Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1: Adults by Michel HersenHandbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1: Adults by Michel Hersen

Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1: Adults

EditorMichel Hersen, Alan M. Gross

Hardcover | January 9, 2008

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Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1: Adults provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of clinical psychological practice for adults from assessment through treatment, including the innovations of the past decade in ethics, cross cultural psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, cognitive behavioral treatment, psychopharmacology, and geropsychology.
Michel Hersen, Ph.D., ABPP, Co-Editor, is Professor and Dean of the School of Professional Psychology at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Oregon. He has edited numerous books, including Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, four-volume set (Wiley), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, three-volume...
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Title:Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1: AdultsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:922 pages, 10.25 × 7.25 × 1.75 inPublished:January 9, 2008Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0471946761

ISBN - 13:9780471946762

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[(including)-282(the)-282(unique)-282(sequence)-282(of)-282(events)-282(that)-282(constitute)-282(each)-282(person)55(s)-282(life)-282(history)65(.)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(An)-262.4(essential)-262.4(feature)-262.4(of)-262.4(cognition)-262.4(is)-262.4(that)-262.4(it)-262.4(is)-262.4(transformational;)-262.4(it)-262.4(alters)-262.4(experience.)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Cognitive)-271.4(behavior)-271.4(therapy)-271.4(is)-271.4(based)-271.4(on)-271.4(the)-271.4(premise)-271.4(that)-271.4(how)-271.4(you)-271.4(think)-271.4(can)-271.4(af)18(fect)]TJ T* [(how)-281.7(you)-281.7(feel)-281.7(and)-281.7(behave.)-263.7(What)-281.7(balance)-281.7(or)-281.7(mix)-281.7(of)-281.7(these)-281.7(factors)-281.7(do)-281.7(you)-281.7(believe)-281.7(is)]TJ T* (correct?)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 540.8969 Tm [(Intr)18(ospection)-250(v)10(ersus)-250(Extraspection)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 521.4697 Tm 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[(hancement)-385.4(refers)-385.4(to)-385.4(the)-385.4(lack)-385.4(of)-385.4(insight)-385.4(and)-385.4(to)-385.4(an)-385.4(unconscious)-385.4(bias)-385.4(that)-385.4(people)]TJ T* [(may)-263.7(have)-263.7(that)-263.7(prevents)-263.7(them)-263.7(from)-263.7(reporting)-263.7(accurately)-263.7(even)-263.7(if)-263.7(they)-263.7(wish)-263.7(to.)-263.7(Self-)]TJ T* [(reports)-181.8(depend)-181.8(on)-181.8(memory)-181.8(for)-181.8(past)-181.8(events.)-181.8(Considerable)-181.8(research)-181.8(has)-181.8(demonstrated)]TJ T* [(that)-233.5(people)-233.5(inaccurately)-233.5(report)-233.5(medical)-233.5(events)-233.5(and)-233.5(inaccurately)-233.5(place)-233.5(them)-233.5(in)-233.5(time)]TJ T* [(\(Rogler)40(,)-196.9(Malgady)65(,)-196.9(&)-178.9(T)35(ryon,)-196.9(1992\).)-196.9(Clinical)-196.9(diagnosis)-196.9(also)-196.9(depends)-196.9(heavily)-196.9(on)-196.9(self-)]TJ T* 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[(equivalent)-225.3(to)-225.3(reading)]TJ -24.3338 -1.1818 TD [(a)-213(person)55(s)-213(mind)-213(because)-213(mental)-213(content)-213(does)-213(not)-213(show)-213(up)-213(on)-213(an)-213(fMRI)-213(plate.)-213(More-)]TJ T* [(over)40(,)-394.7(most)-394.7(psychologists)-394.7(do)-394.7(not)-394.7(have)-394.7(fMRI)-394.6(access)-394.7(and)-394.7(those)-394.7(who)-394.7(do)-394.7(may)-394.7(not)]TJ T* [(be)-337.6(able)-337.6(to)-337.6(conduct)-337.6(all)-337.6(of)-337.6(their)-337.6(assessments)-337.6(with)-337.6(it.)-319.6(The)-337.6(practitioner)-337.6(must)-337.6(decide)]TJ ET endstream endobj 11 0 obj > endobj 12 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 13 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(6)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(how)-264.8(much)-264.8(they)-264.8(are)-264.8(going)-264.8(to)-264.8(rely)-264.8(on)-264.8(introspection)-264.8(and)-264.8(self-report)-264.8(versus)-264.8(objective)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD (measurement.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 664.0734 Tm [(Pr)18(ocedural)-250(v)10(ersus)-250(V)92(alidating)-250(Evidence)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 644.6462 Tm [(What)-324.4(constitutes)-324.4(persuasive)-324.4(evidence?)-324.4(R)40(ychlak)-324.4(\(1968,)-324.4(1981a\))-324.4(distinguished)-324.4(two)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(types)-336.9(of)-336.9(evidence.)-336.9(Procedural)-336.9(evidence)-336.9(determines)-336.9(truth)-336.9(on)-336.9(the)-336.9(basis)-336.9(of)-336.9(internal)]TJ T* [(consistency)65(,)-513.2(including)-513.2(congruence)-513.2(with)-513.2(what)-513.2(is)-513.2(already)-513.2(accepted)-513.2(to)-513.2(be)-513.2(true.)]TJ T* [(Clinical)-296.1(case)-296.1(formulation)-296.1(is)-296.1(frequently)-296.1(based)-296.1(on)-296.1(such)-296.1(thinking.)-241.1(According)-296.1(to)-296.1(this)]TJ T* [(view)65(,)-240.3(a)-240.3(case)-240.3(formulation)-240.3(is)-240.3(considered)-240.3(to)-240.3(be)-240.3(correct)-240.3(to)-240.3(the)-240.3(extent)-240.3(that)-240.3(the)-240.3(results)-240.3(of)]TJ T* [(psychological)-298.8(testing)-298.8(and)-298.8(clinical)-298.8(interview)-298.8(of)-298.8(the)-298.8(identied)-298.8(patient)-298.8(and)-298.8(all)-298.7(other)]TJ T* [(reporters)-296.7(of)-296.7(fact)-296.7(agree,)-296.7(thereby)-296.7(forming)-296.7(an)-296.7(internally)-296.7(consistent)-296.7(view)65(.)-296.7(Procedural)]TJ T* [(evidence)-301.4(is)-301.4(based)-301.4(on)-301.4(a)-301.4(coherence)-301.4(theory)-301.4(of)-301.4(truth)-301.4(\(cf.)-283.4(Thagard,)-301.4(2000\).)-301.4(Procedural)]TJ T* [(evidence)-505.4(is)-505.4(empirical)-505.4(evidence)-505.4(because)-505.4(it)-505.4(is)-505.4(based)-505.4(on)-505.4(experience.)-505.4(However)40(,)]TJ T* [(coherent)-312(explanations)-312(such)-312(as)-312(the)-312(clinical)-312(formulations)-312(just)-312(mentioned)-312(and)-312(more)]TJ T* [(formalized)-282.2(positions)-282.2(found)-282.2(in)-282.2(philosophy)-282.2(and)-282.2(religion)-282.2(can)-282.2(be)-282.2(wrong.)-264.2(This)-282.2(is)-282.2(how)]TJ T* [(science)-250(can)-250(contribute.)-250(Coherence)-250(alone)-250(is)-250(not)-250(certain)-250(proof.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Science)-328.2(can)-328.2(validate)-328.2(evidence.)-328.2(It)-328.2(includes)-328.2(all)-328.2(of)-328.2(the)-328.2(consistency)-328.2(requirements)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(of)-245.4(procedural)-245.4(evidence,)-245.4(is)-245.4(also)-245.4(empirical,)-245.4(but)-245.4(crucially)-245.4(includes)-245.4(hypothesis)-245.4(testing)]TJ T* [(where)-223.5(predictions)-223.5(are)-223.5(compared)-223.5(with)-223.5(observations.)-168.5(Alternatively)-223.5(stated,)-223.5(validating)]TJ T* [(evidence)-181.8(requires)-181.8(that)-181.8(procedural)-181.8(evidence)-181.8(be)-181.8(put)-181.8(to)-181.8(a)-181.8(further)-181.8(test)-181.8(where)-181.8(predictions)]TJ T* [(are)-203.1(made)-203.1(based)-203.1(on)-203.1(a)-203.1(coherent)-203.1(understanding)-203.1(and)-203.1(tested)-203.1(under)-203.1(controlled)-203.1(conditions)]TJ T* [(\(termed)-213.8(research)-213.8(designs\))-213.8(to)-213.8(see)-213.8(if)-213.8(the)-213.8(results)-213.8(support)-213.8(or)-213.8(falsify)-213.8(the)-213.8(hypothesis.)