Flat-Panel Displays and CRTs by Lawrence E. TannasFlat-Panel Displays and CRTs by Lawrence E. Tannas

Flat-Panel Displays and CRTs

byLawrence E. Tannas

Paperback | March 28, 2012

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Flat-Panel Displays and CRTs, a review of electronic information display devices, is the first sys­ tematic and comprehensive coverage of the subject. It is intended to distill our wealth of knowledge of flat-panel displays and CRTs from their beginnings to the present state of the art. Historical perspective, theory of operation, and specific applications are all thoroughly covered. The field of display engineering is a multidisciplined technical pursuit with the result that its individual disciplines suffer from a lack of communications and limited perspective. Many previ­ ously developed standards for, and general understanding of, one technology are often inappro­ priate for another. Care has been taken here to document the old, incorporate the new, and emphasize commonalities. Criteria for performance have been standardized to enable an expert in one display technology, such as liquid crystals, to compare his device performance with that offered by another technology, such as electroluminescence. This book has been written with a second purpose in mind, to wit, to be the vehicle by means of which a new scientist or engineer can be introduced into the display society. It is organized to be tutorial for use in instructional situations. The first chapters begin with first principles and defini­ tions; the middle chapters set out requirements and criteria; and the last chapters give a complete description of each major technology.
Title:Flat-Panel Displays and CRTsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:468 pages, 25.4 × 17.8 × 0.17 inPublished:March 28, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401170649

ISBN - 13:9789401170642

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 History of Electronics for Displays.- 1.2 Electronic Displays.- 1.2.1 Introduction.- 1.2.2 Display Categories.- 1.2.3 Display Technique.- 1.2.4 Font.- 1.2.5 The CRT Challenge.- 1.2.6 Definition of Flat-Panel Displays.- 1.2.7 Flat CRTs.- 1.3 Display Classifications.- 1.3.1 Flat-Panel Display Classifications.- 1.4 Display Nomenclature.- 1.4.1 Electroluminescence vs. Luminescence.- 1.4.2 Gas Discharge, or Plasma Panel.- 1.4.3 Cathodoluminescence vs. Vacuum Fluorescence.- 1.5 Classification Nomenclature.- 1.6 Picture Element or Pixel.- 1.7 Display Array.- 1.7.1 Duty Factor.- 1.7.2 Pixel Contrast Ratio.- 1.8 Addressing.- 1.8.1 Direct Addressing.- 1.8.2 Scan Addressing.- 1.8.3 Grid Addressing.- 1.8.4 Shift Addressing.- 1.8.5 Matrix Addressing.- 1.9 Display Device Development.- 1.10 Multidiscipline.- 1.11 Technology Impetus.- 1.12 Conclusion.- References.- 2. System Requirements.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 System Classification.- 2.3 Display Installation Classification.- 2.4 Display Functional Classification.- 2.5 Systems Constraints.- 2.5.1 Performance.- 2.5.2 System Design.- 2.5.3 Environmental Testing.- 2.5.4 Standards.- 2.6 Display Subsystems.- 2.6.1 Faceplate.- Structural Shield.- Radiation Shield.