Forest Measurements by Thomas Eugene AveryForest Measurements by Thomas Eugene Avery

Forest Measurements

byThomas Eugene Avery, Harold Burkhart

Hardcover | June 7, 2001

Pricing and Purchase Info


Earn 1520 plum® points

Ships within 1-2 weeks

Ships free on orders over $25

Not available in stores


This text is intended for introductory courses in forest measurements. Emphasis is on the measurement of timber, with detailed coverage on measuring products cut from tree boles, measuring attributes of standing trees, inventorying volumes of forest stands, and predicting growth of individual trees and stands of trees. Background information on statistial methods, sampling designs, land measurements, and use of aerial photographs is also provided. An introduction to assessing range, wildlife, water, and recreation resources associated with forested lands comprises the last chapter. The measurement principles and techniques discussed apply to any inventory that includes assessment of the tree overstory, regardless of whether the inventory is conducted for timber, range, wildlife, watershed, recreation, or other management objectives.
Title:Forest MeasurementsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:480 pages, 9.8 × 6.2 × 1.2 inPublished:June 7, 2001Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0073661767

ISBN - 13:9780073661766


Table of Contents


1 Introduction

1-1 Purpose of Book

1-2 Need for Measurements

1-3 Measurement Cost Considerations

1-4 Abbreviations and Symbols

Numerical Considerations

1-5 Scales of Measurement

1-6 Significant Digits and Rounding Off

1-7 English Versus Metric Systems

Presenting Information

1-8 Preparation of Graphs

1-9 Preparation of Technical Reports

1-10 Reviews of Technical Literature


2 Statistical Methods

2-1 Introduction

2-2 Bias, Accuracy, and Precision

2-3 Calculating Probabilities

2-4 Factorial Notation, Permutations, and Combinations

Statistical Concepts

2-5 Analysis of Data

2-6 Populations, Parameters, and Variables

2-7 Frequency Distributions

Statistical Computations

2-8 Mode, Median, and Mean

2-9 The Range and Average Deviation

2-10 Variance and Standard Deviation

2-11 Coefficient of Variation

2-12 Standard Error of the Mean

2-13 Confidence Limits

2-14 Covariance

2-15 Simple Correlation Coefficient

2-16 Expansion of Means and Standard Errors

2-17 Mean and Variance of Linear Functions

Simple Linear Regression

2-18 Definitions

2-19 A Linear Equation

2-20 A Sample Problem

2-21 Indicators of Fit

2-22 Regression Through the Origin

2-23 Hazards of Interpretation

2-24 Multiple Regression



3 Sampling Designs

3-1 Introduction

3-2 Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration

3-3 The Sampling Frame

Simple Random and Systematic Sampling

3-4 Simple Random Sampling

3-5 Sampling Intensity

3-6 Effect of Plot Size on Variability

3-7 Systematic Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

3-8 Stratifying the Population

3-9 Proportional Allocation of Field Plots

3-10 Optimum Allocation of Field Plots

3-11 Sample Size for Stratified Sampling

Regression and Ratio Estimation

3-12 Regression Estimation

3-13 Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling

3-14 Ratio Estimation

Double Sampling

3-15 Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators

3-16 Double Sampling for Stratification

Cluster and Two-Stage Sampling

3-17 Cluster Sampling

3-18 Two-Stage Sampling

Sampling for Discrete Variables

3-19 Simple Random Sampling for Attributes

3-20 Cluster Sampling for Attributes

3-21 Relative Efficiencies of Sampling Plans



4 Land Measurements

4-1 Applications of Surveying

Measuring Distances

4-2 Pacing Horizontal Distances

4-3 Chaining Horizontal Distances

4-4 Methods of Tape Graduation

4-5 Electronic Distance Measurement

Using Magnetic Compasses

4-6 Nomenclature of the Compass