-195.8(The)]TJ T* [(ability)-167.5(to)-167.5(predict)-167.5(the)-167.5(future)-167.5(based)-167.5(on)-167.5(the)-167.5(past)-167.5(separates)-167.5(science)-167.5(from)-167.5(philosophy)65(.)-149.5(The)]TJ T* [(ability)-192.9(to)-192.9(explain)-192.9(past)-192.9(events)-192.9(is)-192.9(directly)-192.9(proportional)-192.9(to)-192.9(the)-192.9(complexity)-192.9(of)-192.9(the)-192.9(theory)]TJ T* [(used)-367.1(because)-367.1(complexity)-367.1(enables)-367.1(you)-367.1(to)-367.1(account)-367.1(for)-367.1(diverse)-367.1(outcomes.)-367.1(But)-367.1(the)]TJ T* [(ability)-320.1(to)-320.1(predict)-320.1(future)-320.1(events)-320.1(is)-320.1(inversely)-320.1(proportional)-320.1(to)-320.1(the)-320.1(complexity)-320.1(of)-320.1(the)]TJ T* [(theory)-356.9(used)-356.9(because)-356.9(of)-356.9(the)-356.9(uncertainty)-356.9(involved.)-356.9(Falsiability)-356.9(is)-356.9(a)-356.9(crucial)-356.9(addi-)]TJ T* [(tional)-268.9(requirement)-268.9(over)-268.9(and)-268.9(above)-268.9(coherence)-268.9(that)-268.9(requires)-268.9(predictions)-268.9(that)-268.9(can)-268.9(be)]TJ T* [(empirically)-173.8(contradicted.)-155.8(This)-173.8(additional)-173.8(requirement)-173.8(is)-173.8(crucial)-173.8(because)-173.8(hypotheses)]TJ T* [(that)-316.4(cannot)-316.4(be)-316.4(falsied)-316.4(are)-316.4(not)-316.4(scientic)-316.4(statements.)-316.4(Philosophy)-316.4(and)-316.4(religion)-316.4(ex-)]TJ T* [(plain)-243.7(much)-243.7(but)-243.7(predict)-243.7(little)-243.7(that)-243.7(can)-243.7(be)-243.7(empirically)-243.7(veried)-243.7(and)-243.7(possibly)-243.7(falsied.)]TJ T* [(Falsiability)-245.3(separates)-245.3(science)-245.3(from)-245.3(philosophy)-245.3(and)-245.3(religion.)-245.3(Unfortunately)65(,)-245.3(clini-)]TJ T* [(cal)-223.1(practice)-223.1(does)-223.1(not)-223.1(always)-223.1(allow)-223.1(for)-223.1(case)-223.1(formulations)-223.1(to)-223.1(be)-223.1(empirically)-223.1(tested)-223.1(in)]TJ T* [(ways)-212.2(that)-212.2(permit)-212.2(falsication.)-194.2(The)-212.2(practitioner)-212.2(must)-212.2(decide)-212.2(what)-212.2(blend)-212.2(of)-212.2(procedu-)]TJ T* [(ral)-254.7(and)-254.7(validating)-254.7(evidence)-254.7(is)-254.7(to)-254.7(be)-254.7(sought)-254.7(in)-254.7(principle)-254.7(and)-254.7(what)-254.7(level)-254.7(of)-254.7(evidence)]TJ T* [(is)-203.6(minimally)-203.6(acceptable)-203.6(regarding)-203.6(clinical)-203.6(assessment)-203.6(and)-203.6(interventions.)-185.6(This)-203.6(issue)]TJ T* [(continues)-200.8(to)-200.8(divide)-200.8(clinical)-200.8(psychologists)-200.8(with)-200.8(regard)-200.8(to)-200.8(what)-200.8(constitutes)-200.8(evidence-)]TJ T* [(based)-250(practice.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 191.2084 Tm [(Final)-250(v)10(ersus)-250(Efcient)-250(Causes)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 171.7813 Tm [(Final)-186.6(causes)-186.6(are)-186.6(goals)-186.6(and)-186.6(objectives)-186.6(toward)-186.6(which)-186.6(a)-186.6(person)-186.6(aspires.)-168.6(T)70(eleology)-186.6(pro-)]TJ T* [(vides)-192.1(explanations)-192.1(based)-192.1(on)-192.1(goal)-192.1(seeking.)-192.1(Ef)18(cient)-192.1(causes)-192.1(entail)-192.1(necessary)-192.1(and)-192.1(suf-)]TJ T* [(cient)-213.5(conditions)-213.5(that)-213.5(give)-213.5(rise)-213.5(to)-213.5(an)-213.5(event.)-195.5(T)70(eleological)-213.5(explanations)-213.5(are)-213.5(generally)]TJ T* [(unaccepted)-207.1(by)-207.1(science)-207.1(because)-207.1(they)-207.1(do)-207.1(not)-207.1(explain)-207.1(how)-207.1(the)-207.1(goals)-207.1(were)-207.1(established.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-206.6(physical)-206.6(world)-206.6(was)-206.6(once)-206.6(understood)-206.6(in)-206.6(terms)-206.6(of)-206.6(nal)-206.6(causes.)-188.6(Whether)-206.6(it)-206.6(rained)]TJ ET endstream endobj 14 0 obj > endobj 15 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 322.7536 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(was)-233.7(thought)-233.7(to)-233.7(be)-233.7(determined)-233.7(by)-233.7(choices)-233.7(made)-233.7(by)-233.7(the)-233.7(gods.)-233.7(Science)-233.7(explains)-233.7(rain-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(fall)-199.2(as)-199.2(the)-199.2(result)-199.2(of)-199.2(humidity)-199.2(and)-199.2(temperature;)-199.2(water)-199.2(precipitates)-199.2(out)-199.2(of)-199.2(air)-199.2(when)-199.2(the)]TJ T* [(temperature)-172.9(falls)-172.9(below)-172.9(a)-172.9(critical)-172.9(value.)-172.9(In)-172.9(contrast,)-172.9(teleology)-172.9(is)-172.9(frequently)-172.9(accepted)]TJ T* [(as)-289.2(a)-289.2(psychological)-289.2(explanation.)-271.2(When)-289.2(people)-289.2(are)-289.2(asked)-289.2(to)-289.2(explain)-289.2(their)-289.2(behavior)40(,)]TJ T* [(they)-212.6(frequently)-212.6(say)-212.6(that)-212.6(they)-212.6(chose)-212.6(how)-212.6(to)-212.6(behave)-212.6(in)-212.6(order)-212.6(to)-212.6(reach)-212.6(a)-212.6(goal)-212.6(or)-212.6(obtain)]TJ T* [(a)-225.6(result.)-225.6(Skinner)-225.6(\(1989\))-225.6(maintained)-225.6(that)-225.6(such)-225.6(explanations)-225.6(do)-225.6(not)-225.6(explain)-225.6(behavior)]TJ T* [(but,)-287.6(rather)40(,)-287.6(rephrase)-287.6(behavioral)-287.6(variation)-287.6(in)-287.6(terms)-287.6(of)-287.6(choice)-287.6(variation)-287.6(without)-287.6(ex-)]TJ T* [(plaining)-221(how)-221(the)-221(choices)-221(were)-221(made.)-221(Choice)-221(cannot)-221(be)-221(inferred)-221(from)-221(behavior)-221(and)]TJ T* [(then)-250.3(used)-250.3(to)-250.3(explain)-250.3(behavior)20(that)-250.3(is)-250.3(circular)-250.3(reasoning.)-250.3(It)-250.3(is)-250.3(no)-250.3(more)-250.3(reasonable)]TJ T* [(than)-228.6(dening)-228.6(a)-228.6(word)-228.6(with)-228.6(a)-228.6(sentence)-228.6(that)-228.6(uses)-228.6(the)-228.6(word)-228.6(to)-228.6(be)-228.6(dened)-228.6(\(e.g.,)-228.6(aggres-)]TJ T* [(sive)-300.6(people)-300.6(are)-300.6(people)-300.6(who)-300.6(behave)-300.6(aggressively\).)-300.6(Connectionist)-300.6(network)-300.6(models)]TJ T* [(provide)-197.8(a)-197.8(possible)-197.8(mixed)-197.8(model)-197.8(solution)-197.8(because)-197.8(their)-197.8(network)-197.8(mechanisms)-197.8(can)-197.8(be)]TJ T* [(examined)-293.8(to)-293.8(see)-293.8(how)-293.8(inputs)-293.8(are)-293.8(transformed)-293.8(into)-293.8(outputs)-293.8(\(cf.,)-293.8(McLeod,)-293.8(Plunkett,)]TJ T* [(&)-250(Rolls,)-250(1998;)-250(OReilly)65(,)-250(&)-250(Munakata,)-250(2000\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 500.8299 Tm [(SCIENTIFIC)-250(\(RESEARCH\))-250(A)55(CADEMIC)-250(FOUND)35(A)95(TIONS)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 481.5024 Tm [(Psychology)-373.7(began)-373.7(as)-373.7(philosophy)-373.7(but)-373.7(has)-373.7(developed)-373.7(into)-373.7(a)-373.7(science.)-355.7(That)-373.7(transi-)]TJ T* [(tion)-295.4(entails)-295.4(certain)-295.4(constraints)-295.4(on)-295.4(how)-295.4(psychological)-295.4(hypotheses)-295.4(and)-295.4(theories)-295.4(are)]TJ T* [(formed,)-250(tested,)-250(and)-250(evaluated.)-232(This)-250(section)-250(considers)-250(several)-250(central)-250(issues.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 424.334 Tm [(F)25(alsiability)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 404.9069 Tm [(Philosophy)-274.3(and)-274.3(science)-274.3(are)-274.3(both)-274.3(empirical,)-274.3(that)-274.3(is,)-274.3(they)-274.3(are)-274.3(both)-274.3(based)-274.3(on)-274.3(experi-)]TJ T* [(ence.)-283.9(Religion)-283.9(is)-283.9(also)-283.9(empirical)-283.9(in)-283.9(the)-283.9(sense)-283.9(that)-283.9(it)-283.9(is)-283.9(based,)-283.9(in)-283.9(part,)-283.9(on)-283.9(formative)]TJ T* [(personal)-340.5(experiences)-340.5(including,)-340.5(but)-340.5(not)-340.5(limited)-340.5(to,)-340.5(conversions,)-340.5(revelations,)-340.5(and)]TJ T* [(being)-197.8(born)-197.8(again.)-197.8(Science)-197.8(is)-197.8(a)-197.8(subset)-197.8(of)-197.8(philosophy)-197.8(characterized)-197.8(by)-197.8(an)-197.8(emphasis)]TJ T* [(on)-257.8(measurement)-257.8(and)-257.8(falsiability)65(.)