- Electromagnetic Interference Shield.- First-Surface Etching.- Antireflective Coating.- Filtering.- Optical Focusing.- 2.6.2 Bezel.- 2.6.3 Interactors.- 2.6.4 Electronics.- 2.7 Transillumination.- 2.8 Photometry.- 2.8.1 Photometric Measurements.- 2.8.2 Photometric Units.- References.- 3. The Visual System: Capabilities and Limitations.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Anatomy of the Visual System.- 3.2.1 Overall Organization.- 3.2.2 Rod and Cone Characteristics.- 3.3 Spatial Vision.- 3.4 Temporal Vision.- 3.4.1 Temporal CTF.- 3.4.2 Other Temporal Psychophysical Data.- 3.5 Color Vision.- 3.5.1 Color Systems and Measurement.- 3.5.2 The Chromatic CTF.- 3.6 Summary.- References.- 4. Image Quality: Measures and Visual Performance.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Image Measurement and Specification.- 4.1.2 Physical Measures of Image Quality.- 4.1.3 Behaviorally Validated Measures of Image Quality.- 4.2 The Modulation Transfer Function.- 4.2.1 Concept and Measurement.- 4.2.2 Relation to Vision.- 4.2.3 Design Utility of the MTF.- 4.3 Pixel Error Measures.- 4.3.1 Measurement of Pixel Errors.- 4.3.2 Relation to Vision.- 4.4 MTF-Based Measures of Image Quality.- 4.4.1 Equivalent Passband, Ne.- 4.4.2 Strehl Intensity Ratio.- 4.4.3 Modulation Transfer Function Area (MTFA).- 4.4.4 Gray Shade Frequency Product (GSFP).- 4.4.5 Integrated Contrast Sensitivity (ICS).- 4.4.6 Visual Capacity (VC).- 4.4.7 Discriminate Difference Diagrams (DDD).- 4.4.8 Displayed Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRD).- 4.4.9 Visual Efficiency (VE).- 4.4.10 Information Content (IC).- 4.4.11 Summary of MTF-Based Metrics.- 4.5 Pixel Error Measures of Image Quality.- 4.5.1 Normalized Mean Square Error (MSE).- 4.5.2 Point Squared Error (PSE).- 4.5.3 Perceptual MSE (PMSE).- 4.5.4 Image Fidelity (IF).- 4.5.5 Structural Content (SC).- 4.5.6 Correlational Quality (CQ).- 4.6 An Empirical Image Quality Model.- 4.7 Problems in Image Quality Measurement.- 4.7.1 Lines, Line Pairs, and TV Lines.- 4.7.2 The Measurement System.- 4.7.3 What to Measure and Calculate.- 4.7.4 Test Pattern Selection.- 4.8 Concepts Related to Image Quality.- 4.8.1 Uniformity: Large and Small Area.- 4.8.2 Shades of Gray.- 4.8.3 Resolution.- References.- 5. Flat-Panel Display Design Issues.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Power Efficiency.- 5.2.1 Emittersand Nonemitters.- 5.2.2 Ambient Illumination.- 5.2.3 Light Losses.- 5.2.4 Power Loss.- 5.2.5 Display System Efficiency Diagram.- 5.2.6 Quantum Efficiency.- 5.2.7 Material Efficiency.- 5.2.8 Estimating Display Performance.- 5.3 Addressability.- 5.3.1 Direct Addressing.- 5.3.2 Scan Addressing.- 5.3.3 Grid Addressing.- 5.3.4 Shift-Addressing Technique.- 5.3.5 Matrix Addressing.- One-Third-Select.- Cross-Coupling-Select.- Voltage Reversal.- Four-Case Model.- 5.3.6 Intrinsic Matrix Addressing.- DiodeNonlinearity.- Hysteresis.- Threshold.- 5.3.7 Extrinsic Matrix Addressing.- 5.4 Duty Factor.- 5.4.1 Pixel Dwell Time.- 5.4.2 Summary of Dwell Time Effects.- 5.5 Gray Scale.- 5.6 Color.- 5.7 Cost.- References for Section 5.1-5.7.- 5.8 Intrinsic Electronic Display Drive.- 5.8.1 IC Technology for High-Voltage Display Drivers, by Tom Engibous.