4-7 Magnetic Declination

4-8 Allowance for Declination

4-9 Use of the Compass

Area Determination

4-10 Simple Closed Traverse

4-11 Graphical Area Determination

4-12 DOT Grids

4-13 Planimeters

4-14 Transects

4-15 Topographic Maps

Colonial Land Subdivision

4-16 Metes and Bounds Surveys

The U.S. Public Land Survey

4-17 History

4-18 The Method of Subdivision

4-19 The 24-Mile Tracts

4-20 Townships

4-21 Establishment of Sections and Lots

4-22 Survey Field Notes

4-23 Marking Land Survey Lines

Global Positioning Systems

4-24 Purpose of GPS

4-25 How GPS Works

4-26 GPS Accuracy

4-27 Differential Correction

4-28 GPS Data

4-29 GPS Receivers



5 Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling

5-1 Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units

5-2 Computing Cross-Sectional Areas

5-3 Log Volumes and Geometric Solids

5-4 Scaling by the Cubic Foot

5-5 Inscribed Square Timbers

Measuring Stacked Wood

5-6 The Cord

5-7 Solid Contents of Stacked Wood

5-8 An Ideal Measure

Weight Scaling of Pulpwood

5-9 The Appeal of Weight Scaling

5-10 Variations in Weight

5-11 Wood Density and Weight Ratios

5-12 Advantages of Weight Scaling



6 Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products

6-1 Log Rules

6-2 General Features of Board-Foot Log Rules

Derivation of Log Rules

6-3 Mill-Tally Log Rules

6-4 Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios

6-5 Scribner Log Rule

6-6 Doyle Log Rule

6-7 International Log Rule

6-8 Overrun and Underrun

6-9 Board-Foot Volume Conversions

Board-Foot Log Scaling

6-10 Scaling Straight, Sound Logs

6-11 Log Defects

6-12 Board-Foot Deduction Methods

6-13 Cull Percent Deduction Methods

6-14 Merchantable Versus Cull Logs

6-15 Scaling Records

6-16 Log Scanning

Log Grading

6-17 Need for Log Grading

6-18 Hardwood Log Grading

6-19 Softwood Log Grading

Weight Scaling of Sawlogs

6-20 Advantages and Limitations

6-21 Volume-Weight Relationships for Sawlogs

Specialty Wood Products

6-22 Specialty Products Defined

6-23 Veneer Logs

6-24 Poles and Piling

6-25 Fence Posts

6-26 Railroad Ties

6-27 Mine Timbers

6-28 Stumps for the Wood Naval-Stores Industry

6-29 Bolts and Billets

6-30 Fuel Wood



7 Measuring Standing Trees

7-1 Tree Diameters

7-2 Diameter at Breast Height for Irregular Trees

7-3 Measuring Bark Thickness

7-4 Tree Diameter Classes

7-5 Basal Area and Mean Diameter

7-6 Upper-Stem Diameters

Tree Heights

7-7 Height Poles

7-8 Height Measurement Principles

7-9 Merritt Hypsometer

7-10 Total Versus Merchantable Heights

7-11 Sawlog Merchantability for Irregular Stems

Tree Form Expressions

7-12 Form Factors and Quotients

7-13 Girard Form Class

7-14 Form Measurements

Tree Crowns

7-15 Importance of Crown Measures

7-16 Crown Width

7-17 Crown Length

7-18 Crown Surface Area and Volume

Tree Age

7-19 Definitions

7-20 Age From Annual Rings

7-21 Age Without Annual Rings



8 Volumes and Weights of Standing Trees

8-1 Purpose of Volume and Weight Equations

8-2 Types of Tree Volume and Weight Equations

Multiple-Entry Volume Tables

8-3 Form-Class Versus Non-Form-Class Equations

8-4 Compilation of MEsavage-Girard Form-Class Tables

8-5 Constructing Multiple-Entry Volume Equations

8-6 Selecting a Multiple-Entry Volume Equation

8-7 Making Allowances for Various Utilization Standards

8-8 Tree Volumes From Taper Equations

8-9 Integrating Taper Functions

Single-Entry Volume Equations

8-10 Advantages and Limitations

8-11 Constructing a Single-Entry Equation from Measurements of Felled Trees

8-12 Derivation from a Multiple-Entry Equation

8-13 Tarif Tables

Tree Weight Equations

8-14 Field Tallies by Weight

8-15 Weight Equations for Tree Boles

8-16 Biomass Equations



9 Forest Inventory

9-1 Introduction

9-2 Classes of Timber Surveys

9-3 Inventory Planning

9-4 Forest Inventory and Analysis

Special Inventory Considerations

