Grazing Management

Other | October 1, 2000

byVallentine, John F., John F. Vallentine

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Grazing animals need to be managed in order to accommodate desired results in terms of animal, plant, land and economic responses.Grazing Management, 2nd Editionintegrates principles and management techniques that apply to all grazing lands and to all grazing animals. This comprehensive volume provides authoritative review on a wide range of relevant topics: animal nutrition and nutritional balance when fed on different sorts of grazing lands; seasonal variation and limits placed on ecosystems by grazing; the effects of grazing on grazing lands; the various sorts of grazing behaviors; selecting plants and managing grazing lands, as well as many other important topics bearing upon the methods, practises and procedures for properly managing grazing lands and animals.

* Animal nutrition and nutritional balance when fed on different sorts of grazing lands
* Seasonal variation and limits placed on ecosystems by grazing
* The effects of grazing on grazing lands
* The various sorts of grazing behaviours
* Selecting plants and managing grazing lands

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Grazing animals need to be managed in order to accommodate desired results in terms of animal, plant, land and economic responses.Grazing Management, 2nd Editionintegrates principles and management techniques that apply to all grazing lands and to all grazing animals. This comprehensive volume provides authoritative review on a wide ra...

Format:OtherDimensions:659 pages, 1 × 1 × 1 inPublished:October 1, 2000Publisher:Academic PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0080532594

ISBN - 13:9780080532592

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Table of Contents

Preface.
Introduction to Grazing:
The Role of Grazing Management.
Kinds of Grazing Lands.
Grazing Management Applications.
Grazing as an Ecosystem Component.
The Importance of Grazing.
Grazing and Land Use Planning.
Grazing Herbivore Nutrition:
Ruminants vs. Cecal Herbivores.
Nutrient Requirements.
Nutrient Levels in Forages and Ingesta.
Anti-quality Agents in Plants.
Animal Nutritional Balance:
Forage-Animal Plans.
Monitoring Grazing Animal Nutrition.
Supplementation Practices.
Grazing Seasons and Seasonal Balance:
The Forage Growth Cycle.
Determinants of the Grazing Season.
Seasonal Tolerance of Defoliation.
Balancing Seasonal Supply and Demand.
Complementary Grazing Programs.
Grazing Effects on Plants and Soil:
Grazing Effects in Perspective.
Defoliation and Plant Morphology.
Defoliation and Plant Physiology.
Physical Effects on Plants.
Grazing Effects on Soil.
Grazing Activities/Behavior:
Ingestive Behavior.
Daily Activities: Time Spent.
Daily Activities: Time of Day.
Spatial Patterns in Grazing:
Spatial Foraging Decisions.
Memory, Past Experience, and Training.
Determinants of Grazing Distribution.
Forage Factors in Site Selection.
Non-forage Vegetation Factors.
Slope and Related Physical Factors.
Distance from Water.
Outside Disruption.
Manipulating Grazing Distribution:
The Tools of Distribution.
Drinking Water Requirements.
Locating Drinking Water.
Fencing.
Herding and Handling.
Salting and Supplementation.
Other Site Attractants.
Special Problem: Riparian Zones.
Plant Selection in Grazing:
Selectivity.
Palatability (Plant).
Preference (Animal).
Patch Grazing: Problem or Benefit.
Kind and Mix of Grazing Animals:
Choice of Animal Species.
Kind of Animal.
Mixed Species Grazing.
Alternative Large Herbivores.
Interspecific Sociality.
Competition under Mixed Grazing.
Grazing Animal Intake and Equivalence:
Forage Dry Matter Intake.
Animal Equivalence and the Animal Unit Month.
Forage Allocation.
Grazing Capacity Inventory:
Relationships Among Stocking Variables.
Utilization Guidelines.
Setting Initial Stocking Rates.
Dynamics of Grazing Capacity.
Grazing Intensity:
Overgrazing vs. Overstocking.
Grazing Intensity Effects on Vegetation and Site.
Grazing Intensity Effects on Animals and Economics.
Managing Forage Production Fluctuations.
Grazing Methods:
Introduction to Special Grazing Techniques.
Role of Special Grazing Techniques.
Adapting Special Grazing Techniques.
Continuous Grazing Methods.
Seasonal Suitability Grazing Methods.
Deferred/Rested Grazing Methods.
High-Intensity Grazing Methods.
Grazing Systems:
Development of Grazing Systems.
Rotation Grazing.
Deferred Grazing Systems.
Rest Grazing Systems.
High-Intensity/Low Frequency (HILF) Grazing Systems.
Short-Duration Grazing System.
Grazing System Effects on Game Animals.
Grazing as an Environmental Tool:
Manipulative Benefits of Animal Grazing.
Biological Plant Control by Grazing.
Manipulating Animal Habitat by Grazing.
Grazing to Aid Forage Plant Seeding.
Grazing and Forest Regeneration.
Appendix.
Glossary.
Literature Cited.
Index.