-239.8(The)-257.8(falsiability)-257.8(requirement)-257.8(distinguishes)-257.8(sci-)]TJ T* [(ence)-309.1(from)-309.1(philosophy)-309.1(because)-309.1(concepts)-309.1(that)-309.1(cannot)-309.1(be)-309.1(falsied)-309.1(are)-309.1(not)-309.1(scientic)]TJ T* [(as)-221.1(mentioned)-221.1(previously)65(.)-221.1(Falsiability)-221.1(entails)-221.1(being)-221.1(able)-221.1(to)-221.1(make)-221.1(measurements)-221.1(or)]TJ T* [(observations)-203.7(that)-203.7(can)-203.7(contradict)-203.7(a)-203.7(hypothesis.)-203.7(Observations)-203.7(that)-203.7(are)-203.7(consistent)-203.7(with)]TJ T* [(a)-190.7(hypothesis)-190.7(may)-190.7(or)-190.7(may)-190.7(not)-190.7(have)-190.7(arisen)-190.7(because)-190.7(the)-190.7(hypothesis)-190.7(is)-190.7(correct.)-172.7(The)-190.7(pre-)]TJ T* [(dicted)-190.5(results)-190.5(could)-190.5(have)-190.5(been)-190.5(observed)-190.5(for)-190.5(an)-190.5(entirely)-190.5(dif)18(ferent)-190.5(reason)-190.5(than)-190.5(the)-190.5(one)]TJ T* [(specied)-209.5(by)-209.5(the)-209.5(hypothesis.)-191.5(There)-209.5(is)-209.5(no)-209.5(way)-209.5(to)-209.5(discern)-209.5(which)-209.5(alternative)-209.5(is)-209.5(correct;)]TJ T* [(which)-291.2(is)-291.2(why)-291.2(all)-291.2(empirical)-291.2(conrmations)-291.2(of)-291.2(theory)-291.2(must)-291.2(necessarily)-291.2(be)-291.2(tentative.)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Alternatively)65(,)-351.8(results)-351.8(that)-351.8(contradict)-351.8(a)-351.8(hypothesis)-351.8(are)-351.8(more)-351.8(denitive.)-351.8(Either)-351.8(the)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(hypothesis)-349.5(is)-349.5(partially)-349.5(or)-349.5(entirely)-349.5(defective)-349.5(and)-349.5(requires)-349.5(revision)-349.5(or)-349.5(rejection)-349.5(or)]TJ T* [(the)-301.9(measurements)-301.9(that)-301.9(constitute)-301.9(the)-301.9(data)-301.9(are)-301.9(unreliable)-301.9(and/or)-301.9(invalid)-301.9(or)-301.9(the)-301.9(ex-)]TJ T* [(perimental)-233.2(design)-233.2(was)-233.2(not)-233.2(properly)-233.2(implemented)-233.2(or)-233.2(was)-233.2(not)-233.2(capable)-233.2(of)-233.2(supporting)]TJ T* [(the)-267.8(required)-267.8(inferences.)-267.8(Empiricism)-267.8(is)-267.8(a)-267.8(necessary)-267.8(but)-267.8(not)-267.8(suf)18(cient)-267.8(condition)-267.8(for)]TJ T* [(scientic)-250(study)65(.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Falsiability)-275(typically)-275(presumes)-275(some)-275(form)-275(of)-275(measurement)-275(in)-275(order)-275(to)-275(collect)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(data)-229.5(that)-229.5(can)-229.5(be)-229.5(used)-229.5(to)-229.5(support)-229.5(or)-229.5(falsify)-229.5(the)-229.5(hypothesis)-229.5(in)-229.5(question.)-211.5(The)-229.5(ability)-229.5(to)]TJ T* [(reliably)-335.3(categorize)-335.3(presence/absence)-335.3(regarding)-335.3(a)-335.3(theoretical)-335.3(construct)-335.3(is)-335.3(perhaps)]TJ T* [(the)-291.3(most)-291.3(basic)-291.3(form)-291.3(of)-291.3(measurement.)-291.3(Operational)-291.3(denitions)-291.3(dene)-291.3(a)-291.3(concept)-291.3(by)]TJ T* [(the)-250(procedures)-250(used)-250(to)-250(measure)-250(it:)]TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj > endobj 17 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 18 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(8)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 122.2316 706.4529 Tm ()Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 132.1942 703.0657 Tm [(Or)37(dinal)-287.4(measur)37(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9998 0 TD [(requires)-287.4(that)-287.4(you)-287.4(be)-287.4(able)-287.4(to)-287.4(rank)-287.4(order)-287.4(measurements)-287.4(or)]TJ -8.9998 -1.1818 TD (observations.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 122.2316 677.5613 Tm ()Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 132.1942 674.174 Tm [(Interval)-180.4(measur)37(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.8218 0 TD [(entails)-180.4(ordinal)-180.4(measurement)-180.4(on)-180.4(scales)-180.4(with)-180.4(equal)-180.4(intervals)]TJ -8.8218 -1.1818 TD [(between)-250(numbers.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 122.2316 648.6697 Tm ()Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 132.1942 645.2823 Tm [(Ratio)-212.3(measur)37(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.8867 0 TD [(entails)-212.3(interval)-212.3(measurement)-212.3(on)-212.3(scales)-212.3(that)-212.3(have)-212.3(an)-212.3(absolute)]TJ -7.8867 -1.1818 TD [(zero)-250(value;)-250(where)-250(zero)-250(represents)-250(none)-250(of)-250(the)-250(quantity)-250(being)-250(measured.)]TJ 0 -2.3919 TD [(Measurement)-284.6(validity)-284.6(presumes)-284.6(reliability)-284.6(because)-284.6(validity)-284.6(coef)18(cients)-284.6(cannot)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(consistently)-336.6(exceed)-336.6(the)-336.6(square)-336.6(root)-336.6(of)-336.6(reliability)-336.6(coef)18(cients)-336.6(\(see)-336.6(psychometrics)]TJ T* [(section)-187(that)-187(follows\).)-187(However)40(,)-187(reliability)-187(does)-187(not)-187(ensure)-187(validity)65(.)-150(Y)100(ou)-187(can)-187(reliably)]TJ T* [(measure)-250(head)-250(size)-250(but)-250(that)-250(is)-250(not)-250(a)-250(valid)-250(index)-250(of)-250(intelligence.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 540.8969 Tm [(Uncertainty)-250(Reduction)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 521.4697 Tm [(Science)-382.2(aims)-382.2(to)-382.2(explain)-382.2(and)-382.2(predict.)-382.2(Explanation)-382.2(enables)-382.2(us)-382.2(to)-382.2(understand)-382.2(and)]TJ T* [(thereby)-295.9(presumably)-295.9(predict)-295.9(though)-295.9(prediction)-295.9(can)-295.9(occur)-295.9(in)-295.9(the)-295.9(absence)-295.9(of)-295.9(under)20(-)]TJ T* [(standing)-411.3(so-called)-411.3(blind)-411.3(empiricism.)-411.3(Scientic)-411.3(explanation)-411.3(is)-411.3(more)-411.3(than)-411.3(story-)]TJ T* [(telling;)-412.9(or)-412.9(at)-412.9(least)-412.9(it)-412.9(is)-412.9(a)-412.9(special)-412.9(form)-413(of)-412.9(storytelling.)-412.9(Shannon)-412.9(\(1949\))-412.9(dened)]TJ T* [(information)-309.6(as)-309.6(the)-309.6(reduction)-309.6(of)-309.6(uncertainty)65(.)-309.6(I)0(f)-309.6(you)-309.6(remain)-309.6(as)-309.6(uncertain)-309.6(about)-309.6(the)]TJ T* [(necessary)-159.2(and)-159.2(suf)18(cient)-159.2(conditions)-159.2(responsible)-159.2(for)-159.2(an)-159.2(event)-159.2(subsequent)-159.2(to)-159.2(the)-159.2(expla-)]TJ T* [(nation)-288(as)-288(you)-288(were)-288(before)-288(the)-288(event)-288(then)-288(no)-288(information)-288(has)-288(been)-288(communicated)]TJ T* [(about)-356.9(the)-356.9(event)-356.9(regardless)-356.9(of)-356.9(how)-356.9(compelling)-356.9(the)-356.9(explanation)-356.9(might)-356.9(be.)-356.9(Expla-)]TJ T* [(nations)-321.5(entail)-321.5(a)-321.5(sequence)-321.5(of)-321.5(events)-321.5(in)-321.5(which)-321.5(each)-321.5(step)-321.5(is)-321.4(shown)-321.4(to)-321.4(be)-321.5(suf)18(cient,)]TJ T* [(and)-279.4(perhaps)-279.4(necessary)65(,)-279.4(for)-279.4(the)-279.4(next)-279.4(step)-279.4(to)-279.4(occur)55(.)-224.4(A)0(n)-279.4(account)-279.4(of)-279.4(what)-279.4(enables)-279.4(the)]TJ T* [(suf)18(ciency)-275.8(or)-275.8(necessity)-275.8(of)-275.8(each)-275.8(step)-275.8(in)-275.8(the)-275.8(explanatory)-275.8(sequence)-275.8(is)-275.8(what)-275.8(helps)-275.8(us)]TJ T* [(understand)-187(why)-187(the)-187(event)-187(under)18(going)-187(explanation)-187(occurred)-187(or)-187(did)-187(not)-187(occur)55(.)-187(Expla-)]TJ T* [(nations)-276.1(presume)-276.1(empirical)-276.1(consistency;)-276.1(that)-276.1(is,)-276.1(the)-276.1(same)-276.1(sequence)-276.1(of)-276.1(events)-276.1(must)]TJ T* [(result)-306.2(in)-306.2(the)-306.2(same)-306.2(outcome)-306.2(unless)-306.2(the)-306.2(explanation)-306.2(is)-306.2(probabilistic,)-306.2(which)-306.2(usually)]TJ T* [(occurs)-231.6(when)-231.6(there)-231.6(is)-231.6(no)-231.6(mechanism)-231.6(information.)