Genocide: A Reader

Paperback | January 15, 2014

byJens Meierhenrich

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Genocide confounds scholars, practitioners, and laypersons alike. Despite the carnage of the twentieth century, our understanding of genocide remains partial. Popular, moralizing accounts have done their share to hinder understanding by attempting to advance simple truths in an area where noneare to be had. This Reader lays the foundation for improved explanation and understanding of genocide. Meierhenrich provides an introduction to the myriad dimensions of this darkest of human phenomena, and to the various ways of making sense of it - from autobiographical remembering to journalistic reporting totheoretical reasoning. As such, the Reader showcases our extant knowledge about genocide. It traverses boundaries, disciplinary and geographic, in an effort to acquaint readers with the complexity of the phenomenon, and the diversity and range of critical thinking that exists concerning it.In pursuit of this goal, the volume assembles some 150 readings, selected for their ability to shed light on one of nine distinct themes in the study of genocide. The readings look at genocides all over the world in different periods of history, and attempt to understand different definitions ofgenocide. From the Irish Potato Famine to the decimation of Australian indigenous peoples to the Holocaust, Meierhenrich provides a variety of illuminating perspectives on how people commit, experience, and remember genocide.

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Genocide confounds scholars, practitioners, and laypersons alike. Despite the carnage of the twentieth century, our understanding of genocide remains partial. Popular, moralizing accounts have done their share to hinder understanding by attempting to advance simple truths in an area where noneare to be had. This Reader lays the foun...

Jens Meierhenrich is Associate Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics, and previously taught at Harvard University. He is the author of several books and articles, including Lawfare and The Legacies of Law, which won the American Political Science Association's Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for the bes...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:400 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.68 inPublished:January 15, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0195377702

ISBN - 13:9780195377705

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Table of Contents

Preface and AcknowledgmentsIntroduction: The Study and History of Genocide1. ConceptsRaphael Lemkin: 1. Genos and CideRaphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (1944)2. The Original Legal Definition UN Genocide ConventionConvention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted by Resolution 260(III) A of the United Nations General Assembly, December 9, 1948William Schabas: 3. Actus Reus and Mens Rea of GenocideWilliam A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of Crimes (2009)4. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court The Legal Definition RevisedU.N. Doc. A/CONF.183/9Eric D. Weitz: 5. Genocides as Utopias of Race and NationEric D. Weitz, A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation (2003)Helen Fein: 6. A Sociological DefinitionHelen Fein, Genocide: A Sociological Perspective (1991)Barbara Harff and Ted Robert Gurr: 7. PoliticideBarbara Harff and Ted Robert Gurr, "Toward Empirical Theory of Genocides and Politicides: Identification and Measurement of Cases Since 1945," International Studies Quarterly (1988)R. J. Rummel: 8. DemocideR.J. Rummel, Death by Government (1994)Mary Anne Warren: 9. GendercideMary Anne Warren, Gendercide: The Implications of Sex Selection (1985)David Nersessian: 10. Cultural GenocideDavid Nersessian, "Rethinking Cultural Genocide Under International Law," Human Rights Dialogue (2005)David Maybury-Lewis: 11. Colonial GenocideDavid Maybury-Lewis, "Genocide against Indigenous Peoples," in Alexander Laban Hinton, ed., Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide (2002)Israel W. Charny: 12. Genocidal MassacreIsrael W. Charny, "Toward a Generic Definition of Genocide," in George J. Andreopoulos, ed., Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions (1994)Martin Shaw: 13. Genocide as a Form of WarMartin Shaw, War and Genocide: Organized Killing in Modern Society (2003)David Scheffer: 14. Atrocity CrimesDavid Scheffer, "Genocide and Atrocity Crimes," Genocide Studies and Prevention (2006)Christian Gerlach: 15. Extremely Violent SocietiesChristian Gerlach, Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World (2010)Nancy Scheper-Hughes: 16. The Genocidal ContinuumNancy Scheper-Hughes,"The Genocidal Continuum: Peace-Time Crimes," in Jeannette Mageo, ed., Power and the Self (2002)Yehuda Bauer: 17. Is the Holocaust Unique?Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (2001)Mahmood Mamdani: 18. The Politics of NamingMahmood Mamdani, "The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, and Insurgency," London Review of Books (2007)Aleksandar Jokic: 19. GenocidalismAleksandar Jokic, "Genocidalism," Journal of Ethics (2004)2. CausesPatrick Brantlinger: 20. The Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive RacesPatrick Brantlinger, Dark Vanishings: The Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive Races, 1800-1930 (2003)A. Dirk Moses: 21. The Origins of the Genocidal Moment in the Colonization of AustraliaA. Dirk Moses, "An Antipodean Genocide? The Origins of the Genocidal Moment in the Colonization of Australia," Journal of Genocide Research (2000)Cathie Carmichael: 22. Genocide before the HolocaustCathie Carmichael, Genocide before the Holocaust (2009)Robert Melson: 23. Revolution and Genocide in the Ottoman EmpireRobert Melson, Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust (1992)Vahakn N. Dadrian: 24. The Secret Young-Turk Ittihadist ConferenceVakahn N. Dadrian, "The Secret Young-Turk Ittihadist Conference and the Decision for the World War I Genocide of the Armenians," Holocaust and Genocide Studies (1993)Ian Kershaw: 25. Explaining the Holocaust: Intentionalism vs. StructuralismIan Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (2000)Daniel Jonah Goldhagen: 26. Eliminationist Antisemitism as Genocidal MotivationDaniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996)Gavin I. Langmuir: 27. Toward a Definition of AntisemitismGavin I. Langmuir, Toward a Definition of Antisemitism (1990)Christopher R. Browning: 28. The Origins of the "Final Solution"Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (2004)Gotz Aly and Susanne Heim: 29. Demography and the HolocaustGotz Aly and Susanne Heim, Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction (2002)Zygmunt Bauman: 30. Why Modernity MattersZygmunt Bauman, Modernity and Holocaust ([1989] 2000)Karl D. Jackman: 31. The Ideology of Total Revolution in Pol Pot's CambodiaKarl D. Jackson, "The Ideology of Total Revolution," in idem., ed., Cambodia 1975-1978: Rendezvous with Death (1989)Ivo Banac: 32. The Politics of National Homogeneity in SerbiaIvo Banac, "The Politics of National Homogeneity," in Brad K. Blitz, ed., War and Change in the Balkans: Nationalism, Conflict and Cooperation (2006)Omer Bartov and Phyllis Mack: 33. In God's NameOmer Bartov and Phyllis Mack, "Introduction," in idem., eds., In God's Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century (2001)Val Percival and Thomas Homer-Dixon: 34. Environmental Scarcity and the Genocide in RwandaVal Percival and Thomas Homer-Dixon, "Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict: The Case of Rwanda," Journal of Environment and Development (1996)Mahmood Mamdani: 35. When Victims Become KillersMahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (2001)Rene Lemarchand: 36. Unsimplifying DarfurRene Lemarchand, "Unsimplifying Darfur," (2005)Stanley Milgram: 37. Obedience to AuthorityStanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (1974)Ervin Staub: 38. Difficult Life ConditionsErvin Staub, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence (1989)James Waller: 39. Becoming EvilJames Waller, Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Murder, Second Edition (2007)Gerald W. Scully: 40. Democide and Genocide as Rent-Seeking ActivitiesGerald W. Scully, "Democide and Genocide as Rent-Seeking Activities," Public Choice (1997)Benjamin A. Valentino: 41. The Strategic Logic of Mass KillingBenjamin A. Valentino, Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century (2004)Manus Midlarsky: 42. The Killing TrapManus Midlarsky, The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century (2005)Michael Mann: 43. The Dark Side of DemocracyMichael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing (2005)3. CoursesBen Kiernan: 44. The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BCBen Kiernan, "The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC," Diogenes (2004)Mark Levene: 45. Extermination, Hyper-Exploitation, and Forced Deportation in Pre-Modern TimesMark Levene, Genocide in the Age of the National State, Volume 1: The Meaning of Genocide (2005)David E. Stannard: 46. American HolocaustDavid E. Stannard, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World (1993)Geunter Lewy: 47. