Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America by Teresa M. Alconada MaglianoFusarium Head Blight in Latin America by Teresa M. Alconada Magliano

Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America

byTeresa M. Alconada MaglianoEditorSofia Noemi Chulze

Hardcover | September 18, 2013

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) on small-grain cereals is one of the most devastating diseases. Several species can cause head blight, though Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen in most regions. F. graminearum is one of the most intensively studied fungal plant pathogens. This book presents the current state of knowledge regarding mycological aspects that make wheat-Fusarium interaction, such as hyphal growth, morphogenesis in germinating spores, visualization of enzymatic hydrolysis, production of mycotoxins, inhibition of the hyphal growth by antagonist microorganisms, use of natural substances or by modification of the host resistance, as well as genetic analysis and expression of genes that regulate the infection. Fungal ecology and epidemiology will also be discussed. Just as the analysis of environmental requirements for the establishment of the disease, the use of forecasts of disease risk with meteorological base and integrated management and control. This book includes the study of disease in Latin America, therefore will be of interest to researchers who are working on the issue, as for those who are interested in knowing about the disease.
Title:Fusarium Head Blight in Latin AmericaFormat:HardcoverDimensions:304 pagesPublished:September 18, 2013Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400770901

ISBN - 13:9789400770904

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors; Preface Part I Fusarium Populations Associated with Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America 1. Population Structure of Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Genotypes and Chemotypes in Relation to Trichothecene Production; María M. Reynoso, María L. Ramírez, María C. Farnochi, Adriana M. Torres, Sofía N. Chulze 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Population Structure 1.3 Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Genotypes-Chemotypes 1.4 Conclusions 1.5 References 2. Species Identification, Genetic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation Studies on the Fusarium graminearum Complex Populations from Brazil; Emerson M. Del Ponte, Dauri J. Tessmann, Piérri Spolti, Paulo R. Kuhnem, Cleiltan N. da Silva 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Species Identification Based on Morphological and Reproductive Traits 2.3 Molecular Identification and Genetic Diversity 2.4 Trichothecene-Producing Potential 2.5 Fitness-Related and Aggressiveness Traits 2.6 Fungicide Sensitivity 2.7 Conclusions 2.8 References 3. Diversity of Pathogen Populations Causing Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat in Uruguay; Mariana Umpiérrez, Gabriela Garmendia, Mónica Cabrera, Silvia Pereyra, Silvana Vero 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Species and Chemotypes Diversity in Uruguay 3.3 Characterization of Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Isolates 3.3.1 In Vitro Deoxynivalenol Production 3.3.2 Aggressiveness 3.3.3 Perithecia Production on Wheat Straw 3.3.4 Quantitative Assessment of Fungicide Sensitivity 3.4 Discussion 3.5 References 4. Ecophysiology of Fusarium graminearum Main Pathogen Associated to Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America; María L. Ramirez, María C. Farnochi, Sofía .N. Chulze 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Environmental Abiotic Factors Affecting Fusarium graminearum Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production 4.3 Environmental Abiotic Factors and Fungicides on Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production by Fusarium graminearum 4.4 Comparison Between Osmotic and Matrix Water Stress on Germination, Growth of Fusarium graminearum 4.5 Conclusions 4.6 References Part II - Mycotoxins 5. Mycotoxins Associated to Fusarium Species that Caused Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat in Latin-America; Virginia Fernández Pinto, Andrea Patriarca, Graciela Pose 5.1 Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Fusarium Head Blight Events in Wheat in Latin America 5.1.1 Introduction 5.1.2 Argentina 5.1.3 Brazil 5.1.4 Uruguay 5.2 Toxins 5.2.1 Trichothecenes 5.2.1.2 Deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol 5.2.1.3 Nivalenol 5.2.1.4 