-231.6(Explanations)-231.6(can)-231.6(be)-231.6(complicated)]TJ T* [(and)-308.9(sometimes)-308.9(entail)-308.9(conditional)-308.9(logic)-308.9(that)-308.9(enables)-308.9(a)-308.9(number)-308.9(of)-308.9(branching)-308.9(path-)]TJ T* [(ways)-306.5(to)-306.5(be)-306.5(taken.)-306.5(Mechanical)-306.5(explanations)-306.5(refer)-306.5(to)-306.5(the)-306.5(movement)-306.5(of)-306.5(gear)-306.5(B)-306.4(that)]TJ T* [(meshes)-360(with)-360(gear)-305(A)-304.8(and,)-360(depending)-360(on)-360(the)-360(radius)-360(of)-360(each)-360(gear)-360(and)-360(the)-360(number)]TJ T* [(of)-323.8(teeth)-323.8(on)-323.8(each)-323.8(gear)40(,)-323.8(a)-323.8(complete)-323.8(rotation)-323.8(of)-323.8(gear)-268.8(A)-268.8(results)-323.8(in)-323.8(a)-323.8(specic)-323.8(number)]TJ T* [(of)-350.4(rotations)-350.4(of)-350.4(gear)-350.4(B.)-350.4(Biological)-350.4(explanations)-350.4(frequently)-350.4(entail)-350.4(a)-350.4(series)-350.4(of)-350.4(bio-)]TJ T* [(chemical)-281.3(steps)-281.3(that)-281.3(each)-281.3(gives)-281.3(rise)-281.3(to)-281.3(the)-281.3(next.)-281.3(Mathematical)-281.3(explanations)-281.3(appeal)]TJ T* [(to)-226.3(addition,)-226.3(subtraction,)-226.3(multiplication,)-226.3(division,)-226.3(and)-226.3(other)-226.3(operations.)-226.3(Economists)]TJ T* [(use)-214.8(a)-214.8(variety)-214.8(of)-214.8(mathematical)-214.8(models)-214.8(to)-214.8(explain)-214.8(consumer)-214.8(behavior)55(.)-214.8(Psychological)]TJ T* 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[(developed)-326.4(and)-326.4(validated)-326.4(on)-326.4(a)-326.4(majority)-326.4(population)-326.4(but)-326.4(is)-326.4(being)-326.4(used)-326.4(with)-326.4(minor)20(-)]TJ T* [(ity)-294.4(populations.)-276.4(T)35(ranslating)-294.4(a)-294.4(test)-294.4(from)-294.4(English)-294.4(to)-294.4(Spanish)-294.4(or)-294.4(any)-294.4(other)-294.4(language)]TJ T* [(is)-274.9(not)-274.9(suf)18(cient.)-237.9(Y)100(o)0(u)-274.9(must)-274.9(demonstrate)-274.9(measurement)-274.9(equivalence)-274.9(across)-274.9(the)-274.9(rele-)]TJ T* [(vant)-283.4(dimensions)-283.4(of)-283.4(diversity)-283.4(pertinent)-283.4(to)-283.4(the)-283.4(proposed)-283.4(study)65(.)-265.4(This)-283.4(entails)-283.4(demon-)]TJ T* [(strating)-284.9(psychometric)-284.9(equivalence)-284.9(\(cf.)-284.9(Byrne,)-284.9(2006,)-284.9(pp.)-284.9(225260;)-284.9(Ghiselli,)-284.9(1964,)]TJ T* [(p.)-221.5(227;)-221.5(Ghiselli,)-221.5(Campbell,)-221.5(&)-221.5(Zedeck,)-221.5(1981,)-221.5(pp.)-221.5(192227;)-221.5(Honaker)40(,)-221.5(1988,)-221.5(p.)-221.5(562\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj > endobj 28 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(11)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 703.0657 Tm [(T)70(est)-305.1(means)-305.1(can)-305.1(be)-305.1(made)-305.1(equal)-305.1(by)-305.1(adding)-305.1(an)-305.1(appropriate)-305.1(constant.)-287.1(T)70(est)-305.1(variances)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(can)-292.8(be)-292.8(made)-292.8(equal)-292.8(using)-292.8(an)-292.8(equipercentile)-292.8(transformation.)-292.8(However)40(,)-292.8(i)0(n)-292.8(order)-292.8(for)]TJ T* [(tests)-334.1(to)-334.1(be)-334.1(psychometrically)-334.1(equivalent,)-334.1(correlations)-334.1(must)-334.1(be)-334.1(comparable.)-316.1(T)35(ryon)]TJ T* [(and)-404.3(Bernstein)-404.3(\(2002\))-404.3(discussed)-404.3(test)-404.3(reliability)65(,)-404.3(validity)65(,)-404.3(and)-404.3(phantom)-404.3(measure-)]TJ T* [(ments)-247.8(that)-247.8(occur)-247.8(when)-247.8(reliability)-247.8(estimates)-247.8(substantially)-247.8(exceed)-247.8(validity)-247.8(estimates)]TJ T* [(as)-308.1(they)-308.1(typically)-308.1(do.)-290.1(They)-308.1(also)-308.1(discussed)-308.1(other)-308.1(facets)-308.1(of)-308.1(psychometrics)-308.1(pertinent)]TJ T* [(to)-315.7(understanding)-315.7(measurement)-315.7(issues)-315.7(including)-315.7(the)-315.7(ef)18(fect)-315.7(of)-315.7(test)-315.7(length)-315.7(on)-315.7(relia-)]TJ T* [(bility)-263(\(Spearman-Brown)-263(formula\),)-263(developing)-263(operational)-263(denitions,)-263(methods)-263(of)]TJ T* [(collecting)-274.9(data)-274.9(\(interviews,)-274.9(questionnaires,)-274.9(behavioral)-274.9(observation,)-274.9(psychological)]TJ T* [(tests,)-251.8(and)-251.8(instruments\),)-251.8(units)-251.8(of)-251.8(measure,)-251.8(generalizability)-251.8(theory)65(,)-251.8(plus)-251.8(issues)-251.8(relat-)]TJ T* [(ing)-193.9(to)-193.9(the)-193.9(outcome)-193.9(measurement,)-193.9(particularly)-193.9(dif)18(ference)-193.9(scores.)-175.9(These)-193.9(concepts)-193.9(are)]TJ T* [(important)-160.1(to)-160.1(establishing)-160.1(a)-160.1(reliable)-160.1(and)-160.1(valid)-160.1(measurement)-160.1(base)-160.1(for)-160.1(clinical)-160.1(practice.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Cattell)-237.6(\(1890\))-237.6(coined)-237.6(the)-237.6(term)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.242 0 TD [(mental)-237.6(test)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.3486 0 TD [(.)-182.6(Anastasi)-237.6(and)-237.6(Urbina)-237.6(\(1997\))-237.6(reported)]TJ -17.6815 -1.1818 TD [(that)-227.4(Kraepelin,)-227.4(who)-227.4(worked)-227.4(for)-227.4(a)-227.4(while)-227.4(in)-209.4(W)40(undt)55(s)-227.4(lab,)-227.4(administered)-227.4(many)-227.4(tests)-227.4(to)]TJ T* [(psychiatric)-197.8(patients)-197.8(as)-197.8(part)-197.8(of)-197.8(his)-197.8(clinical)-197.8(examination)-197.8(and)-197.8(that)-197.8(Ebbinghaus)-197.8(admini-)]TJ T* [(stered)-212.9(tests)-212.9(of)-212.9(memory)65(,)-212.9(arithmetic)-212.9(computation,)-212.9(and)-212.9(sentence)-212.9(completion)-212.9(to)-212.9(school)]TJ T* [(children.)-303.5(Although)-358.5(the)-358.5(French)-358.5(physician)-358.5(Esquirol)-358.5(distinguished)-358.5(between)-358.5(mental)]TJ T* [(retardation)-284.1(and)-284.1(insanity)-284.1(in)-284.1(1838,)-284.1(it)-284.1(was)-284.1(not)-284.1(until)-284.1(1905)-284.1(that)-284.1(Binet)-284.1(and)-284.1(Simon)-284.1(pub-)]TJ T* [(lished)-311.5(the)-311.5(rst)-311.5(intelligence)-311.5(test)-311.5(that)-311.5(they)-311.5(subsequently)-311.5(revised)-311.5(in)-311.5(1908)-311.5(and)-311.5(191)37(1.)]TJ T* [(Goddard)-293.4(translated)-293.4(this)-293.4(test)-293.4(into)-293.4(English,)-293.4(introducing)-293.4(it)-293.4(in)-293.4(the)-293.4(United)-293.4(S)18(tates.)-275.4(T)70(e)0(r)20(-)]TJ T* [(man)-239.8(\(1916\),)-239.8(with)-239.8(colleagues,)-239.8(psychometrically)-239.8(rened)-239.8(this)-239.8(test)-239.8(and)-239.8(introduced)-239.8(the)]TJ T* [(intelligence)-341.3(quotient)-341.3(\(IQ\))-341.2(as)-341.3(a)-341.3(ratio)-341.3(of)-341.3(mental)-341.3(age)-341.3(to)-341.3(chronological)-341.3(age.)-341.3(Goode-)]TJ T* [(nough)-195.1(\(1949\))-195.1(provided)-195.1(a)-195.1(book)-195.1(length)-195.1(history)-195.1(of)-195.1(psychological)-195.1(testing.)-140.1(Anastasi)-195.1(and)]TJ T* [(Urbina)-245.5(\(1997\))-245.5(described)-245.5(the)-245.5(historical)-245.5(antecedents)-245.5(of)-245.5(modern)-245.5(testing)-245.5(as)-245.5(beginning)]TJ T* [(with)-241.5(Francis)-241.5(Galton,)-241.5(an)-241.5(English)-241.5(biologist,)-241.5(who)-241.5(measured)-241.5(individual)-241.5(dif)18(ferences)-241.5(of)]TJ T* [(related)-184.7(and)-184.7(unrelated)-184.7(persons)-184.7(to)-184.7(further)-184.7(his)-184.7(studies)-184.7(of)-184.7(human)-184.7(heredity)65(.)-184.7(H)0(e)-184.7(pioneered)]TJ T* [(rating-scale)-322(and)-322(questionnaire)-322(methods)-322(in)-322(addition)-322(to)-322(anthropometric)-322(and)-322(senso-)]TJ T* [(rimotor)-334.5(\(vision,)-334.5(hearing,)-334.5(muscle)-334.5(strength,)-334.5(reaction)-334.5(time,)-334.5(etc.\))-334.5(measurements.)