9-5 Tree Tallies

9-6 Electronic Data Recorders

9-7 Tree-Defect Estimation

9-8 The Complete Tree Tally

9-9 Organizing the Complete Tree Tally

9-10 Timber Inventory as a Sampling Process

Summaries of Cruise Data

9-11 Stand and Stock Tables

9-12 Timber Volumes From Stump Diameters

Sales of Standing Timber

9-13 Stumpage Value

9-14 Methods of Selling Standing Timber

9-15 Timber-Sale Contracts



10 Inventories with Sample Strips or Plots

10-1 Fixed-Area Sampling Units

Strip System of Cruising

10-2 Strip-Cruise Layout

10-3 Computing Tract Acreage From Sample Strips

10-4 Field Procedure for Strip Cruising

10-5 Pros and Cons of Strip Cruising

Line-Plot System of Cruising

10-6 The Traditional Approach

10-7 Plot Cruise Example

10-8 Sampling Intensity and Design

10-9 Cruising Techniques

10-10 Boundary Overlap

10-11 Merits of the Plot System

Use of Permanent Sample Plots

10-12 Criteria for Inventory Plots

10-13 Sample Units: Size, Shape, and Number

10-14 Field-Plot Establishment

10-15 Field-Plot Measurements

10-16 Periodic Reinventories

Regeneration Surveys with Sample Plots

10-17 Need for Regeneration Surveys

10-18 Stocked-Quadrat Method

10-19 Plot-Count Method

10-20 Staked-Point Method



11 Inventories with Point Samples

11-1 The Concept of Point Sampling

11-2 Nomenclature and Variants

11-3 Selecting a Sighting Angle

11-4 Plot Radius Factor

How Point Sampling Works

11-5 Imaginary Tree Zones

11-6 Equality of Tree Basal Area on a Per-Acre Basis

Implementing Point Sampling

11-7 The Stick-Type Angle Gauge

11-8 The Spiegel Relascope

11-9 The Wedge Prism

11-10 Calibration of Prisms or Angle Gauges

11-11 Corrections for Slope

11-12 Doubtful Trees, Limiting Distances, and Bias

11-13 Boundary Overlap

11-14 Choice of Instruments

Volume Calculations

11-15 Example of Computational Procedures

11-16 Basal Area Per Acre

11-17 Trees Per Acre

11-18 Volume Per Acre by the Volume-Factor Approach

11-19 Volume Per Acre by the Volume/Basal-Area Ratios Approach

11-20 Estimating Precision

11-21 Field Tally by Height Class

11-22 Point Sampling in a Double-Sampling Context

11-23 Estimating Growth from Permanent Points

Point-Sample Cruising Intensity

11-24 Comparisons with Conventional Plots

11-25 Number of Sampling Points Needed

11-26 Point Samples Versus Plots

11-27 Attributes and Limitations



12 Inventories with 3P Sampling

12-1 Introduction

12-2 Components of 3P Inventory

How 3P is Applied

12-3 Timber-Sale Example

12-4 Preliminary Steps

12-5 Field Procedure

12-6 Sample-Tree Measurement

12-7 3P Computations

12-8 Numerical Example

Extensions, Attributes, and Limitations of Basic 3P Sampling

12-9 Extensions of Basic 3P Sampling

12-10 Attributes and Limitations of 3P Sampling



13 Using Aerial Photographs

13-1 Purpose of Chapter

13-2 Types of Aerial Photographs

13-3 Black-and-White Aerial Films

13-4 Color Aerial Films

13-5 Seasons for Aerial Photography

13-6 Determining Photographic Scales

13-7 Photogeometry

13-8 Aligning Prints for Stereoscopic Study

Cover-Type Identificaion and Mapping

13-9 Forest Type Recognition

13-10 Identifying Individual Species

13-11 Timber Type Maps

13-12 Using Photos for Field Travel

Basic Forest Measurements

13-13 Measuring Area and Distance

13-14 Measuring Heights by Parallax

13-15 Parallax-Measuring Devices

13-16 Tree-Crown Diameters

13-17 Tree Counts

13-18 Individual-Tree Volumes

13-19 Aerial Stand-Volume Tables

13-20 Crown Closure

13-21 Stand-Volume Estimates

13-22 Adjusting Photo Volumes by Field Checks

Obtaining Aerial Photographs

13-23 The Options

13-24 Photography from Commercial Firms

13-25 Photography from the U.S. Government

13-26 Photography from the Canadian Government

13-27 Taking Your Own Pictures

13-28 Contracting For New Photography

13-29 Other Remote-Sensing Tools



14 Geographic Information Systems

14-1 What is a GIS?