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?Guenter Lewy, "Were Americans Indians the Victims of Genocide?," Commentary (2004)Tzvetan Todorov: 48. The Conquest of AmericaTzvetan Todorov, The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other (1999)Andrew Woolford: 49. Ontological Destruction of Canadian Aboriginal PeoplesAndrew Woolford, "Ontological Destruction: Genocide and Canadian Aboriginal Peoples," Genocide Studies and Prevention (2009)Cecil Woodham-Smith: 50. The Irish Potato Famine, 1845-1849Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger: Ireland, 1845-1849 ([1962] 1991)George Steinmetz: 51. From Native Policy to Genocide in South West AfricaGeorge Steinmetz, The Devil's Handwriting: Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa (2007)Robert Manne: 52. Aboriginal Child Removal and 'Half-Castes' in AustraliaRobert Manne, "Aboriginal Child Removal and the Question of Genocide, 1900-1940," in A. Dirk Moses, ed., Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History (2004)Isabel V. Hull: 53. Absolute Destruction as Strategy: Wilhelmine Germany and the Ottoman EmpireIsabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (2004)Donald Bloxham: 54. Cumulative Radicalization and the Armenian GenocideDonald Bloxham, "The Armenian Genocide of 1915-1916: Cumulative Radicalization and the Development of a Destruction Policy," Past and Present (2003)Andrea Graziosi: 55. Hunger by Design: Holodomor in UkraineAndrea Graziosi, "The Soviet 1931-1933 Famines and the Ukrainian Holodomor: Is a New Interpretation Possible, and What Would Its Consequences Be?," in Halyna Hryn, ed., Hunger by Design: The Great Ukrainian Famine in Its Soviet Context (2008)Norman M. Naimark: 56. The Soviet Deportation of the Chechen-IngushNorman M. Naimark, Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe (2001)Timothy Snyder: 57. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and StalinTimothy Snyder, Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin (2010)Jacques Semelin: 58. Mass Murder TechnologiesJacques Semelin, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide (2007)Christopher Browning: 59. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 in PolandChristopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (2001)Thomas Kuhne: 60. Belonging and Genocide: Hitler's CommunityThomas Kuhne, Belonging and Genocide: Hitler's Community, 1918-1945 (2010)Geoffrey P. Megargee: 61. War of Annihilation on the Eastern Front, 1941Geoffrey P. Megargee, War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941 (2007)Gerald D. Feldman and Wolfgang Seibel: 62. Networks of Nazi PersecutionGerald D. Feldman and Wolfgang Seibel, "The Holocaust as Division-of-Labor-Based Crime-Evidence and Analytical Challenges," in idem., eds., Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business, and the Organization of the Holocaust (2005)Nikolaus Wachsmann: 63. Annihilation of State Prisoners through Labor"'Annihilation through Labor'": The Killing of State Prisoners in the Third Reich," Journal of Modern History (1999)Wolfgang Sofsky: 64. Nazi Concentration CampsWolfgang Sofsky, The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp (1997)Dan Stone: 65. Collective EffervescenceDan Stone, "Genocide as Transgression," European Journal of Social Theory (2004)Alexander Laban Hinton: 66. A Head for an Eye: 'Disproportionate Revenge' in the Cambodian GenocideAlexander Laban Hinton, "A Head for an Eye: Revenge in the Cambodian Genocide," American Ethnologist (1998)Scott Straus: 67. Who Were the Genocidaires of Rwanda?Scott Straus, The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda (2006)Christopher Taylor: 68. The Cultural Face of Hutu TerrorChristopher C. Taylor, "The Cultural Face of Terror in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994," in Alexander Laban Hinton, ed., Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide (2002)Martha C. Nussbaum: 69. Genocide in GujaratMartha C. Nussbaum, "Genocide in Gujarat," Dissent (2003)Robert O. Collins: 70. Insurrection in DarfurRobert O. Collins, A History of Modern Sudan (2008)4. CoverageMartha Gellhorn: 71. DachauMartha Gellhorn, The Face of War (1959)Laurel Leff: 72. Buried by the TimesLaurel Leff, Buried by The Times: The Holocaust and America's Most Important Newspaper (2005)Barbie Zelizer: 73. Covering