-334.5(He)]TJ T* [(also)-281.2(pioneered)-281.2(statistical)-281.2(methods)-281.2(for)-281.2(describing)-281.2(these)-281.2(data)-281.2(that)-281.2(Karl)-281.2(Pearson,)-281.2(his)]TJ T* [(best-known)-250(student,)-250(extended)-250(into)-250(the)-250(now)-250(widely)-250(used)-250(correlation)-250(coef)18(cient.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Personality)-300.7(testing)-300.7(can)-300.7(be)-300.7(divided)-300.7(into)-300.7(four)-300.7(categories)-300.7(\(cf.)-245.7(Anastasi)-300.7(&)-300.7(Urbina,)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(1997,)-250(Part)-250(Four\):)]TJ 1.0909 -3.0252 TD [(1.)-381.8(Self-report)-414.6(inventories)-414.6(designed)-414.6(to)-414.6(measure)-414.6(personality)-414.6(traits)-414.6(such)-414.6(as)-414.6(the)]TJ 1.1318 -1.1818 TD [(Minnesota)-596.1(Multiphasic)-596.1(Personality)-596.1(Inventory)-596.1(\(MMPI\))-595.8(and)-596.1(its)-596.1(revision)]TJ T* [(\(MMPI-2\),)-343.7(the)-343.7(California)-343.7(Psychological)-343.7(Inventory)65(,)-343.7(the)-343.7(Sixteen)-343.7(Personality)]TJ T* [(Factor)-232.4(Questionnaire)-232.4(\(16PF\),)-232.4(Millon)-232.4(Clinical)-232.4(Multiaxial)-232.4(Inventory)65(,)-232.4(and)-464.8(Per)20(-)]TJ T* [(sonality)-250(Research)-250(Form)-250(\(PRF\).)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(2.)-326.8(A)-245.8(second)-300.9(category)-300.9(includes)-300.9(measures)-300.9(of)-300.9(interest)-300.9(and)-300.9(attitudes)-300.9(including)-300.9(the)]TJ 1.1318 -1.1818 TD [(S)18(trong)-250(Interest)-250(Inventory)-250(and)-250(the)-250(Kuder)-250(Occupational)-250(Interest)-250(Survey)65(.)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(3.)-381.8(Projective)-231.5(testing)-231.5(was)-231.5(introduced)-231.5(to)-176.5(America)-231.5(by)-231.5(Herman)-231.5(Rorschach)-231.5(in)-231.5(1921.)]TJ 1.1318 -1.1818 TD [(Five)-283.7(scoring)-283.7(systems)-283.7(were)-283.7(developed)-283.7(of)-283.7(which)-283.7(the)-283.7(Exner)-283.7(system)-283.7(is)-283.7(perhaps)]TJ T* [(the)-161.3(most)-161.3(well)-161.3(developed)-161.3(and)-161.3(currently)-161.3(used.)-161.3(Serious)-161.3(concerns)-161.3(emer)18(ged)-161.3(around)]TJ T* [(1995)-155.8(regarding)-155.8(the)-155.8(reliability)-155.8(and)-155.8(validity)-155.8(of)-155.8(the)-155.8(Rorschach,)-155.8(particularly)-155.8(as)-155.8(it)-155.8(is)]TJ T* [(used)-201.4(clinically)-201.4(\(Lilienfeld,)-183.4(W)80(ood,)-201.4(&)-201.4(Garb,)-201.4(2000\).)-183.4(The)-201.4(Society)-201.4(for)-201.4(Personality)]TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj > endobj 30 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(12)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 143.9949 703.0657 Tm [(Assessment)-223.3(\(2006\))-223.3(responded)-223.3(with)-223.3(a)-223.3(white)-223.3(paper)-223.3(regarding)-223.3(the)-223.3(current)-223.3(status)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(of)-250(the)-250(Rorschach)-250(in)-250(clinical)-250(and)-250(forensic)-250(practice.)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(4.)-363.8(The)-136(Thematic)-99(Apperception)-136(T)70(est)-153.9(was)-154(introduced)-154(by)-154(Murray)-154(\(1943\).)-154(Machover)]TJ 1.1318 -1.1818 TD [(\(1949\))-250(introduced)-250(the)-250(Draw-a-Person)-232(T)70(est.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 631.5568 Tm [(Methodology)-250(\(Experimental)-250(Design\))]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 612.1296 Tm [(How)-269.5(should)-269.5(practitioners)-269.5(proceed)-269.5(to)-269.5(use)-269.5(their)-269.5(data)-269.5(gathering)-269.5(device\(s\))-269.5(in)-269.5(order)-269.5(to)]TJ T* [(acquire)-199.9(clinically)-199.9(useful)-199.9(information)-199.9(or)-199.9(basic)-199.9(information)-199.9(on)-199.9(which)-199.9(to)-199.9(build)-199.9(a)-199.9(foun-)]TJ T* [(dation)-344.6(for)-344.6(clinical)-344.6(practice?)-344.6(Developing)-344.6(a)-344.6(reliable)-344.6(and)-344.6(valid)-344.6(means)-344.6(of)-344.6(acquiring)]TJ T* [(information)-331.1(is)-331.1(just)-331.1(the)-331.1(beginning)-331.1(of)-331.1(an)-331.1(ef)18(fort)-331.1(to)-331.1(construct)-331.1(a)-331.1(psychology)-331.1(that)-331.1(can)]TJ T* [(be)-255(used)-255(in)-255(an)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 5.5191 0 TD (ethical)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.977 0 TD [(clinical)-255(practice.)-255(It)-255(is)-255(important)-255(to)-255(emphasize)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.3103 0 TD (ethical)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.977 0 TD (clinical)Tj -29.7835 -1.1818 TD [(practice)-234.9(because)-234.9(it)-234.9(is)-234.9(possible)-234.9(to)-234.9(put)-234.9(any)-234.9(set)-234.9(of)-234.9(beliefs)-234.9(into)-234.9(clinical)-234.9(practice)-234.9(includ-)]TJ T* [(ing)-219.9(those)-219.9(that)-219.9(are)-219.9(inef)18(fective,)-219.9(unethical,)-219.9(and/or)-219.9(illegal.)-201.9(T)70(extbooks)-219.9(on)-219.9(psychological)]TJ T* [(ethics)-199.2(\(e.g.,)-199.2(Koocher)-199.2(&)-199.2(Keith-Spiegel,)-199.2(1998;)-199.2(Nagy)65(,)-199.2(2005\))-199.2(contain)-199.2(numerous)-199.2(exam-)]TJ T* [(ples)-278.7(of)-278.7(clinicians)-278.7(whose)-278.7(license)-278.7(to)-278.7(practice)-278.7(psychology)-278.7(and/or)-278.7(membership)-278.7(in)-278.7(the)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(American)-289.7(Psychological)-234.7(Association)-289.7(was)-289.7(revoked)-289.7(because)-289.7(of)-289.7(unethical)-289.7(practices.)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(It)-246.4(is)-246.5(notable)-246.5(that)-246.5(most,)-246.4(if)-246.5(not)-246.5(all,)-246.5(of)-246.5(these)-246.5(psychologists)-246.5(believed)-246.5(strongly)-246.5(that)-246.4(they)]TJ T* [(were)-278.7(acting)-278.7(in)-278.7(the)-278.7(client)55(s)-278.7(best)-278.7(interests)-278.7(and)-278.7(that)-278.7(the)-278.7(services)-278.7(they)-278.7(were)-278.7(provid-)]TJ T* [(ing)-268(were)-268(safe)-268(and)-268(ef)18(fective.)-268(Lilienfeld,)-268(L)55(ynn,)-268(and)-268(Lohr)-268(\(2003\))-268(discussed)-268(science)]TJ T* [(and)-341.5(pseudoscience)-341.5(in)-341.5(clinical)-341.5(psychology)-341.5(regarding)-341.5(assessment,)-341.5(diagnosis,)-341.5(and)]TJ T* [(psychotherapy)-226.8(including)-226.8(illusory)-226.8(correlation.)-226.8(Clearly)-226.8(personal)-226.8(conviction)-226.8(does)-226.8(not)]TJ T* [(always)-204(provide)-204(suf)18(cient)-204(grounds)-204(for)-204(ethical)-204(professional)-204(practice.)-204(Research)-204(meth-)]TJ T* [(ods)-274.2(were)-274.2(developed)-274.2(to)-274.2(facilitate)-274.2(drawing)-274.2(valid)-274.2(inferences)-274.2(and)-274.2(can)-274.2(be)-274.2(divided)-274.2(into)]TJ T* [(correlational)-250(and)-250(experimental)-250(designs.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(W)40(ith)-224.2(correlational)-224.2(methodology)65(,)-224.2(the)-224.2(practitioner)-224.2(measures)-224.2(all)-224.2(relevant)-224.2(variables)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(and)-338.7(then)-338.7(seeks)-338.7(to)-338.7(understand)-338.7(how)-338.7(they)-338.7(covary)65(.)-320.7(This)-338.7(process)-338.7(begins)-338.7(with)-338.7(simple)]TJ T* [(bivariate)-334.8(correlations.)-334.8(Partial)-334.8(correlations)-334.8(can)-334.8(statistically)-334.8(control)-334.8(for)-334.8(covariates.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-237.8(same)-237.8(can)-237.8(be)-237.8(done)-237.8(using)-237.8(hierarchical)-237.8(regression)-237.8(where)-237.8(the)-237.8(dependent)-237.8(variable,)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-331.9(variable)-331.9(being)-331.9(explained,)-331.9(is)-331.9(rst)-331.9(predicted)-331.9(using)-331.9(one)-331.9(or)-331.9(more)-331.9(covariates)-331.9(and)]TJ T* [(subsequently)-234.5(predicted)-234.5(by)-234.5(these)-234.5(covariates)-234.5(plus)-234.5(one)-234.5(or)-234.5(more)-234.5(explanatory)-234.5(variables)]TJ T* [(introduced)-289(one)-289(at)-289(a)-289(time)-289(or)-289(as)-289(a)-289(set)-289(to)-289(see)-289(if)-289(they)-289(enhance)-289(predictability)-289(over)-289(and)]TJ T* [(above)-365(the)-365(covariates.)