GIS Data Structures

14-2 Data Formats

14-3 Raster Data

14-4 Vector Data

14-5 Raster Versus Vector Systems

Geographic Coordinate Systems

14-6 Types of Coordinate Systems

14-7 The Latitude and Longitude System

14-8 The Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

14-9 The State Plane Coordinate System

GIS Data Sources, Entry, and Quality

14-10 Deriving Digital Maps

14-11 Existing Map Data

14-12 Digitizing and Scanning

14-13 Field and Image Data

14-14 Errors and Accuracy

GIS Analysis Functions

14-15 Analysis-The Power of GIS

14-16 Spatial Analysis Functions

14-17 Cartographic Modeling



15 Site, Stocking, and Stand Density

15-1 The Concepts of Site

15-2 Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity

15-3 Tree Height as a Measure of Site Quality

15-4 Field Measurement of Site Index

15-5 Construction of Site-Index Curves

15-6 Interspecies Site-Index Relationships

15-7 Periodic Height Growth

15-8 Physical-Factors Approach

15-9 Indicator-Plant Approach

15-10 Limitations of Site Index

Stocking and Stand Density

15-11 Definitions

15-12 Measures of Stocking

15-13 Basal Area Per Acre

15-14 Trees Per Acre

15-15 Stand-Density Index

15-16 3/2 Law of Self-Thinning

15-17 Relative Spacing

15-18 Crown Competition Factor

15-19 Stocking Guides

15-20 Measures of Point Density



16 Tree-Growth and Stand-Table Projection

16-1 Increases in Tree Diameter

16-2 Increases in Tree Height

16-3 Periodic and Mean Annual Growth

16-4 Past Growth From Complete Stem Analysis

16-5 Tree Growth as a Percentage Value

16-6 Predictions of Tree Growth

16-7 Future Yields from Growth Percentage

16-8 Growth Prediction from Diameter and Height Increases

Stand-Table Projection

16-9 Components of Stand Growth

16-10 Characteristics of Stand-Table Projection

16-11 Diameter Growth

16-12 Stand Mortality and Ingrowth

16-13 A Sample Stand Projection



17 Growth and Yield Models

17-1 Introduction

17-2 Growth and Yield Relationships

17-3 Mathematical Relationships Between Growth and Yield

Growth and Yield Models for Even-Aged Stands

17-4 Normal Yield Tables

17-5 Empirical Yield Tables

17-6 Variable-Density Growth and Yield Equations

17-7 Size-Class Distribution Models

17-8 Example of Computatins for Size-Class Distribution Model

17-9 Individual-Tree Models for Even-Aged Stands

Growth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands

17-10 Special Considerations in Modeling Uneven-Aged Stands

17-11 Growth and Yield Equations Based on Elasped Time

17-12 Size-Class Distribution Models Using Stand-Table Projection

17-13 Individual-Tree Models that Include Uneven-Aged Stands

Applying Growth and Yield Models

17-14 Enhancing Output from Growth and Yield Models

17-15 Choosing an Appropriate Growth and Yield Model

17-16 A Word of Caution



18 Assessing Rangeland, Wildlife, Water,and Recreational Resources

18-1 Purpose of Chapter

Measuring Rangeland Resources

18-2 Forage Resources

18-3 Planning Range Measurements

18-4 Sampling Considerations

18-5 Determining Grazing Capacity

18-6 Clipped-Plot Technique

18-7 Range-Utilization Estimates

18-8 Range Condition and Trend

Measuring Wildlife Resources

18-9 Animal Populations and Habitat

18-10 Population Estimates

18-11 Habitat Measurement

Measuring Water Resources

18-12 Importance of Water

18-13 Factors Affecting Runoff

18-14 Physical Characteristics of a Watershed

18-15 Measurement of Water Quantity

18-16 Measurement of Water Quality

Measuring Recreational Resources

18-17 The Problem

18-18 Visitor Use of Recreational Facilities

18-19 Assessing Potential Recreational Sites



Answers to Selected Problems