Geographic Information Systems and Science: A Concise Handbook of Spatial Data Handling…

Paperback | August 4, 2016

bySteven A. Roberts, Colin Robertson

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Geographic Information Systems helps students understand how GIS enables us to digitally represent the forms, patterns and processes of Earth. The text demonstrates how the special qualities of spatial geographic data require new methods and theories, and how these new methods and theoriesembody the field of GIScience that underlie the technology of GIS. Designed for users already familiar with GIS, it takes students beyond the surface of the technology by explaining methods and algorithms in enough detail for students to get an intuitive grasp of the underlying ideas while alsodemonstrating how those ideas are applied to geographical information. In order to help students become more effective users of GIS technology, the book highlights many of the common research challenges of GIS and invites the reader to think broadly about the assumptions embedded in GIS practice today. The authors stress a critical approach throughout by describingselected aspects of the field in sufficient depth to scrutinize the formalisms underlying the simple user-interfaces that greet new GIS users. Geographic Information Systems serves as an indispensable gateway to higher study in GIS by readers interested in the fundamental research challenges facingthe field today.

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Geographic Information Systems helps students understand how GIS enables us to digitally represent the forms, patterns and processes of Earth. The text demonstrates how the special qualities of spatial geographic data require new methods and theories, and how these new methods and theoriesembody the field of GIScience that underlie the...

Steven A. Roberts is associate professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at Wilfrid Laurier University and the Director of the Waterloo-Laurier Graduate Program in Geography. Colin Robertson is assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at Wilfrid Laurier University.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:392 pages, 9 × 7 × 0.49 inPublished:August 4, 2016Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199003637