-365(Factor)-365(analysis)-365(and)-365(principal)-365(components)-365(analysis)-365(can)-365(be)]TJ T* [(used)-259.6(to)-259.6(determine)-259.6(if)-259.6(fewer)-259.6(theoretical)-259.6(constructs)-259.6(than)-259.6(measurements)-259.6(is)-259.6(warranted.)]TJ T* [(S)18(tructural)-366.2(equation)-366.2(modeling)-366.2(can)-366.2(be)-366.2(used)-366.2(to)-366.2(assess)-366.2(how)-366.2(related)-366.2(two)-366.2(theoretical)]TJ T* [(constructs)-250(are.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(While)-310.3(variables)-310.3(that)-310.3(are)-310.3(causally)-310.3(related)-310.3(must)-310.3(be)-310.3(correlated,)-310.3(variables)-310.3(that)-310.3(are)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(correlated)-304.4(are)-304.4(not)-304.4(necessarily)-304.4(causally)-304.4(related.)-304.4(Casual)-304.4(inferences)-304.4(require)-304.4(true)-304.4(ex-)]TJ T* [(periments)-300.8(that)-300.8(consist)-300.8(of)-300.8(manipulation)-300.8(of)-300.8(the)-300.8(independent)-300.8(variable)-300.8(subsequent)-300.8(to)]TJ T* [(random)-264.7(assignment)-264.7(of)-264.7(participants)-264.7(to)-264.7(conditions.)-264.7(Experimental)-264.7(designs)-264.7(can)-264.7(be)-264.7(di-)]TJ T* [(vided)-235.1(into)-235.1(two)-235.1(categories:)-235.1(between)-235.1(subjects)-235.1(where)-235.1(dif)18(ferent)-235.1(people)-235.1(are)-235.1(assigned)-235.1(to)]TJ T* [(dif)18(ferent)-179.8(groups)-179.8(and)-179.8(within)-179.8(subjects)-179.8(\(repeated)-179.8(measures\))-179.8(where)-179.8(the)-179.8(same)-179.8(people)-179.8(are)]TJ T* [(studied)-307.2(under)-307.2(dif)18(ferent)-307.2(conditions.)-289.2(These)-307.2(two)-307.2(types)-307.2(of)-307.2(designs)-307.2(can)-307.2(be)-307.2(combined.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-211.5(simplest)-211.5(between-subjects)-211.5(design)-211.5(consists)-211.5(of)-211.5(one)-211.5(control)-211.5(group)-211.5(and)-211.5(one)-211.5(exper)20(-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(imental)-194.5(group)-194.5(that)-194.4(are)-194.5(matched)-194.5(on)-194.5(all)-194.4(relevant)-194.4(variables)-194.5(to)-194.5(begin)-194.5(with.)-176.4(This)-194.5(is)-194.5(either)]TJ T* [(done)-282.6(explicitly)-282.6(by)-282.6(measuring)-282.6(and)-282.6(matching)-282.6(on)-282.6(an)-282.6(individual)-282.6(or)-282.6(group)-282.6(basis)-282.6(or)-282.6(by)]TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj > endobj 32 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(13)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(random)-250.1(assignment,)-250.1(which)-250.1(if)-250.1(the)-250.1(sample)-250.1(sizes)-250.1(are)-250.1(lar)18(ge)-250.1(enough,)-250.1(ensures)-250.1(matching)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(on)-186.6(all)-186.6(variables.)-168.6(The)-186.6(experimental)-186.6(group)-186.6(is)-186.6(treated)-186.6(in)-186.6(one)-186.6(way)-186.6(that)-186.6(the)-186.6(control)-186.6(group)]TJ T* [(is)-318.2(not)-318.2(and,)-318.2(if)-318.2(the)-318.2(two)-318.2(groups)-318.2(dif)18(fer)-318.2(upon)-318.2(posttesting,)-318.2(then)-318.2(the)-318.2(one)-318.2(created)-318.2(dif)18(fer)20(-)]TJ T* [(ence)-274.1(must)-274.1(be)-274.1(the)-274.1(cause.)-256.1(This)-274.1(may)-274.1(be)-274.1(called)-274.1(reasoning)-274.1(by)-274.1(the)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 24.6272 0 TD [(principle)-274.1(of)-274.1(a)-274.1(single)]TJ -24.6272 -1.1818 TD [(dif)18(fer)37(ence)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.944 0 TD [(.)-322.4(Identication)-322.4(of)-322.4(a)-322.4(second,)-322.4(perhaps)-322.4(unintended,)-322.4(dif)18(ference)-322.4(results)-322.4(in)-322.4(a)]TJ -3.944 -1.1818 TD [(confounded)-279(experiment)-279(because)-279(you)-279(can)-279(no)-279(longer)-279(unambiguously)-279(draw)-279(a)-279(causal)]TJ T* [(inference.)-193.3(The)-211.3(results)-211.3(could)-211.3(be)-211.3(due)-211.3(to)-211.3(either)-211.3(one)-211.3(of)-211.3(the)-211.3(two)-211.3(variables)-211.3(and/or)-211.3(to)-211.3(their)]TJ T* [(interaction;)-250(three)-250(possibilities,)-250(not)-250(one)-250(of)-250(which)-250(can)-250(be)-250(eliminated.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(More)-318.3(complicated)-318.3(research)-318.3(designs)-318.3(are)-318.3(frequently)-318.3(used)-318.3(consisting)-318.3(of)-318.3(multiple)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(treatment)-205.8(and)-205.8(control)-205.8(groups.)-205.8(Frequently)65(,)-205.8(homogeneous)-205.8(clinical)-205.8(groups)-205.8(are)-205.8(studied)]TJ T* [(to)-358.1(determine)-358.1(if)-358.1(the)-358.1(intervention)-358.1(is)-358.1(ef)18(fective.)-358.1(Subsequent)-358.1(research)-358.1(demonstrating)]TJ T* [(generalizability)-385.7(over)-385.7(dimensions)-385.7(of)-385.7(diversity)-385.7(including)-385.7(comorbidity)65(,)-385.7(age,)-385.7(color)40(,)]TJ T* [(disabilities,)-281.3(ethnicity)65(,)-281.3(gender)40(,)-281.3(language,)-281.3(national)-281.3(origin,)-281.3(race,)-281.3(religion,)-281.3(sexual)-281.3(ori-)]TJ T* [(entation,)-224.5(and)-224.5(social)-224.5(economic)-224.5(status)-224.5(need)-224.5(to)-224.5(be)-224.5(conducted.)-206.5(This)-224.5(research)-224.5(has)-224.5(yet)-224.5(to)]TJ T* [(be)-250(conducted)-250(on)-250(most,)-250(if)-250(not)-250(all,)-250(contemporary)-250(psychological)-250(interventions.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Repeated)-336.2(measures)-336.2(designs)-336.2(can)-336.2(be)-336.2(conducted)-336.2(on)-336.2(groups)-336.2(of)-336.2(participants)-336.2(or)-336.2(on)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(individual)-203.6(clients)-203.6(one)-203.6(at)-203.6(a)-203.6(time.)-203.6(Such)-203.6(so-called)-203.6(single-subject)-203.6(experimental)-203.6(designs)]TJ T* [(entail)-303.3(manipulation)-303.3(and)-303.3(replication)-303.3(that)-303.3(enables)-303.3(conclusions)-303.3(regarding)-303.3(causation.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-395.9(more)-395.9(familiar)-340.9(ABAB)-395.7(design)-395.9(is)-395.9(appropriate)-395.9(only)-395.9(for)-395.9(behaviors)-395.9(that)-395.9(can)-395.9(be)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(reversed;)-349.9(that)-349.9(is,)-349.9(behaviors)-349.9(that)-349.9(can)-349.9(increase)-349.9(and)-349.9(decrease.)-349.9(Ethical)-349.9(concerns)-349.9(are)]TJ T* [(frequently)-234.6(raised)-234.6(when)-234.6(considering)-234.6(the)-234.6(reversal)-234.6(to)-234.6(pretreatment)-234.6(levels)-234.6(of)-234.6(problem-)]TJ T* [(atic)-286.3(or)-286.3(self-injurious)-286.3(behaviors.)-231.3(Alternate)-286.3(designs)-286.3(that)-286.3(do)-286.3(not)-286.3(involve)-286.3(reversal)-286.3(are)]TJ T* [(preferred)-250(in)-250(these)-250(situations)-250(\(cf.)-250(Richards,)-232(T)70(aylor)40(,)-250(Ramasamy)65(,)-250(&)-250(Richards,)-250(1996\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Most)-147.7(research)-147.7(designs)-147.7(require)-147.7(homogeneous)-147.7(groups)-147.7(of)-147.7(participants)-147.7(and)-147.7(can)-147.7(there-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(fore)-229.7(only)-229.7(be)-229.7(used)-229.7(by)-229.7(investigators)-229.7(with)-229.7(access)-229.7(to)-229.7(such)-229.7(a)-229.7(resource.)-229.7(Inferences)-229.7(based)]TJ T* [(on)-255.8(these)-255.8(group)-255.8(designs)-255.8(are)-255.8(typically)-255.8(limited)-255.8(to)-255.8(group)-255.8(averages.)-255.8(Clinical)-255.8(psycholo-)]TJ T* [(gists)-242.3(deal)-242.3(with)-242.3(individuals.)-242.3(Investigators)-242.3(infrequently)-242.3(report)-242.3(their)-242.3(ndings)-242.3(in)-242.3(ways)]TJ T* [(that)-230.5(enable)-230.5(clinicians)-230.5(to)-230.5(comprehend)-230.5(how)-230.5(they)-230.5(apply)-230.5(to)-230.5(individuals.)