Graphite intercalation compounds are a new class of electronic materials that are classified as graphite-based host guest systems. They have specific structural features based on the alternating stacking of graphite and guest intercalate sheets. The electronic structures show two-dimensionalmetallic properties with a large variety of features including superconductivity. They are also interesting from the point of two-dimensional magnetic systems. This book presents the synthesis, crystal structures, phase transitions, lattice dynamics, electronic structures, electron transportproperties, magnetic properties, surface phenomena, and applications of graphite intercalation compounds. The applications covered include batteries, highly conductive graphite fibers, exfoliated graphite and intercalated fullerenes and nanotubes.