Nazi Atrocities in PhotographsBarbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory Through the Camera's Eye (1998)Laura Silber and Allan Little: 74. The Invention of 'Ethnic Cleansing' in YugoslaviaLaura Silber and Allan Little, The Death of Yugoslavia (1995)David Rohde: 75. SrebrenicaDavid Rohde, Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica: Europe's Worst Massacre since World War II (1997)76. Tribes Battle for Rwandan Capital The New York Times"Tribes Battle for Rwandan Capital: New Massacres Reported," The New York Times, April 16, 1994Philip Gourevitch: 77. Shooting DogsPhilip Gourevitch, We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With our Families: Stories from Rwanda (1998)Samantha Power: 78. Dying in DarfurSamantha Power, "Dying in Darfur: Can the Ethnic Cleansing in Sudan be Stopped?," The New Yorker, August 30, 2004Deborah Murphy: 79. Narrating DarfurDeborah Murphy, "Narrating Darfur," in Alex de Waal, ed., War in Darfur and the Search for Peace (2007)Conor Foley: 80. Reporting Genocide Is Not EasyConor Foley, "Reporting Genocide Isn't Easy: The New Generation of Citizen Journalists are a Mixed Blessing for Humanitarianism," The Guardian, December 28, 20065. ConsequencesBenjamin Madley: 81. From Africa to AuschwitzBenjamin Madley, "From Africa to Auschwitz: How German South West Africa Incubated Ideas and Methods Adopted and Developed by the Nazis in Eastern Europe," European History Quarterly (2005)Suzanne E. Moranian: 82. The Armenian Genocide and American Missionary Relief EffortsSuzanne E. Moranian, "The Armenian Genocide and American Missionary Relief Efforts," in Jay Winter, ed., America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915 (2003)Evan Gottesman: 83. Cambodia after the Khmer RougeEvan Gottesman, Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation-Building (2003)Sarah Kenyon Lischer: 84. Dangerous Sanctuaries in ZaireSarah Kenyon Lischer, Dangerous Sanctuaries: Refugee Camps, Civil War, and the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid (2005)John Hagan and Wenona Rymond-Richmond with Alberto Palloni and Patricia Parker: 85. The U.S. State Department Atrocities Documentation Survey in DarfurJohn Hagan and Wenona Rymond-Richmond, Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (2008)Sarah E. Wagner: 86. DNA Technology and Srebrenica's MissingSarah E. Wagner, To Know Where He Lies: DNA Technology and the Search for Srebrenica's Missing (2008)Jens Meierhenrich: 87. The Trauma of GenocideJens Meierhenrich, "The Trauma of Genocide," Journal of Genocide Research (2007)Jeffrey Alexander: 88. Cultural TraumaJeffrey C. Alexander, "Toward a Theory of Cultural Trauma," in Jeffrey C. Alexander, Ron Eyerman, Bernhard Giesen, Neil J. Smelser, and Piotr Sztompka, eds., Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity (2004)Claudia Card: 89. Genocide and Social DeathClaudia Card, "Genocide and Social Death," Hypatia (2003)Sumantra Bose: 90. Bosnia after the Dayton Agreement of 1995Sumantra Bose, Bosnia after Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention (2002)Filip Reyntjens: 91. From Genocide to Dictatorship in RwandaFilip Reyntjens, "Rwanda, Ten Years On: From Genocide to Dictatorship," African Affairs (2004)Gerard Prunier: 92. Africa's World WarGerard Prunier, Africa's World War: Congo, The Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (2009)Roland Marchal: 93. The Unseen Regional Implications of the Crisis in DarfurRoland Marchal, "The Unseen Regional Implications of the Crisis in Darfur," in Alex de Waal, ed., War in Darfur and the Search for Peace (2007)6. CourtsGiorgio Agamben: 94. TestimonyGiorgio Agamben, Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive (2002)Vahakn N. Dadrian: 95. The Turkish Military TribunalVahakn N. Dadrian, "The Turkish Military Tribunal's Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major Court-Martial Series," Holocaust and Genocide Studies (1997)Lawrence Douglas: 96. Film as Witness at the IMTLawrence Douglas, The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust (2001)Devin Pendas: 97. The Frankfurt Auschwitz TrialDevin Pendas, The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 1963-1965: Genocide, History, and the Limits of the Law (2006)98. Did Tutsi Constitute an 'Ethnical' Group? International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, Judgment, September 2, 1998Catherine MacKinnon: 99. Defining Rape InternationallyCatherine MacKinnon, "Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu," Columbia Journal of Transnational Law (2006)100. State Responsibility for Genocide: Bosnia v. Serbia International Court of JusticeApplication of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), 2007 ICJ, February 26, 2007Guenael Mettraux: 101. Extermination as a Crime against Humanity vs. GenocideGuenael Mettraux, International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (2005)Luc Reydams: 102. Universal Jurisdiction and the 'Butare Four'Belgium's First Application of Universal Jurisdiction: The Butare Four Case Journal of International Criminal Justice (2003)Lars Waldorf: 103. Rwanda's Gacaca JurisdictionsLars Waldorf, "Rwanda's Failing Experiment in Restorative Justice," in Dennis Sullivan and Larry Tifft, eds., Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective (2006)Kelly Whitley: 104. The Long History of the Khmer Rouge TribunalKelly Whitley, "History of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal: Origins, Negotiations, and Establishment," in John D. Ciorciari, ed., The Khmer Rouge Tribunal (2006)105. Decision on the Prosecution's Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Omar Al BashirInternational Criminal CourtIn the Case of the Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir ("Omar Al Bashir"), Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, Decision on the Prosecution's Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, March 4, 2009Julie Flint and Alex de Waal: 106. A Prosecutor Without BordersJulie Flint and Alex de Waal, "Case Closed: A Prosecutor Without Borders," World Affairs (2009)7. CopingPaul Celan: 107. DeathfugueJohn Felstiner, Paul Celan: Poet, Survivor, Jew (1995)Jean Amery: 108. Homines LudentesJean Amery, At the Mind's Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor of Auschwitz and Its Realities (1980)L. Karl Jaspers: 109. The Question of German GuiltKarl Jaspers, The Question of German Guilt ([1947] 2000)Theodor W. Adorno: 110. The Meaning of Working Through the PastTheodor W. Adorno, "The Meaning of Working Through the Past," in Rolf Tiedemann, ed., Can One Live after Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader (2003)Primo Levi: 111. The Gray ZonePrimo Levi, The Drowned and the Saved (1989)Saul Friedlander: 112. When Memory ComesSaul Friedlander, When Memory Comes (1979)Charlotte Delbo: 113. Useless KnowledgeCharlotte Delbo, Auschwitz and After (1995)David Denby: 114. Lanzmann's ShoahDavid Denby, "Out of Darkness," New York Magazine, October 28, 1985, reprinted in Stuart Liebman, ed., Claude Lanzmann's Shoah: Key Essays (2007)Lawrence Langer: 115. Holocaust TestimoniesLawrence Langer, Holocaust Testimonies: The Ruins of Memory (1991)James E. Young: 116. Yad VashemJames E. Young, The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (1993)John Marcucci: 117. Khmer Meanings of PainJohn Marcucci "Sharing the Pain: Critical Values and Behaviors in Khmer Culture," in May M. Ebihara, Carol A. Mortland, and Judy Ledgerwood, eds., Cambodian Culture since 1975: Homeland and Exile, (1994)Linda Green: 118. Fear as a Way of Life in Xe'cajLinda Green, "Fear as a Way of Life," Cultural Anthropology (1994)Orhan Pamuk: 119. On TrialOrhan Pamuk, "On Trial," The New Yorker, December 19, 2005Rezak Hukanovi: 120. The Tenth Circle of HellRezak Hukanovi, The Tenth Circle of Hell: A Memoir of Life in the Death Camps of Bosnia (1998)Romeo Dallaire: 121. Shake Hands with the DevilRomeo Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003)Carla Rose Shapiro: 122. Children's Drawings of DarfurCarla Rose Shapiro, "Visual Advocates: Depicting Darfur," in Amanda F. Grzyb, ed., The World and Darfur: International Response to Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sudan (2009)8. CompensationAaron Lazare: 123. On ApologyAaron Lazare, On Apology (2004)William J. Clinton: 124. Remarks by the President of the United States at Kigali Airport, March 25, 1998"Remarks by the President to Genocide Survivors, Assistance Workers, and U.S. and Rwanda Government Officials," The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, March 25, 1998Haydie Gooder and Jane M. Jacobs: 125. Australia's 'Sorry Books'Haydie Gooder and Jane M. Jacobs, "'On the Border of the Unsayable': The Apology in Postcolonizing Australia," Interventions (2000)Jeremy Waldron: 126. Superseding Historic InjusticeJeremy Waldron, "Superseding Historic Injustice," Ethics (1992)William Bradford: 127. Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American IndiansWilliam Bradford, "Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American Indians: 'Why Is It That They Carry Their Lives on Their Fingernails?,'" in Claudia Card and Armen T. Marsoobian, eds., Genocide's Aftermath: Responsibility and Repair (2007)John Authers: 128. Compensation for Forced and Slave Laborers in Nazi Concentration CampsJohn Authers, "Making Good Again: German Compensation for Forced and Slave Laborers," in Pablo de Greiff, ed., The Handbook of Reparations (2006)Christian Tomuschat: 129. The International Court of Justice's Refusal of a Reparation Order in Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and MontenegroChristian Tomuschat, "Reparation in Cases of Genocide," Journal of International Criminal Justice (2007)Gilbert Bitti and Gabriela Gonzalez Rivas: 130. The Reparation Provisions in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal CourtGilbert Bitti and Gabriela Gonzalez Rivas, "The Reparation Provisions for Victims under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court," in The International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, ed., Redressing Injustices through Mass Claims Processes: Innovative Responses to UniqueChallenges (2006)9. CuresJames H. Kitchens III: 131. The Bombing of Auschwitz Re-ExaminedJames H. Kitchens III, "The Bombing of Auschwitz Re-Examined," Journal of Military History (1994)132. The Prevention of Genocide UN Genocide ConventionConvention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted by Resolution 260(III)A of the United Nations General Assembly, December 9, 1948William Schabas: 133. What Duty to Intervene?William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of Crimes (2009)Stephen J. Morris: 134. Why Vietnam Invaded CambodiaStephen J. Morris, Why Vietnam Invaded Cambodia: Political Culture and the Causes of War (1999)Samantha Power: 135. Bystanders to Genocide in RwandaSamantha Power, "Bystanders to Genocide," Atlantic Monthly (2001)Alan Kuperman: 136. The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of Humanitarian InterventionAlan Kuperman, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda (2001)Michael Barnett: 137. Inside the UN in 1994Michael Barnett, Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (2002)138. Independent International Commission on Kosovo: Illegal but LegitimateThe 1999 NATO Intervention in Kosovo - Independent International Commission on Kosovo, Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned (2000)Geoffrey Robinson: 139. How Genocide Was Stopped in East TimorGeoffrey Robinson, "If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die": How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor (2010)Michael Walzer: 140. The Argument About Humanitarian InterventionMichael Walzer, "The Argument About Humanitarian Intervention," Dissent (2002)141. Why Not Genocide in Darfur International Commission of Inquiry on DarfurInternational Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1564 of 18 September 2004, January 25, 2005Dawit Toga: 142. The African Union Mediation in DarfurDawit Toga, "The African Union Mediation and the Abuja Peace Talks," in Alex de Waal, ed., War in Darfur and the Search for Peace (2007)Karen E. Smith: 143. Genocide and the EuropeansKaren E. Smith, Genocide and the Europeans (2010)Andrew S. Natsios: 144. Obama, Adrift on SudanAndrew S. Natsios, "Obama, Adrift on Sudan," Washington Post, June 23, 2009Jens Meierhenrich: 145. Whither Reconciliation?Jens Meierhenrich, "Varieties of Reconciliation," Lawand Social Inquiry (2008)Elizabeth Levy Paluck: 146. Reducing Intergroup Prejudice and Conflict Using Media BLElizabeth Levy Paluck, "Reducing Intergroup Prejudice and Conflict Using Media: A Field Experiment in Rwanda," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2009)Barbara Harff: 147. Quantitative Risk AssessmentBarbara Harff, "No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder Since 1955," American Political Science Review (2003)Matthew Krain: 148. The Prediction of Genocide OnsetMatthew Krain, "State-Sponsored Mass Murder: The Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides," Journal of Conflict Resolution (1997)149. R2P: Responsibility to Protect International Commission on Intervention and State SovereigntyInternational Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001)150. Responsibility to Protect Populations from Genocide, War Crimes, Ethnic Cleansing and Crimes against Humanity United Nations General AssemblyU.N. General Assembly, 60th Session. Draft Resolution referred to the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly by the General Assembly at its Fifty-Ninth Session (A/60/L.1), September 20, 2005