-230.5(Single)-230.5(subject)]TJ T* [(research)-327(designs)-327(are)-327(available)-327(that)-327(enable)-327(inferences)-327(to)-327(be)-327(made)-327(for)-327(individuals.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(These)-369.6(designs)-369.6(entail)-369.6(some)-369.6(form)-369.6(of)-369.6(replication)-369.6(to)-369.6(exclude)-369.6(alternative)-369.6(interpreta-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(tions)-303.6(of)-303.6(results.)-303.6(Replication)-303.6(over)-303.6(multiple)-303.6(participants)-303.6(adds)-303.6(further)-303.6(condence)-303.6(to)]TJ T* [(inferences)-250(drawn.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Freud)-214.4(relied)-214.4(on)-214.4(the)-428.8(Necessary)-214.4(Condition)-196.4(Thesis)-214.4(\(NCT)18(\))-214.4(i)0(n)-214.4(a)0(n)-214.4(attempt)-214.4(to)-214.4(conduct)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(informative)-377.6(empirical)-377.6(inquiry)-377.6(in)-377.6(the)-377.6(consulting)-377.6(room)-377.6(unencumbered)-377.6(by)-377.6(experi-)]TJ T* [(mental)-271.1(design)-271.1(restrictions)-271.1(\(Gr)]TJ 12.0619 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD [(unbaum,)-271.1(1984\).)-271.1(Freud)-271.1(theorized,)-271.1(as)-271.1(part)-271.1(of)-271.1(his)-271.1(talk-)]TJ -11.9784 -1.1818 TD [(ing)-176.9(cure,)-176.9(that)-176.9(making)-176.9(unconscious)-176.9(themes)-176.9(conscious)-176.9(through)-176.9(interpretation)-176.9(resulted)]TJ T* [(in)-309.3(clinical)-309.3(improvement.)-309.3(He)-309.3(believed)-309.3(that)-309.3(only)-309.3(correct)-309.3(interpretations)-309.3(resulted)-309.3(in)]TJ T* [(clinical)-195.7(improvement.)-195.7(Hence,)-195.7(clinical)-195.7(improvement)-195.7(subsequent)-195.7(to)-195.7(an)-195.7(interpretation)]TJ T* [(was)-342.9(evidence)-342.9(that)-342.9(the)-342.9(interpretation)-342.9(was)-342.9(correct.)-287.9(A)-287.8(lock-and-key)-342.9(type)-342.9(reasoning)]TJ T* [(was)-258.6(used)-258.6(where)-258.6(the)-258.6(symptom)-258.6(is)-258.6(the)-258.6(lock)-258.6(and)-258.6(interpretations)-258.6(are)-258.6(the)-258.6(keys.)-221.6(Y)100(o)0(u)-258.6(can)]TJ T* [(try)-233.2(each)-233.2(key)-233.2(in)-233.2(the)-233.2(lock)-233.2(without)-233.2(altering)-233.2(the)-233.2(lock.)-233.2(Only)-233.2(one)-233.2(key)-233.2(opens)-233.2(the)-233.2(lock.)-233.2(By)]TJ T* [(corollary)65(,)-245(the)-245(key)-245(that)-245(opens)-245(the)-245(lock)-245(is)-245(the)-245(correct)-245(one.)-227(T)35(reating)-245(interpretations)-245(as)]TJ T* [(keys,)-195.2(you)-195.2(can)-195.2(try)-195.2(out)-195.2(various)-195.2(interpretations)-195.2(without)-195.2(concern)-195.2(that)-195.2(you)-195.2(may)-195.2(be)-195.2(prim-)]TJ T* [(ing)-241.6(the)-241.6(patient)-241.6(through)-241.6(suggestion,)-241.6(thereby)-241.6(shaping)-241.6(their)-241.6(responses.)-241.6(Psychological)]TJ T* [(changes)-201(subsequent)-201(to)-201(providing)-201(an)-201(interpretation)-201(certify)-201(that)-201(interpretation)-201(as)-201(psy-)]TJ T* [(chologically)-313.2(correct.)-295.2(This)-313.2(approach)-313.2(rests)-313.2(on)-313.2(the)-313.2(assumption)-313.2(that)-313.2(only)-313.2(the)-313.2(correct)]TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj > endobj 34 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(14)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(psychodynamically)-331.2(formulated)-331.2(interpretation)-331.2(is)-331.2(able)-331.2(to)-331.2(produce)-331.2(change.)-331.2(Empiri-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(cal)-358.3(ndings)-358.3(regarding)-358.3(the)-358.3(clinical)-358.3(ef)18(fectiveness)-358.3(of)-358.3(behavior)-358.3(therapies,)-358.3(cognitive)]TJ T* [(therapies,)-286.3(cognitive)-286.3(behavior)-286.3(therapies,)-286.3(and)-286.3(interpersonal)-286.3(therapies)-286.3(contradict)-286.3(the)]TJ T* [(NCT)74(.)-243(Apparently)65(,)-298(multiple)-298(keys)-298(will)-298(open)-298(the)-298(lock.)-298(Hence,)-298(clinical)-298(improvement)]TJ T* [(outside)-228.3(the)-228.3(structure)-228.3(of)-228.3(an)-228.3(experimental)-228.3(design)-228.3(cannot)-228.3(certify)-228.3(that)-228.3(treatments)-228.3(work)]TJ T* [(or)-202.7(why)-202.7(they)-202.7(work)-202.7(or)-202.7(establish)-202.7(hypotheses)-202.7(concerning)-202.7(underlying)-202.7(psychopathology)65(.)]TJ T* [(Inferring)-284.4(psychopathology)-284.4(on)-284.4(the)-284.4(basis)-284.4(of)-284.4(therapeutic)-284.4(response)-284.4(is)-284.4(reasoning)-284.4(from)]TJ T* [(correlation)-226.9(and)-226.9(association,)-226.9(and)-226.9(suf)18(fers)-226.9(from)-226.9(all)-226.9(of)-226.9(the)-226.9(well-known)-226.9(logical)-226.9(aws)-226.9(in)]TJ T* [(doing)-250(so.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 573.4133 Tm [(Data)-250(Analysis)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 553.9862 Tm [(The)-307.3(theoretical)-307.3(nature)-307.3(of)-307.3(data)-307.3(analysis)-307.3(can)-307.3(be)-307.3(viewed)-307.3(in)-307.3(several)-307.3(ways.)-307.3(S)18(tatistical)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(methods)-191.7(can)-191.7(be)-191.7(understood)-191.7(as)-191.7(quantitatively)-191.7(reasoned)-191.7(ar)18(guments)-191.7(based)-191.7(on)-191.7(assump-)]TJ T* [(tions,)-270(like)-270(qualitatively)-270(reasoned)-270(\(ordinary\))-270(ar)18(guments)-270(are.)-252(V)60(iolating)-270(assumptions)]TJ T* [(can)-239.4(lead)-239.4(to)-239.4(inferential)-239.4(errors.)-239.4(One)-239.4(such)-239.4(assumption)-239.4(is)-239.4(that)-239.4(measurements)-239.4(are)-239.4(made)]TJ T* [(independent)-249.8(of)-249.8(each)-249.8(other)55(.)-231.8(V)60(iolation)-249.8(of)-249.8(this)-249.8(assumption)-249.8(can)-249.8(produce)-249.8(serious)-249.8(infer)20(-)]TJ T* 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[(tocorrelation)-230.9(and)-230.9(remove)-230.9(its)-230.9(ef)18(fects)-230.9(prior)-230.9(to)-230.9(analyzing)-230.9(for)-230.9(mean)-230.9(dif)18(ferences.)-212.9(While)]TJ T* [(some)-240.9(procedures)-240.9(are)-240.9(considered)-240.9(robust)-240.9(to)-240.9(violation)-240.9(of)-240.9(certain)-240.9(assumptions,)-240.9(for)-240.9(ex-)]TJ T* [(ample,)-215.9(that)-215.9(a)-215.9(trait)-215.9(is)-215.9(normally)-215.9(distributed)-215.9(in)-215.9(the)-215.9(population)-215.9(from)-215.9(which)-215.9(participants)]TJ T* [(have)-190.2(been)-190.2(sampled,)-190.2(violating)-190.2(the)-190.2(assumption)-190.2(of)-190.2(independence)-190.2(in)-190.2(small)-190.2(and)-190.2(samples)]TJ T* [(of)-165.6(unequal)-165.6(size)-165.6(and)-165.6(variance)-165.6(can)-165.6(lead)-165.6(to)-165.6(serious)-165.6(errors)-165.6(of)-165.6(inference.)-165.6(Establishing)-165.6(sta-)]TJ T* 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[(Data)-442(can)-442(be)-442(analyzed)-442(qualitatively)-442(as)-442(well)-442(as)-442(quantitatively)-442(\(Kvale,)-442(1996\).)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Ponterotto)-173.9(\(2005\))-173.9(addressed)-173.9(the)-173.9(philosophical,)-173.9(theoretical,)-173.9(basis)-173.9(of)-173.9(qualitative)-173.9(anal-)]TJ T* [(ysis.)-304.7(Haverkamp,)-304.7(Morrow)65(,)-304.7(and)-304.7(Ponterotto)-304.7(\(2005\))-304.7(introduced)-304.7(the)-304.7(four)-304.7(sections)-304.7(of)]TJ T* [(the)-248(special)-248(issue)-248(of)-248(the)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.2942 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-248(of)-248(Counseling)-248(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.9972 0 TD [(for)-248(2005,)-248(volume)-248(52,)-248(in)]TJ -23.2913 -1.1818 TD [(which)-190.5(a)-190.5(wide)-190.5(variety)-190.5(of)-190.5(qualitative)-190.5(methods)-190.5(were)-190.5(presented)-190.5(and)-190.5(discussed.)