. This book is an essential read for all interested in the role of fiscal policy in the European Union.