Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy by Lewis VaughnGreat Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy by Lewis Vaughn

Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy

byLewis Vaughn

Paperback | July 25, 2011

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A great deal of the satisfaction of studying philosophy lies in exploring its landmark arguments. Working from this premise, Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy focuses on the debates that define and drive the field. Editor Lewis Vaughn presents seventy-eight readings- both classic selections and contemporary works - that are topically organized into six chapters: the existence of God, knowledge and skepticism, mind and body, free will and determinism, ethics, and contemporary ethical debates. The readings are grouped by argument into pro/con dialogues withineach chapter. Each of the thirty-four arguments is introduced with a brief outline, which is followed by two to four essays presenting the classic statement of the argument, critiques and defenses of it, and discussions of related debates.
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Eighth Edition (2011), Classics of Philosophy, Third Edition (2010), Contemporary Moral Arguments (2010), The Power of Critical Thinking, Third Edition (2009), Bioethics (2008), and Writing Philosophy (2005), all published by Oxford Uni...
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Title:Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to PhilosophyFormat:PaperbackDimensions:688 pages, 7.52 × 9.21 × 1.18 inPublished:July 25, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195342607

ISBN - 13:9780195342604

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Table of Contents

Preface: Preface1. Philosophical WorkBack to BasicsThe Consolations of PhilosophyBox: SocratesPhilosophy and ArgumentsKey TermsPlato: Socrates' Examined LifeBertrand Russell: The Value of PhilosophyChapter 1. Essay Questions2. The Existence of GodKey Terms1. The Cosmological ArgumentBox: Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas: Summa TheologicaJ.L. Mackie: Critique of Cosmological ArgumentsWilliam Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological ArgumentAvicenna: On the Nature of GodArgument 1. Essay Questions2. The Design Argument from AnalogyWilliam paley: The Watch and the WatchmakerDavid Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural ReligionArgument 2. Essay Questions3. The Design Argument from the Best ExplanationRichard Swinburne: The Best Explanation of Apparent DesignLewis Vaughn: The Failure of Supernatural HypothesesMichael J. Behe: Intelligent DesignPhilip Kitcher: Living with DarwinArgument 3. Essay Questions4. The Ontological ArgumentSt. Anselm: Anselm's ProofImmanuel Kant: Of the Impossibility of an Ontological ProofWilliam L. Rowe: The Problem with the Ontological ArgumentRene Descartes: On the Ontological ArgumentArgument 4. Essay Questions5. The Argument from MiraclesJ.L. Mackie: Miracles and TestimonyDavid Hume: Of MiraclesRichard Swinburne: MiraclesArgument 5. Essay Questions6. The Argument from EvilWilliam L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of AtheismH.J. McCloskey: God and EvilAlvin Plantinga: The Free Will DefenseJohn Hick: The Soul-Making DefenseArgument 6. Essay QuestionsChapter 2. Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further Reading3. Knowledge and SkepticismKey Terms7. Descartes' Dream and Evil Genius ArgumentsRene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation I)Christopher Grau: Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The MatrixArgument 7. Essay Questions8. Descartes' Argument against SkepticismRene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation IV)David Hume: Of Skepticism with Regard to the SensesRobert Audi: Against SkepticismArgument 8. Essay Questions9. Berkeley's Argument against the Existence of Material ObjectsGeorge Berkeley: Principles of Human KnowledgeJohn Locke: An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingBertrand Russell: Berkeley's IdealismArgument 9. Essay Questions10. Hume's Argument againist InductionBox: David HumeDavid Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingWesley C. Salmon: The Problem of InductionArgument 10. Essay QuestionsChapter 3. Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further Reading4. Mind and BodyBox: Rene DescartesKey Terms11. Descartes' Conceivability Argument for DualismRene Descartes: Discourse on MethodPaul M. Churchland: DualismBuddhist Writings: There Is No EgoArgument 11. Essay Questions12. Nagel's Bat Argument against Mind-Body IdentityThomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?J.J.C. Smart: Sensations and Brain ProcessesArgument 12. Essay Questions13. Chalmers' Zombie Argument against MaterialismDavid Chalmers: The Logical Possibility of ZombiesDaniel Dennett: "Epiphenomenal" Qualia?Argument 13. Essay Questions14. Block's Chinese Brain Argument against FunctionalismNed Block: Troubles with FunctionalismJerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body ProblemArgument 14. Essay Questions15. Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong AlJohn R. Searle: Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?William G. Lycan: Machine ConsciousnessArgument 15. Essay QuestionsChapter 4. Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further Reading5. Free Will and DeterminismKey Terms16. Argument for Hard DeterminismBaron d'Holbach: Of the System of Man's Free AgencyRichard Taylor: Freedom and DeterminismJean-Paul Sartre: Absolute FreedomArgument 16. Essay Questions17. Indeterminist Argument for Free WillBox: William JamesWilliam James: The Dilemma of DeterminismRobert Kane: Free Will and Modern ScienceArgument 17. Essay Questions18. Argument against CompatibilismW.T. Stace: The Problem of Free WillWilliam L. Rowe: Two Concepts of FreedomHarry G. Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a PersonPeter van Inwagen: The Incompatibility of Free Will and DeterminismArgument 18. Essay Questions19. Argument against LibertarianismRandolph Clarke: Toward a Credible Agent-Causal Account of Free WillGalen Strawson: Libertarianism, Action, and Self-DeterminismTimothy O'Connor: Agent CausationArgument 19. Essay QuestionsChapter 5. Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further Reading6. EthicsKey Terms20. Argument for Cultural RelativismRuth Benedict: The Case for Moral RelativismRuss Shafer-Landau: Ethical RelativismArgument 20. Essay Questions21. Argument against Ethical EgoismThomas Hobbes: LeviathanLouis P. Pojman: A Critique of Ethical EgoismJoel Feinberg: Psychological EgoismArgument 21. Essay Questions22. Argument against the Divine Command TheoryPlato: EuthyphroRuss Shafer-Landau: The Divine Command TheoryArgument 22. Essay Questions23. Argument against UtilitarianismBox: John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill: UtilitarianismE.F. Carritt: Criticisms of UtilitarianismArgument 23. Essay Questions24. Argument against Kantian EthicsImmanuel Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysic of MoralsWilliam K. Frankena: Kant's TheoryVirginia Held: The Ethics of CareArgument 24. Essay QuestionsChapter 6. Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further Reading7. Philosophy at Work: Contemporary Ethical DebatesAbortionKey TermsTwo Arguments Against AbortionJohn T. Noonan, Jr.: 25. An Almost Absolute Value in HistoryDon Marquis: 26. Why Abortion Is ImmoralTwo Arguments for AbortionMary Anne Warren: 27. On the Moral and Legal Status of AbortionJudith Jarvis Thomson: 28. A Defense of AbortionAbortion Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Futher ReadingEuthanasiaTwo Arguments Against EuthanasiaLeon R. Kass: 29. Why Doctors Must Not KillDaniel Callahan: 30. When Self-Determination Runs AmokTwo Arguments for EuthanasiaDan W. Brock: 31. Voluntary Active EuthanasiaJames Rachels: 32. Active and Passive EuthanasiaEuthanasia Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Further ReadingGlobal HungerKey Terms33. Hardin's Argument against Aiding the PoorGarrett Hardin: Living on a LifeboatWilliam W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics34. Singer's Argument for Aiding the PoorPeter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and MoralityLouis P. Pojman: World Hunger and PopulationGlobal Hunger Essay QuestionsSuggestions for Futher ReadingAppendix: How to Read and Write Argumentative EssaysGlossary