Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice by B. Hofmann-WellenhofGlobal Positioning System: Theory and Practice by B. Hofmann-Wellenhof

Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice

byB. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, J. Collins

Paperback | January 10, 2001

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This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con­ ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron­ omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichtenegger's main interest is dedicated to GPS. Dr. Collins retired from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey in 1980, where he was the Deputy Director. For the past ten years, he has been deeply involved in using GPS technology with an emphasis on surveying. Dr. Collins was the founder and president of GeofHydro Inc. My own background is theoretically oriented. My first chief, Prof. Dr. Peter Meissl, was an excellent theoretician; and my former chief, Prof. Dr.mult. Helmut Moritz, fortunately, still is.
Title:Global Positioning System: Theory and PracticeFormat:PaperbackDimensions:382 pagesPublished:January 10, 2001Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3211835342

ISBN - 13:9783211835340


Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 The origins of surveying.- 1.2 Development of global surveying techniques.- 1.2.1 Optical global triangulation.- 1.2.2 Electromagnetic global trilateration.- 1.3 History of the Global Positioning System.- 1.3.1 Navigating with GPS.- 1.3.2 Surveying with GPS.- 2 Overview of GPS.- 2.1 Basic concept.- 2.2 Space segment.- 2.2.1 Constellation.- 2.2.2 Satellites.- 2.2.3 Operational capabilities.- 2.2.4 Denial of accuracy and access.- 2.3 Control segment.- 2.3.1 Master control station.- 2.3.2 Monitor stations.- 2.3.3 Ground control stations.- 2.4 User segment.- 2.4.1 User categories.- 2.4.2 Receiver types.- 2.4.3 Information services.- 3 Reference systems.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Coordinate systems.- 3.2.1 Definitions.- 3.2.2 Transformations.- 3.3 Time systems.- 3.3.1 Definitions.- 3.3.2 Conversions.- 3.3.3 Calendar.- 4 Satellite orbits.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Orbit description.- 4.2.1 Keplerian motion.- 4.2.2 Perturbed motion.- 4.2.3 Disturbing accelerations.- 4.3 Orbit determination.- 4.3.1 Keplerian orbit.- 4.3.2 Perturbed orbit.- 4.4 Orbit dissemination.- 4.4.1 Tracking networks.- 4.4.2 Ephemerides.- 5 Satellite signal.- 5.1 Signal structure.- 5.1.1 Physical fundamentals.- 5.1.2 Components of the signal.- 5.2 Signal processing.- 5.2.1 Receiver design.- 5.2.2 Processing techniques.- 6 Observables.- 6.1 Data acquisition.- 6.1.1 Code pseudoranges.- 6.1.2 Phase pseudoranges.- 6.1.3 Doppler data.- 6.1.4 Biases and noise.- 6.2 Data combinations.- 6.2.1 Linear phase combinations.- 6.2.2 Code pseudorange smoothing.- 6.3 Atmospheric effects.- 6.3.1 Phase and group velocity.- 6.3.2 Ionospheric refraction.- 6.3.3 Tropospheric refraction.- 6.3.4 Atmospheric monitoring.- 6.4 Relativistic effects.- 6.4.1 Special relativity.- 6.4.2 General relativity.- 6.4.3 Relevant relativistic effects for GPS.- 6.5 Antenna phase center offset and variation.- 6.6 Multipath.- 6.6.1 General remarks.- 6.6.2 Mathematical model.- 6.6.3 Multipath reduction.- 7 Surveying with GPS.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Terminology definitions.- 7.1.2 Observation techniques.- 7.1.3 Field equipment.- 7.2 Planning a GPS survey.- 7.2.1 General remarks.- 7.2.2 Presurvey planning.- 7.2.3 Field reconnaissance.- 7.2.4 Monumentation.- 7.2.5 Organizational design.- 7.3 Surveying procedure.- 7.3.1 Preobservation.- 7.3.2 Observation.- 7.3.3 Postobservation.- 7.3.4 Ties to control monuments.- 7.4 In situ data processing.- 7.4.1 Data transfer.- 7.4.2 Data processing.- 7.4.3 Trouble shooting and quality control.- 7.4.4 Datum transformations.- 7.4.5 Computation of plane coordinates.- 7.5 Survey report.