- References for Section 5.8.- 5.9 Extrinsic Electronic Display Addressing.- 5.9.1 Fabrication and Application of Thin-Film Transistors to Displays, by L. E. Tannas, Jr..- The TFT Stack.- Counterelectrode Stack.- Electroluminescent (EL) Stack.- Addressing Stack.- Display.- References for Section 5.9.1.- 5.9.2 Extrinsic Matrix Addressing with Silicon Thin-Film Transistor Arrays, by A. I. Lakatos.- Structures of Si TFT.- Fabrication of Si TFT.- Performance of Si TFT.- Arrays of Si TFT.- Summary.- References for Section 5.9.2.- 6. The Challenge of the Cathode-Ray Tube.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Historical Origins of the CRT.- 6.3 Basic CRT Design and Operation.- 6.3.1 Monochrome CRTs.- 6.3.2 Color CRTs.- Mask Techniques.- Beam Index Tubes.- Penetration Phosphors.- Current-Sensitive Phosphors.- Projection Color TV.- 6.4 Electron-Optic Regions of the CRT.- 6.4.1 The Beam-Forming Region.- Crossover vs. Laminar Flow.- Oxide vs. Dispenser Cathode.- Triode vs. Tetrode Structure.- 6.4.2 The Focusing Region.- 6.4.3 The Deflection Region.- 6.4.4 The Drift Region.- 6.5 Limitations on Electron-Gun Performance.- 6.5.1 Optical Analog of the Electron Gun.- 6.5.2 Magnification.- 6.5.3 Cathode Loading.- 6.5.4 Lens Aberrations.- 6.5.5 Thermal Effects.- 6.5.6 Space Charge.- 6.5.7 Final Spot Size.- 6.6 The Viewing System.- 6.6.1 Cathodoluminescence.- 6.6.2 Phosphors.- 6.7 CRT Resolution and Contrast.- 6.7.1 Defining CRT Resolution.- 6.7.2 Contrast and Gray Scale in the CRT.- 6.8 The Life of the CRT.- 6.8.1 Cathode Life.- 6.8.2 Phosphor Life.- 6.9 Applications and Types of CRTs.- 6.9.1 CRT Applications.- 6.9.2 Types of CRTs.- 6.9.3 Examples of High-Performance CRTs.- Three-Inch Round CRT.- Four-Inch Square CRT.- 6.10 Driving the CRT.- 6.10.1 CRT Circuits.- 6.10.2 CRT Grid Drive Characteristics.- 6.11 Overview of CRT Performance.- Resolution.- Luminance.- Contrast Ratio, Detail.- Contract Ratio, Range.- Shades of Gray (0 Ambient).- Shades of Gray (High Ambients).- Phosphor Luminous Efficiency.- Tube Luminous Efficiency.- System Luminous Efficiency.- Depth Diagonal Ratio.- Size.- Modulation.- Storage.- Duty Cycle.- Spot Shape.- Life.- Cost Per Resolution Element.- Bandwidth.- Reference.- 7. Flat Cathode-Ray Tube Display.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Motivation and Goals.- 7.3 History.- 7.4 Functional and Technical Discriptions.- 7.5 Cathodes for the Flat CRTs.- 7.5.1 Single-Point Cathode.- 7.5.2 Large-Area Thermionic-Oxide-Coated Cathodes.- Large-Area-Low-Temperature Cathode.- Screen Mesh Cathode.- Button Matrix.- Multifilament Flood Gun.- 7.5.3 Large-Area Nonthermionic Cathodes.- Individual Cathode Per Resolution Element.- Ion Feedback Cathode.- Photocathodes.- Gas-Discharge Cathodes.- Radioactive Sources.- 7.5.4 Cathode Summary.- 7.6 Beam Positioning and Modulation Techniques.- 7.6.1 Deflected-Beam Approaches.- XY Electrostatic Deflection Grids.- X Electrostatic, Y Magnetic.- X Electrostatic Deflection, Y Self-Scan.- Independent Beam Addressing of XY Emitter.- Electron-Beam Guides with XY Electrostatic Deflection.- X Electrostatic Deflection, Y Mechanical.- 7.6.2 Matrix-Addressing Approaches.- XY Matrix Addressing of a Discrete Element Cathode.