Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law

Paperback | October 24, 1996

byDavid J. Armor

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School desegregation and "forced" busing first brought people to the barricades during the 1960s and 1970s, and the idea continues to spark controversy today whenever it is proposed. A quiet rage smolders in hundreds of public school systems, where court- ordered busing plans have been inplace for over twenty years. Intended to remedy the social and educational disadvantages of minorities, desegregation policy has not produced any appreciable educational gains, while its political and social costs have been considerable. Now, on the fortieth anniversary of the Supreme Court's epicdecision, Brown v. Board of Education, the legal and social justifications for school desegregation are ripe for reexamination. In Forced Justice, David J. Armor explores the benefits and drawbacks of voluntary and involuntary desegregation plans, especially those in communities with "magnet" schools. He finds that voluntary plans, which let parents decide which school program is best for their children, are just aseffective in attaining long-term desegregation as mandatory busing, and that these plans generate far greater community support. Armor concludes by proposing a new policy of "equity" choice, which draws upon the best features of both the desegregation and choice movements. This policy promises bothimproved desegregation and greater educational choices for all, especially for the disadvantaged minority children in urban systems who now have the fewest educational choices. The debate over desegregation policy and its many consequences needs to move beyond academic journals and courtrooms to a larger audience. In addition to educators and policymakers, Forced Justice will be an important book for social scientists, attorneys and specialists in civil rights issues, andall persons concerned about the state of public education.

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From Our Editors

'Forced Justice' is a thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation. As the era of compulsory busing for school desegregation comes to a close, David Armor examines the evidence dispassionately. He finds that the benefits of this policy were usually minuscule, and the cost often enormous.

From the Publisher

School desegregation and "forced" busing first brought people to the barricades during the 1960s and 1970s, and the idea continues to spark controversy today whenever it is proposed. A quiet rage smolders in hundreds of public school systems, where court- ordered busing plans have been inplace for over twenty years. Intended to remedy ...

From the Jacket

'Forced Justice' is a thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation. As the era of compulsory busing for school desegregation comes to a close, David Armor examines the evidence dispassionately. He finds that the benefits of this policy were usually minuscule, and the cost often enormous.

David J. Armor is Research Professor at The Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. While writing this book he was Senior Research Scholar of the Social Philosophy and Policy Center of Bowling Green State University, Ohio and Visiting Professor in the Department of Sociology, Rutgers University. Formerly he was Senior Soc...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:288 pages, 9.25 × 6.14 × 0.71 inPublished:October 24, 1996Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195111354

ISBN - 13:9780195111354

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From Our Editors

'Forced Justice' is a thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation. As the era of compulsory busing for school desegregation comes to a close, David Armor examines the evidence dispassionately. He finds that the benefits of this policy were usually minuscule, and the cost often enormous.

Editorial Reviews

"David Armor's book is the definitive work on the subject of school desegregation's effects. He carefully evaluates and synthesizes a massive amount of psychological and sociological research including his own original studies. For the first time, we are given definitive conclusions and soundpolicy implications for one of the most enduring, controversial, and important educational issues of the last half century--the effects of desegregation on African-American students' learning. The book should be indispensable to educators, scholars, and policy makers concerned about schooldesegregation."--Herbert J. Walberg, University of Illinois at Chicago