- 8 Mathematical models for positioning.- 8.1 Point positioning.- 8.1.1 Point positioning with code ranges.- 8.1.2 Point positioning with carrier phases.- 8.1.3 Point positioning with Doppler data.- 8.2 Differential positioning.- 8.2.1 Basic concept.- 8.2.2 DGPS with code ranges.- 8.2.3 DGPS with phase ranges.- 8.3 Relative positioning.- 8.3.1 Phase differences.- 8.3.2 Correlations of the phase combinations.- 8.3.3 Static relative positioning.- 8.3.4 Kinematic relative positioning.- 8.3.5 Pseudokinematic relative positioning.- 9 Data processing.- 9.1 Data preprocessing.- 9.1.1 Data handling.- 9.1.2 Cycle slip detection and repair.- 9.2 Ambiguity resolution.- 9.2.1 General aspects.- 9.2.2 Basic approaches.- 9.2.3 Search techniques.- 9.2.4 Ambiguity validation.- 9.3 Adjustment, filtering, and smoothing.- 9.3.1 Least squares adjustment.- 9.3.2 Kalman filtering.- 9.3.3 Smoothing.- 9.4 Adjustment of mathematical GPS models.- 9.4.1 Linearization.- 9.4.2 Linear model for point positioning with code ranges.- 9.4.3 Linear model for point positioning with carrier phases.- 9.4.4 Linear model for relative positioning.- 9.5 Network adjustment.- 9.5.1 Single baseline solution.- 9.5.2 Multipoint solution.- 9.5.3 Single baseline versus multipoint solution.- 9.5.4 Least squares adjustment of baselines.- 9.6 Dilution of precision.- 9.7 Accuracy measures.- 9.7.1 Introduction.- 9.7.2 Chi-square distribution.- 9.7.3 Specifications.- 10 Transformation of GPS results.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Coordinate transformations.- 10.2.1 Cartesian coordinates and ellipsoidal coordinates.- 10.2.2 Global coordinates and local level coordinates.- 10.2.3 Ellipsoidal coordinates and plane coordinates.- 10.2.4 Height transformation.- 10.3 Datum transformations.- 10.3.1 Three-dimensional transformation.- 10.3.2 Two-dimensional transformation.- 10.3.3 One-dimensional transformation.- 10.4 Combining GPS and terrestrial data.- 10.4.1 Common coordinate system.- 10.4.2 Representation of measurement quantities.- 11 Software modules.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Planning.- 11.3 Data transfer.- 11.4 Data processing.- 11.5 Quality control.- 11.6 Network computations.- 11.7 Data base management.- 11.8 Utilities.- 11.9 Flexibility.- 12 Applications of GPS.- 12.1 General uses of GPS.- 12.1.1 Global uses.- 12.1.2 Regional uses.- 12.1.3 Local uses.- 12.2 Attitude determination.- 12.2.1 Theoretical considerations.- 12.2.2 Practical considerations.- 12.3 Airborne GPS for photo-control.- 12.4 Interoperability of GPS.- 12.4.1 GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems.- 12.4.2 GPS and GLONASS.- 12.4.3 GPS and other sensors.- 12.4.4 GPS and the Federal Radionavigation Plan.- 12.5 Installation of control networks.- 12.5.1 Passive control networks.- 12.5.2 Active control networks.- 13 Future of GPS.- 13.1 New application aspects.- 13.2 GPS modernization.- 13.2.1 Future GPS satellites.- 13.2.2 Augmented signal structure.- 13.3 GPS augmentation.- 13.3.1 Ground-based augmentation.- 13.3.2 Satellite-based augmentation.- 13.4 GNSS.- 13.4.1 GNSS development.- 13.4.2 GNSS/Loran-C integration.- 13.5 Hardware and software improvements.- 13.5.1 Hardware.- 13.5.2 Software.- 13.6 Conclusion.- References.

Editorial Reviews

"... Although developed as a classroom text, the book is also useful as a reference source for professional surveyors and other GPS users. This because it covers both GPS fundamentals and leadingedge developments, thus giving it a wide appeal that will clearliy satisfy a broad range of GPS-philes ... The volume cogently presents the critical aspects and issues for users, along with the theory and details needed by students and developers alike. For those seriously entering the rapidly changing GPS field, this book is a good place to start." GPS WORLD September"This is the fourth edition of the book, and the authors are to be congratulated on their efforts ... This book has now gained wide acceptance as a 'serious' book on GPS ... "Navigation