- X-Axis Cathode Control, Y-Axis Control Grid.- X and Y Axis Control in Separate Control Grids.- XYZ Grid Addressing.- X-Axis Control of the Phosphor, Y-Axis Control Grid.- Single Control Grid with Active Matrix.- 7.6.3 Modulation Techniques.- Amplitude Modulation.- Pulse-Width Modulation.- Combined Pulse-Width and Amplitude Modulation.- 7.6.4 Beam Positioning and Modulation Summary.- 7.7 Brightness-Enhancement Techniques.- 7.7.1 Multiple-Beam Addressing.- 7.7.2 Electron Multipliers.- Electron Multiplication within Beam-Positioning Elements.- Separate Electron Multipliers.- 7.7.3 Internal-Storage Techniques.- 7.8 Phosphor Screens.- 7.9 Vacuum Envelope and Processing Techniques.- 7.9.1 Vacuum Envelope.- Open-Structure Envelope.- Flat-Face Self-Supporting Envelope.- 7.9.2 Processing.- 7.10 Technical Achievements.- 7.10.1 Aiken Tube and Derivatives.- 7.10.2 Banana Tube.- 7.10.3 Gabor Tube.- 7.10.4 Philips Channel Electron Multiplier CRT.- 7.10.5 Battelle Flat CRT.- 7.10.6 Digisplay.- 7.10.7 Vacuum Fluorescence.- 7.10.8 RCA Feedback and Electron Guide Displays.- 7.10.9 Zenith Ion Feedback Display.- 7.10.10 Arizona State Active Matrix Display.- 7.10.11 Stanford Research Institute Field Emission Display.- 7.10.12 Hybrid Plasma CRT.- 7.11 Summary.- References.- 8. Electroluminescent Displays.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 Overview.- 8.1.2 Configuration Definitions.- 8.2 History.- 8.2.1 Discovery of Electroluminescence in Polycrystalline Films.- 8.2.2 First EL Display Activity.- 8.2.3 Thin-Film EL.- 8.2.4 DC Powder EL.- 8.2.5 TFT Extrinsic EL Drive.- 8.2.6 DMOS Intrinsic EL Drive I.- 8.3 Theory of Operation.- 8.3.1 Status of Theory.- 8.3.2 Difference in Observed Light Generation Mechanisms.- 8.4 AC Thin-Film EL.- 8.4.1 Physical Structure.- 8.4.2 Performance.- 8.4.3 Discrimination Ratio.- 8.4.4 Panel Size.- 8.4.5 Temperature Dependence.- 8.4.6 Life, Aging, and Burn-In.- 8.4.7 Light-Generating Process Model I.- 8.4.8 Fabrication Techniques for AC Thin-Film EL.- Vapor Deposition and Sputtering.- Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE).- Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD).- 8.4.9 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of EL Thin Films.- Electron-Beam Evaporation.- Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE).- Sputtered EL Films.- Correlation of Microstructure to Electro-Optical Properties.- 8.4.10 Electrode Definition.- 8.4.11 Memory Mode.- 8.4.12 Acoustical Noise from AC Thin-Film EL Panels.- 8.4.13 Failure Modes.- Basic Configuration.- Modes of Failure.- Electrical Breakdown I.- Thin-Film Delamination.- Field-Induced Chemical Reactions.- 8.4.14 Color.- 8.5 AC Powder EL.- 8.5.1 Fabrication Technique.- 8.5.2 Applications.- 8.5.3 Mechanism of Light Generation.- 8.5.4 Life and Aging.- 8.5.5 Color in AC Powder EL Lamps.- 8.6 DC Powder EL.- 8.6.1 Fabrication.- 8.6.2 Theory of Opera tion.- 8.6.3 Aging and Failure Mechanisms.- 8.6.4 Applications.- 8.6.5 Colors with DC Powder El Phosphors.- 8.7 DC Thin-Film EL.- 8.8 Luminous Efficiency.- 8.9 Conclusion 281 References.- 9. Light-Emitting Diode Displays.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 History of LED Display Devices.