Fusarenone X 5.2.1.5 T-2 and HT-2 Toxins 5.2.2 Zearalenone 5.3 References 6. Fusarium Mycotoxins. An Overview of Chemical Characterization and Techniques for its Determination from Agricultural Products; Andrea L.Astoreca, Teresa M. Alconada Magliano, Leonel M. Ortega 6.1 Fumonisins (FBs) 6.1.1 General Characterization 6.1.2 Biological Effects 6.1.3 Detection Procedures 6.2 Trichothecenes 6.2.1 General Characterization 6.2.2 Biological Effects 6.2.3 Chemical Composition of Main Trichothecenes 6.2.3.1 Trichothecene Type A 6.2.3.2 Trichothecene Type B 6.2.3.3 Trichothecene Type C and D 6.2.4 Detection Procedures 6.2.4.1 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) 6.2.4.2 High - Performance Liquid Chromatography 6.2.4.3 Liquid Chromatograph - Tandem Mass Spectrometry 6.2.4.4 Gas Chromatography 6.2.4.5 Rapid Methods and Emerging Techniques 6.3 Zearalenone 6.3.1 General Characterization 6.3.2 Biological Effects 6.3.3 Detection Procedures 6.4 Moniliformin 6.4.1 General Characterization 6.4.2 Biological Effects 6.4.3 Detection Procedures 6.5 Simultaneously Detection 6.6 References Part III - Interaction Plant Pathogen 7. Fungal Infection and Disease Progression. Fusarium spp. Enzymes Associated with Pathogenesis and Loss of Commercial Value of Wheat Grains; Teresa M. Alconada Magliano, Gisele E. Kikot 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Pathogen 7.2.1 Fungal Infection and Disease Progression 7.2.2 Morphogenesis in Germinating Macroconidia 7.2.3 The Structure of Plant Cell Walls 7.2.4 Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes 7.2.5 Microscopy Techniques for the Analysis of Infection 7.2.6 Genomic Analysis in the Study of Enzymes 7.3 Wheat 7.3.1 The Structure of the Grain 7.3.2 Chemical Composition and Enzymes of the Grain 7.3.3 Genotypes, Environmental Influences, and Quality Traits of Wheat 7.3.4 Wheat Storage-Protein-Degrading Enzymes 7.3.5 Grain Analysis 7.3.5.1 Protein Composition 7.3.5.2 Protein Measurement 7.4 Conclusions 7.5 References 8. Proteomic Approaches to Analyze Wheat-Fusarium graminearum Interaction; Teresa M. Alconada Magliano, Leonel M. Ortega, Andrea L. Astoreca, Clara Pritsch 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Molecular Plant-Pathogen Interaction 8.3 From Structural to Functional Genomic 8.4 Proteomic in Plant-Pathogen Interaction 8.5 Proteomic Work Flow 8.6 Proteomic Analysis in Wheat-Fusarium graminearum Interaction 8.7 Conclusions Part IV - Epidemiology 9. Crop Residues and their Management in the Epidemiology of Fusarium Head Blight; Silvia Pereyra, Gladys Lori A 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Inoculum Types 9.3 Crop Residues: Survival and Inoculum Production 9.3.1 Importance of Crop Residues 9.3.2 Fusarium Species as Residue Colonizers 9.3.3 Structural and Chemical Composition of Crop Residues 9.4 Residue Decomposition 9.4.1 Factors that Influence Residue Decomposition 9.4.2 Residue Decomposition and Tillage Managements Practices 9.5 Conclusions 9.6 References Part V - Management of Fusarium Head Blight 10. Integrated Disease Management of Fusarium Head Blight; Erlei M. Reis, Marcelo A. Carmona 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Damage: Reductions in Grain Yield and Quality 10.3 Strategies for Disease Management 10.3.1 Crop Rotation: Does it Allow Reducing the Inoculum? 10.3.2 Sowing Time - Can Temperature Affect Infection Escape? 10.3.3 Breeding for Resistance - Is this Control Method Still Far Away? 10.3.4 Biological Control - Myth or Reality? 10.3.5 Chemical Control 10.3.5.1 Seed Treatment 10.3.5.2 Head Spray with Fungicides - Partially Exerts Anther Protection 10.3.5.3 Fungitoxicity of Fungicides 10.3.5.4 Technology of Application - How to Reach the Infection Sites? 10.3.5.5 Fusarium Head Blight Warning Systems 10.3.5.6 Points to be Considered for FHB Chemical Management Strategy -Timing Fungicide 10.4 Conclusions 10.5 References 11. Chemical Control of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat; Martha Diaz de Ackermann, Man Mohan Kohli 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Materials and Methods 11.3 Results 11.3.1 Fungicides and Timing of Application 11.3.2 Fungicides, Timing of Application and Type of the Nozzles 11.4 Conclusions 11.5 References 12. Biological Control of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat: From Selection to Formulation; Juan Manuel Palazzini, Adriana M. Torres, Sofía N. Chulze 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Strategies Utilized to Select Potential Biocontrol Agents 12.3 Narrowing In Vitro