The 19th century is known as the modern era of science. Many of the ideas, theories, and inventions developed during this time are used everyday in today's society. Windelspecht investigates the century's tremendous discoveries, inventions, and inquiries in more than 60 alphabetical entries. This reference presents familiar subjects, such as the telephone and elevator, as well as those less frequently studied, such as the spectroscope and Pasteur's development of the germ theory. Readers will find a thorough discussion of each entry's scientific impact and gain an understanding of the lasting social and political importance of these advancements. Narratives enrich many of the entries by adding perspective to the century's fascinating history. Students and researchers will find this reference book easy to use. An appendix of entries listed by scientific field, a glossary of terms, and name and subject indexes make this the perfect, easy-to-use reference for anyone interested in the scientific revolutions of the 19th.