- 9.3 Basic LED Technology.- 9.3.1 Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination.- 9.3.2 Direct-Indirect Transition.- 9.3.3 Nitrogen Doping in GaAs1?x Px.- 9.3.4 GaAlAs.- 9.3.5 GaP:Zn, O.- 9.3.6 Optical Coupling Efficiency.- 9.4 LED Performance-State of the Art.- 9.4.1 Performance Characteristics of Different Materials Technologies.- Red-Emitting Devices.- Green-Emitting Devices.- Yellow-Emitting Devices.- Blue-Emitting Devices.- Variable-Hue Devices.- 9.4.2 Future Performance Improvement.- 9.5 LED Display Devices.- 9.5.1 Overview.- 9.5.2 Discrete Emitter.- 9.5.3 Bar-of-Light Displays.- 9.5.4 Numeric Displays.- 9.5.5 Alphanumeric Displays.- 9.5.6 Numeric and Alpha numeric Displays with On-Board Integrated Circuits.- 9.5.7 Large-Area x-y Addressable LED Arrays.- 9.5.8 Large-Area Displays Using a Combination of LED Products.- 9.6 LED Performance Parameters.- 9.7 Materials and Processes.- 9.7.1 Substrate Preparation.- 9.7.2 Epitaxial Deposition.- 9.7.3 Wafer Fabrication.- 9.8 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 10. Plasma Displays.- 10.1 Introduction.- A: Very Strong Nonlinearity.- B: Memory.- C: Discharge Switching.- D: Long Lifetime.- E: Good Brightness and Luminous Display.- F: Low-Cost Materials-Simple Structure.- G: Rugged Self-Supporting Structure.- H: High Resolution and Large Size.- I: Transparent Display Media with n = 1.- J: Does Not Scatter Ambient Light.- K: Tolerant to Harsh Environments and Temperature Extremes.- L: Reasonable Impedance Characteristics.- M: Diffuse Glow.- N: Transparent for Back Projection.- O: Natural Color Capability.- P: Flat-panel Display.- 10.2 History.- 10.2.1 History of Gas Discharges.- 10.2.2 History of Plasma Displays.- 10.3 Basic Electro-Optical Characteristics of the Gas Discharge.- 10.3.1 I-V Characteristic.- 10.3.2 Resistor Load-Line Technique.- 10.3.3 External Current-Limiting Requirement.- 10.3.4 Luminous Regions of a Gas Discharge.- 10.3.5 Wavelength Distribu tion.- 10.4 Gas-Discharge Physics.- 10.4.1 Gas-Discharge Reactions.- Neon Atom Energy Levels.- Ionization.- Excitation.- Metastable Generation.- Penning Ionization.- Cathode Surface Reactions.- Avalanches.- 10.4.2 Gas-Discharge Feedback Model.- Loop Gain.- Current Growth.- Priming Requirement.- 10.4.3 Paschen Curve.- 10.4.4 Regions of the I-V Characteristic.- Extreme-Low-Current Region.- Townsend Discharge Region.- Subnormal-Glow Region.- Normal-Glow Region.- Abnormal-Glow Region.- Arc Region.- 10.4.5 Spatial Regions of the Normal-Glow Discharge.- 10.4.6 Priming.- Pilot-Cell Priming.- Self-Priming.- Radioactive Priming.- 10.4.7 Time-Varying Characteristics.- Initial Growth of Discharge.- Afterglow.- 10.5 Current-Limiting Techniques.- 10.5.1 DC Current Limiting.- 10.5.2 AC Current Limiting.- 10.5.3 Other Current-Limiting Techniques.- Pulse-width Current Limiting.- Abnormal-Glow Current Limiting.- 10.6 DC Plasma Displays.- 10.6.1 NIXIE Tube.- Use of Mercury to Extend Life.- 10.6.2 Segmented Discharge Displays.- Multiplexing Segmented Displays.- Segmented DC Timing Waveforms.- 10.6.3 DC Dot Matrix Displays.- Scanning Technique.- Okaya-Oki Display.- Matsushita Display.- 10.6.4 Self-Scan'¢ Display.- Gas-Discharge Switching for the Self-Scan'¢.