Antagonist Selections: Greenhouse Assays 12.4 Field Experiments: The Key Test 12.5 Resistance in the Field: The Importance of Physiological Improvement 12.6 Formulation of Biological Products: The Hidden Step 12.7 Conclusions 12.8 References 13. Modeling and Forecasting Systems for Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat in Argentina; Ricardo C. Moschini, Malvina I. Martínez, María Gabriela Sepulcri 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Development of Weather-Based Fusarium Head Blight /Deoxynivalenol Forecastin Systems 13.2.1 Development of Weather-Based Fusarium Head Blight Forecasting Systems 13.2.1.1 Empirical Approach 13.2.1.2 Fundamental-Empirical Approach 13.2.2 Development of Weather-Based Deoxynivalenol Content Forecasting System 13.3 Applications of Fusarium Head Blight Forecasting Systems 13.3.1 Climate Risk of the Pampas Region Regarding Fusarium Index 13.3.2 Development of Specific Fusarium Head Blight Short Range Meteorologica Forecasts 13.3.2.1 Synoptic Weather Patterns Related to Fusarium Head Blight Infection Events 13.3.2.2 Influence of Blocking Action Situations in the Southern of South America on Fusarium Head Blight Infection Events 13.3.3 Development of Specific Fusarium Head Blight Seasonal Forecasts Based on Hemispheric-Scale Meteorological Predictors 13.3.4 Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Fusarium Head Blight 13.3.5 Assessing Fusarium Head Blight Risk in the Pampas Region 13.3.6 Estimating Spatial Distribution of Fusarium Head Blight Incidence Using Land and Remote Sensing Data 13.4 Conclusions 13.5 References Part VI - Resistance 14. Genetic Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Current Status in Argentina; Carlos Bainotti, Enrique Alberione, Silvina Lewis, Mariana Cativelli, Mercedes Nisi, Lucio Lombardo, Leonardo Vanzetti, Marcelo Helguera 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Fusarium Head Blight Outbreaks in Argentina 14.3 Genetic Control of the Disease 14.4 Introgression of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance by Marker Assisted Selection 14.5 The Case F3-BC2 Prointa Granar 14.6 References 15. Development and Characterization of International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Germoplasm for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance; Xinyao He, Pawan K. Singh, Etienne Duveiller, Susanne Dreisigacker, Ravi P. Singh 15.1 Introduction-Wheat 15.2 Introduction-Fusarium Head Blight 15.3 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center and Fusarium Head Blight 15.3.1 Early Research Activities: Before 1990 15.3.2 Re-Emphasized researches in Toluca: 1997-2005 15.3.3 Researches in El Batán: Since 2006 15.3.4 International Cooperation and Fusarium Head Blight Screening Nurseries 15.4 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center´s Breeding Strategy 15.4.1 Simultaneous Utilization of Two Resistance Sources 15.4.2 Parent Building - Strategy A 15.4.3 Parent Building - Strategy B 15.5 Fusarium Head Blight Screening at International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center 15.5.1 Plant Materials and the Screening Field 15.5.2 Collection and Characterization of Fusarium graminearum Isolates 15.6 Development of International Nurseries 15.6.1 Strategy for Developing the Fusarium Head Blight Screening Nursery 15.6.2 The Identification and Characterization for the 14th Fusarium Head Blight Screening Nursery 15.7 References 16. Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in South American Wheat Germplasm; Man Mohan Kohli, Martha Diaz de Ackermann 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Earliest Sources of Genetic Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in the Southern Cone 16.3 Widening Genetic Variability for Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight from 1970s Onwards 16.4 Role of International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center and Introduction of Chinese Germplasm into Southern Cone 16.5 Fusarium Head Blight Resistance and International Collaboration 16.6 Searching Newer SourcesThrough Artificial Inoculations 16.7 Identification of Stable Sources of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance 16.8 Sources of Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight from Alien Species 16.9 Genetic Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Mycotoxin Production 16.10 The Present Status of Fusarium Head Blight Germplasm in the Southern Cone and Future Directions 16.11 Conclusions 16.12 References Keywords Index; Abbreviations Index