France has played a pivotal role in the development of modern science. Especially striking and controversial has been the way in which the state has organized scientific endeavor. After the 1880s reinvigorated university faculties played a key role in the growth of science in France, and many faculty scientists enjoyed close relations with industry, agriculture, the military, and politics. During the Third Republic the idea of governmental responsibility to support research became a dogma, due to the stimulus that science was perceived to give to the French economy. By 1939 a working mechanism of state funding for science, buttressed by a complex scientific ideology, had come into existence and provided the foundations for the development of a new structure of scientific research and education in the postwar era. From Knowledge to Power is the first full-scale treatment of this dramatic expansion of French science between 1860 and 1939.