- Scan-Discharge Operation.- Display-Discharge Operation.- Self-Scan'¢ Structures.- Self-Scan'¢ Electrical Characteristics.- The Self-Scan'¢ Memory Characteristic.- Self-Scan'¢ Bar-Graph Display.- 10.6.5 Philips DC Display.- 10.7 AC Plasma Displays.- 10.7.1 AC Plasma Display Structures.- University of Illinois.- Owens-Illinois.- Capillary.- Single Substrate.- Details of the Commercial AC Structure.- MgO Overcoat Layer.- 10.7.2 Electrical Characteristics of the AC Display.- Memory Characteristics.- Hysteresis Effect.- 10.7.3 Addressing.- Priming.- 10.7.4 Drive-Circuit Considerations.- 10.7.5 Refreshed Segmented AC Plasma Display.- Distributed-Glow Characteristics.- Wide Operational-Temperature Range.- Multiplexing.- 10.7.6 Refreshed Dot Matrix AC Plasma Display.- 10.7.7 AC Shift Panels.- AC Shift with Priming Coupling.- AC Shift with Wall Charge Coupling.- Other AC Shift Technologies.- Shift Caveat.- 10.8 Hybrid AC-DC Plasma Displays.- 10.8.1 Self-Scan'¢ Memory Panel.- 10.8.2 SonyAC-DC Hybrid.- 10.9 Image Displays.- 10.9.1 Gray Scale.- Self-Scan'¢ Gray Scale.- AC Plasma Gray Scale.- Pseudo Gray Scale.- 10.9.2 Color Plasma Displays.- Gas Mixtures with Different Colors.- Color with Electron-Excited Phosphors.- Color with UV-Excited Phosphors.- Phosphor Lifetime in Plasma Displays.- 10.9.3 Color Television.- Duty Cycle Considerations.- Negative-Glow Television Displays.- Positive-Column Television Displays.- NHK Color Television.- 10.10 Hybrid Plasma-CRT.- 10.11 Fabrication of Plasma Displays.- 10.12 Future of Plasma Displays.- References.- 11. Nonemissive Displays.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.1.1 General Characteristics of Nonemissive Displays.- 11.1.2History.- 11.1.3Definitions and Acronyms.- 11.2 The Liquid-Crystal Phase.- 11.2.1Liquid-Crystal Symmetry.- 11.2.2Liquid-Crystal Materials.- 11.2.3Physics of Liquid-Crystal Displays.- 11.2.4Liquid-Crystal Alignment.- 11.3 LCD Configurations.- 11.3.1Dynamic Scattering LCD.- 11.3.2Dichroic Dye LCD.- 11.3.3Cholesteric-Nematic LCD.- 11.3.4Deformation of Aligned-Phase LCD.- 11.3.5Twisted Nematic LCD.- 11.3.6Fluorescent LCD.- 11.3.7Smectic LCD.- 11.3.8Disclination Display Modes.- 11.4 Intrinsic Matrix Addressing of LCDs.- 11.4.1Fast-Scan Matrix Addressing.- 11.4.2Two-Frequency Addressing.- 11.4.3Hysteresis Multiplex Addressing.- 11.4.4Thermal Addressing.- 11.4.5Other Intrinsic Addressing Modes.- 11.4.6System Considerations for Intrinsic Matrix Addressing.- 11.5 Extrinsic Matrix Addressing of LCDs.- 11.5.1Ferroelectric Addressing.- 11.5.2Varistor Addressing.- 11.5.3Thin-Film Transistor Addressing.- 11.5.4Bulk Silicon Addressing.- 11.6 Electrochromic Displays.- 11.6.1Introduction.- 11.6.2Nonstoichiometric ECDs.- 11.6.3Deposition ECDs.- 11.6.4Other Electrochromic Mechanisms.- 11.7 Colloidal Displays.- 11.7.1Introduction.- 11.7.2Electrophoretic Displays.- 11.7.3Dipolar Suspension Displays.- 11.8 Electroactive Solids.- 11.8.1Introduction.- 11.8.2Ferroelectric Displays.- 11.8.3 Ferromagnetic Display.- 11.8.4 Surface Deformation Displays.- 11.9 Electromechanical Displays.- 11.9.1. Introduction.- 11.9.2 Minielectronic Shutters.- 11.9.3 Rotating Ball Displays.- 11.9.4 Galvanometer Displays.- 11.10 Conclusion.- References.