From Sound to Synapse: Physiology of the Mammalian Ear

Hardcover | January 1, 1998

byC. Daniel Geisler

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This comprehensive introduction to the functions of the mammalian ear describes the major steps by which sound is transformed into nerve impulses. The author leads the reader along the pathway followed by the acoustic signal. He starts with the collection of sound by the outer ear, proceeds toits transfer by the middle ear, and finally analyzes its modification in the inner ear, where the sound waves are transformed into nerve impulses. The book concludes with descriptions of some common ear impairments and a brief survey of the treatments available for them. At each stage of the ear's sound processing, Professor Geisler discusses the basic mechanisms, covering current theories and illustrating the discussions with experimental data. Although he uses an extensive array of analogies and mathematical models, he considers only the basic theory and theoutputs of the models, not their derivation or formal usage. Where appropriate, related mechanisms in the ears of other vertebrates are considered. From Sound to Synapse is written in lucid, accessible style that makes no assumptions about the scientific background of the reader apart from a basic familiarity with pulse generation by neurons. It will be of value to researchers and students in sensory physiology, neurophysiology, acoustics,bioengineering, psychoacoustics, and neuroscience. It will also benefit neurologists, audiologists, otolaryngologists, and other clinicians interested in a more detailed description of sound processing.

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This comprehensive introduction to the functions of the mammalian ear describes the major steps by which sound is transformed into nerve impulses. The author leads the reader along the pathway followed by the acoustic signal. He starts with the collection of sound by the outer ear, proceeds toits transfer by the middle ear, and finally...

C. Daniel Geisler, Sc.D., is Emeritus Professor of Neurophysiology and of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Format:HardcoverDimensions:400 pages, 6.3 × 9.21 × 1.42 inPublished:January 1, 1998Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195100255

ISBN - 13:9780195100259

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Table of Contents

1. IntroductionThe Task of the EarTwo Overriding Characteristics of the Ears TransformationsGeneral Features of this BookEntreI. Mechanisms of the Ear2. Sound WavesPropagation of Sound WavesAmplitudesWaveformsThe Frequency-Pressure Range of Human Perception3. The External EarAcoustic ConsiderationsPhysical Mechanisms of Interaurnal Sound DifferencesImplications Regarding Performance of the Auditory System4. The Middle EarThe Reptilian Middle EarThe Mammalian Middle EarMiddle-Ear MusclesDiagnostic Tests Involving the Middle EarRecapitulation5. Sound-Induced Vibrations within the Inner EarBasic AnatomySound Propagation within the Inner EarMechanical Measurements Made in Dead CochleasA Model of Cochlear-Partition VibrationsMechanical Measurements Made in Living CochleasResponse Patterns to Complex SoundsA Look Ahead6. Transfer of Sound-Induced Vibrations to Sensing CellsFunctional AnatomyBasic Mechanical MotionsChemical And Electrical Milieu of the Organ of CortiII. Hair-Cell Functions7. Transduction Processes in Hair CellsUltra-Structural AnatomyTransduction of Ciliary Rotations into Cell PotentialsMechanisms of Hair-Cell Frequency Selectivity8. Hair Cells of the Mammalian CochleaStructural AnatomyIon Flows through Plasma MembranesBasic ElectrophysiologyTransduction PotentialsMotility of Outer Hair Cells (Reverse Transduction)9. The Cochlear AmplifierHistorical BackgroundThe Role of Outer Hair Cells I Cochlear-PartitionA Cochlear ModeAnother Possible Amplification ProcessSummary10. Nonlinear Responses of the Cochlear Partition: Suppressions and Otoacoustic EmissionsReview of Linear SystemsTwo-Tone SuppressionsOtoacoustic EmissionsSummary of Nonlinear PhenomenaIII. Neural Responses11. Afferent InnervationSynaptic Transmission between Hair Cells and Afferent NeuronsNeural Activity in the Absence of Deliberate Acoustic Stimulation12. Responses of Primary Auditory Neurons to Single TonesGeneral Pattern of ResponsesProperties of Discharge-Rate ResponsesTemporal Synchronization of Discharges to Stimulus13. Responses of Primary Auditory Neurons to Other Basic SoundsRelationships between Time and FrequencyResponses to ClicksResponses to Modulated TonesResponses to Pairs of TonesCoda14. Responses of Primary Auditory Neurons to Speech SoundsSpeech AcousticsResponses to Vowel SoundsResponses to Certain Voiceless ConsonantsA Class of Useful ModelsResponses to Consonant-Vowel Combinations (Syllables)Responses to Syllables in NoiseSummary15. Feedback from the Central Nervous SystemAnatomyResponses of Single Efferent NeuronsCochlear Responses to Efferent-System ActivationNeurotransmitters of the Efferent SystemsA Model of MOC Efferent ActivityFunctions of the Cochlear Efferent SystemThe Roles of Efferents in Other Acoustico-Lateralis SystemsSynopsisIV. Damage and Treatment16. Damage to the Ear and Hearing ImpairmentThreats to the Sense of HearingDefects in the External and Middle Ears (Conductive Hearing Losses)Defects in the Inner Ear (Sensory and Strial Losses)Defects of Primary Auditory Neurons (Neural Pathology)TinnitusSummary17. Treatments of Damaged EarsIntroductionProcedures and Prostheses for Treating Middle-Ear DisordersAids for Treating Inner-Ear DisordersTreatments of TinnitusRepair and Regrowth of the Damaged CochleaCurtainAppendix A: Fourier Theory: The Representation of Continuous Waveforms with SinusoidsSinusoids (Sines and Cosines)The Usefulness of SinusoidsHarmonic RelationshipsFourier SeriesThe Fast Fourier TransformAperiodic SignalsOther Analysis TechniquesAppendix B: Acoustic ResonancesAppendix C: ImpedanceResponses to Linear (Time-Invariant) SystemsImpedance CalculationsIndexBibliography

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