ISBN - 13:9780199003631

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Introduction1.1 Introduction1.2 Development of GIS: People and Institutions1.3 Abstracting and Formalizing Geographic Information1.3.1 Data Models1.3.2 Algorithms1.4 [Adv] What Is Special about Spatial?1.4.1 Spatial vs. Geographic-Patterns and Processes1.4.2 Time and Geographic Information2. Geographic Data Acquisition2.1 Introduction2.2 Remotely Sensed Data2.2.1 Aerial Photography2.2.2 Earth Observation Sensors2.2.3 Properties of Remotely Sensed Imagery2.2.4 Handling Remotely Sensed Geographic Data in GIS2.2.5 Radiometric Processing2.2.6 Geometric Processing2.2.7 Remote Sensing Data Compression2.2.8 Selecting Remotely Sensed Imagery2.3 Global Positioning Systems2.3.1 History of GPS Technology2.3.2 How GPS Works2.3.3 Handling GPS Data in GIS2.4 Converting Analogue Geographic Information2.5 [Adv] Synthesizing Existing Geographic Information2.5.1 Metadata and Geographic Information2.6 [Adv] Volunteered Geographic Information2.7 [Adv] UAVs and DIY Geography3. Coordinate Systems and Frames of Reference3.1 Introduction3.2 Lumpy Ellipsoidal Earth, Flat Maps and Projections3.3 Datums3.4 Datum Transformations3.4.1 Geocentric Datum Transformations3.4.2 Ellipsoidal Datum Transformations3.4.3 Grid-based Transformations3.5 Map Projections and Spatial Reference Systems3.5.1 Deformation Characteristics3.5.2 Projected Surface Characteristics3.5.3 Map Projections Methods3.6 [Adv] Scale and Frames of Reference4. Geographic Data Models4.1 Introduction4.2 Raster4.2.1 Basic4.2.2 Geometry4.2.3 Attributes4.2.4 Topology4.2.5 Assumptions4.2.6 Geometric Processing4.3 Vector4.3.1 Basic4.3.2 Geometry4.3.3 Attributes4.3.4 Topology4.3.5 Assumptions4.3.6 Geometric Processing4.4 Dual Vector4.5 Other Models4.6 Transforming Between Representations4.6.1 Raster to Vector and Back4.6.2 [Adv] General Transformations4.7 Revisiting Standard Models: Topology, Embedding, and Oriented Matroids4.7.1 Computer Aided Drawing/Drafting/Design (CAD)4.7.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)4.7.3 Cellular Automata4.7.4 [Adv] Oriented Matroids5. Geographic Representation and Data Modelling5.1 Introduction5.2 Relational Databases and GIS5.2.1 Emergence of RDBMS in GIS5.2.2 Entity-Relationship Modelling5.2.3 Generating Candidate Tables and Database Normalization5.3 Objects and GIS5.3.1 Key Concepts in Object Orientation5.4 Object-Relational Databases5.5 Database Storage5.5.1 Data Types5.6 Database Access and Manipulation5.6.1 Structured Query Language (SQL)5.6.2 Procedures, Triggers, and the Like5.6.3 Spatial Indexing5.6.4 Geographical Time-Series5.7 Next-generation Databases for GIS5.7.1 Document-storage Databases and NoSQL5.7.2 Crowdsourcing: the Undatabase6. Geographic Data Editing6.1 Introduction6.2 Editing Geographic Data Globally6.2.1 Linear Transformation6.2.2 Rubbersheeting6.2.3 Generalization6.3 Editing Feature Geometry6.3.1 Detecting Errors6.3.2 Fuzzy Tolerance and Snapping Features6.3.3 Complex Geometry: Island Polygons, Donut Holes, and Measures6.3.4 Multi-user Editing and Version Control Systems6.4 Map Conflation7. Error and Uncertainty in Geographic Information7.1 Introduction7.2 Samples and Populations: Statistical Inference in Geographical Analysis7.3 Geographic Patterns as the Outcome of Stochastic Processes7.4 Spatial Data Error, Uncertainty, and Spatial Data Quality7.4.1 Vector Positional Accuracy7.4.2 Raster Positional accuracy7.4.3 Attribute Accuracy7.4.4 Completeness7.5 Error Propagation in Geographic Analysis7.6 Fuzzy Geography7.7 Topological Error8. GeoComputation8.1 Introduction8.2 Algorithms8.2.1 Line Segment Intersection8.2.2 Point in Polygon8.2.3 Convex Hulls8.2.4 Voronoi Diagrams8.2.5 Shortest Path Dijkstra's Algorithm8.3 Computational Issues8.3.1 Finite Precision Storage and Overflow Errors and Rounding Errors8.3.2 Supercomputing9. Geographic Measures9.1 Introduction9.2 Scales of Measurement9.2.1 Nominal9.2.2 Ordinal9.2.3 Interval9.2.4 Ratio9.3 Central Tendency and Dispersion (1D and 2D)9.3.1 Central Tendency 1D9.3.2 Dispersion 1D9.3.3 Central Tendency 2D9.3.4 Dispersion 2D9.4 [Adv] Measuring Geographical Patterns9.4.1 Point Patterns9.4.2 Spatial Autocorrelation9.4.3 Landscape Metrics10. Geographic Relationships10.1 Introduction10.2 Basic Measures of Geographic Relationships and Forms10.2.1 Distance10.2.2 Direction10.2.3 Adjacency10.2.4 Interaction10.2.5 Neighbourhood10.2.6 Area10.3 [Adv]Advanced Measures of Geographic Relationships and Forms10.3.1 Shape10.3.2 Dimension10.3.3 Connectivity Measures for a Connected Planar Graph11. Geographic Analysis11.1 Introduction11.2 The Algebra of Analysis11.2.1 Boolean Algebra11.2.2 Map Algebra11.3 [Adv] Analyzing Geographical Patterns11.3.1 Recognizing and Classifying Geographic Patterns11.3.2 Generating New Patterns from Existing Geographic Patterns11.3.3 Extracting Optimal Information from Geographic Patterns12. Emerging Trends in Geographic Information12.1 Introduction12.2 Data Acquisition12.3 Data Modelling12.4 GIS Data and SocietyAppendix I Mathematical Notation and TerminologyI.1 SetsI.2 SummationI.3 Vectors and MatricesI.4 Mathematical ExpectationAppendix II Mathematical GraphsII.1 Prim's Algorithm for Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST)II.2 Euler's equation: v - e + f = 2Appendix III Why (n - 1) and not n in s2?Appendix IV Details on Information MeasureAppendix V Rotation TransformationV.1 The Basic ResultV.2 The Double Angle FormulasV.3 Sine and Cosine DefinitAppendix VI Projections and TransformationsVI.1 The Rotational EllipsoidVI.2 Ellipsoidal Geographic CoordinatesReferencesIndexGlossary online