This is an elaborate study comparing the five large metropolitan regions of India - Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai, and Hyderabad. It traces the evolution of urban and metropolitan governance in India and examines the key aspects related to urban dynamics such as urban and regionalplanning, economic competitiveness, infrastructure and land management, environmental sustainability as well as the challenges in resource mobilization and metropolitan governance. The study is based on an extensive compilation of data on aspects such as demographics, economy, infrastructure, society, environment, political character, and institutions for governance. It provides an introduction to megacities in the Indian context and explains how urbanization was neverpromoted in the Indian Planning regime. While contributing greatly to the economic growth of the respective states and the country, the physical and demographic growth of these megacities has been accompanied by an ever increasing demand for infrastructure and essential services as well as socialand environmental pressures. The governance and management of megacities has thus emerged as a formidable challenge to policymakers, administrators, and urban professionals. This book elucidates how urbanization was inevitable and was finally recognized as an economic and social reality by the Tenthfive year plan.