-190.5(Qualita-)]TJ T* [(tive)-226.5(methods)-226.5(in)-226.5(the)-226.5(form)-226.5(of)-226.5(focus)-226.5(groups)-226.5(can)-226.5(be)-226.5(the)-226.5(rst)-226.5(step)-226.5(in)-226.5(developing)-226.5(quanti-)]TJ T* [(tative)-205.7(outcome)-205.7(measures)-205.7(because)-205.7(they)-205.7(can)-205.7(reveal)-205.7(what)-205.7(constitutes)-205.7(a)-205.7(good)-205.7(outcome.)]TJ T* [(Notable)-306.5(parallels)-306.5(exist)-306.5(between)-306.5(qualitative)-306.5(methods)-306.5(and)-306.5(the)-306.5(goals)-306.5(and)-306.5(objectives)]TJ T* [(espoused)-220.2(by)-220.2(Rogers)-220.2(in)-220.2(his)-220.2(1955)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.7653 0 TD [(American)-220.2(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.4145 0 TD [(article)-220.2(entitled)-220.2(Persons)-220.2(or)]TJ -22.1798 -1.1818 TD [(Science?)-195(A)-195(Philosophical)-250(Question)-250(and)-250(his)-250(1961)-250(book)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.2771 0 TD [(On)-250(Becoming)-250(a)-250(P)80(er)10(son)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.2141 0 TD (.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 152.3541 Tm [(Inter)10(v)10(entions)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 132.9269 Tm [(Freedheim)-228.2(\(1992\))-228.2(published)-228.2(a)-228.2(book)-228.2(on)-228.2(the)-228.2(history)-228.2(of)-228.2(psychotherapy)65(.)-210.2(The)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.1735 0 TD (Encyclo-)Tj -29.1735 -1.1818 TD [(pedia)-152.9(of)-152.9(Psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.3719 0 TD [(by)-152.9(Hersen)-152.9(et)-152.9(al.)-152.9(\(2002\))-152.9(provides)-152.9(comprehensive)-152.9(coverage)-152.9(of)]TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj > endobj 36 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 37 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(15)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(psychological)-175.1(interventions.)-175.1(Eysenck)-175.1(\(1952\))-175.1(was)-175.1(the)-175.1(rst)-175.1(author)-175.1(to)-175.1(present)-175.1(data)-175.1(that)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(the)-251.1(ef)18(fectiveness)-251.1(of)-251.1(psychotherapy)-251.1(had)-251.1(yet)-251.1(to)-251.1(be)-251.1(demonstrated.)-233.1(That)-251.1(the)-251.1(ef)18(fective-)]TJ T* [(ness)-172.4(of)-172.4(psychotherapy)-172.4(needed)-172.4(to)-172.4(be)-172.4(demonstrated)-172.4(seemed)-172.4(to)-172.4(come)-172.4(as)-172.4(an)-172.4(unwelcome)]TJ T* [(surprise.)-144.9(Not)-144.9(all)-144.9(clinical)-144.9(psychologists)-144.9(were)-144.9(eager)-144.9(to)-144.9(empirically)-144.9(demonstrate)-144.9(the)-144.9(va-)]TJ T* [(lidity)-195.1(of)-195.1(their)-195.1(interventions.)-195.1(Some)-195.1(still)-195.1(continue)-195.1(to)-195.1(presume)-195.1(rather)-195.1(than)-195.1(demonstrate)]TJ T* [(ef)18(cacy)-308(\(under)-308(controlled)-308(conditions\))-308(and)-308(ef)18(fectiveness)-308(\(under)-308(real)-308(world)-308(condi-)]TJ T* [(tions\))-226.3(of)-226.3(their)-226.3(psychological)-226.3(interventions.)-226.3(Most)-226.3(empirical)-226.3(work)-226.3(on)-226.3(psychotherapy)]TJ T* [(outcome)-347.1(seeks)-347.1(to)-347.1(demonstrate)-347.1(ef)18(cacy)-347.1(and)-347.1(ef)18(fectiveness)-347.1(of)-347.1(psychological)-347.1(inter)20(-)]TJ T* [(ventions)-281(rather)-281(than)-281(examine)-281(the)-281(process)-281(by)-281(which)-281(good)-281(and)-281(bad)-281(outcomes)-281(arise.)]TJ T* [(Lambert,)-309.9(Shapiro,)-309.9(and)-309.9(Ber)18(gin)-309.9(\(1986\))-309.9(noted)-309.9(that)-309.9(as)-309.9(many)-309.9(as)-309.9(10%)-309.9(of)-309.9(clients)-309.9(dete-)]TJ T* [(riorate)-315(during)-315(psychotherapy)-315(and)-315(end)-315(up)-315(worse)-315(of)18(f)-315(than)-315(when)-315(they)-315(began.)-315(Mays)]TJ T* [(and)-376.6(Franks)-376.6(\(1985\))-376.6(edited)-376.6(a)-376.6(book)-376.6(on)-376.6(this)-376.6(issue)-376.6(but)-376.6(curiously)-376.6(little)-376.6(attention)-376.6(has)]TJ T* [(been)-203.6(given)-203.6(to)-203.6(this)-203.6(important)-203.6(matter)-203.6(since)-203.6(then.)-148.6(A)-148.5(list)-203.6(of)-203.6(empirically)-203.6(supported)-203.6(treat-)]TJ T* [(ments)-225.7(can)-225.7(be)-225.7(found)-225.7(at)-225.7(the)-225.7(following)-170.7(AP)92(A)-170.7(Division)-225.7(12)-225.7(Clinical)-225.7(Psychology)-225.7(website)]TJ T* [(\(www)65(.apa.or)18(g/divisions/div12/rev%5Fest/\).)-390.7(Books)-390.7(are)-390.7(available)-390.7(that)-390.7(summarize)]TJ T* [(empirically)-289.8(supported)-289.8(treatments)-289.8(with)-289.8(adults)-289.8(\(e.g.,)-289.8(Nathan)-289.8(&)-289.8(Gorman,)-289.8(2002\))-289.8(and)]TJ T* [(children)-226(\(e.g.,)-226(Ollendick)-226(&)-226(King,)-226(2004\).)-226(Rosen)-226(and)-226(Davison)-226(\(2003\))-226(recommended)]TJ T* [(that)-340.5(empirically)-340.5(supported)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.0205 0 TD (principles)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.3405 0 TD [(be)-340.5(listed)-340.5(rather)-340.5(than)-340.5(empirically)-340.5(supported)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -15.361 -1.1818 TD [(tr)37(eatments)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.4034 0 TD [(because)-218.4(adding)-218.4(an)-218.4(inert)-218.4(component)-218.4(to)-218.4(an)-218.4(already)-218.4(proven)-218.4(ef)18(fective)-218.4(treat-)]TJ -4.4034 -1.1818 TD [(ment)-237.7(means)-237.7(that)-237.7(the)-237.7(new)-237.7(treatment)-237.7(will)-237.7(pass)-237.7(all)-237.7(the)-237.7(same)-237.7(tests)-237.7(that)-237.7(were)-237.7(passed)-237.7(by)]TJ T* [(the)-183.8(original)-183.8(treatment.)-183.8(Proponents)-183.8(of)-183.8(the)-183.8(new)-183.8(therapy)-183.8(can)-183.8(identify)-183.8(the)-183.8(new)-183.8(elements)]TJ T* [(as)-329.2(therapeutic)-329.2(without)-329.2(any)-329.2(empirical)-329.2(justication)-329.2(for)-329.2(doing)-329.2(so)-329.2(because)-329.2(no)-329.2(incre-)]TJ T* 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[(supporting)-179.2(scientic)-179.2(inference)-179.2(\(see)-179.2(NCT)-161.1(above\).)-179.2(Freud)55(s)-179.2(seminal)-179.2(and)-179.2(revolutionary)]TJ T* [(ideas)-267.8(took)-267.8(the)-267.8(United)-267.8(S)18(tates)-267.8(by)-267.8(storm;)-267.8(a)-267.8(sort)-267.8(of)-267.8(big)-267.8(bang)-267.8(of)-267.8(psychotherapy)65(.)-249.8(The)]TJ T* [(rise)-250(of)-250(psychoanalysis)-250(is)-250(a)-250(major)-250(historical)-250(root)-250(of)-250(clinical)-250(psychology)65(.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Freud)-224.1(\(www)65(.allpsych.com/biographies/index.html\))-224.1(was)-224.1(trained)-224.1(as)-224.1(a)-224.1(neurologist)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(under)-143.3(Ernst)-143.3(Br)]TJ 5.7581 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD [(ucke,)-143.3(a)-143.3(physiology)-143.3(professor)40(,)-143.3(and)-143.3(began)-143.3(clinical)-143.3(practice)-143.3(as)-143.3(a)-143.3(nancial)]TJ -5.6746 -1.1818 TD [(necessity)-282.2(subsequent)-282.2(to)-282.2(his)-282.2(marriage)-282.2(to)-282.2(Minna)-282.2(Bernays)-282.2(in)-282.2(1886.)-282.2(R)40(ychlak)-282.2(\(1981a,)]TJ T* [(p.)-276.1(313\))-276.1(noted)-276.1(that)-276.1(Freud)-276.1(wasat)-276.1(besta)-276.1(reluctant)-276.1(therapist)-276.1(\(p.)-276.1(313\).)-221.1(Although)]TJ T* [(in)-226.1(1909)-226.1(he)-226.1(emphasized)-226.1(psychoanalysis)-226.1(as)-226.1(a)-226.1(therapeutic)-226.1(modality)65(,)-226.1(b)0(y)-226.1(the)-226.1(late)-226.1(1920s)]TJ T* [(Freud)-351.4(emphasized)-351.4(psychoanalysis)-351.4(as)-351.4(primarily)-351.4(a)-351.4(research)-351.4(tool)-351.4(\(R)40(ychlak,)-351.4(1981a,)]TJ T* [(pp.)-366.3(305306\).)-366.3(Freud)55(s)-366.3(deterministic)-366.3(developmental)-366.3(theory)-366.3(essentially)-366.3(precluded)]TJ T* [(personality)-239.9(change)-239.9(during)-239.9(adulthood)-239.9(or)-239.9(later)-239.9(life)-239.9(thereby)-239.9(making)-239.9(psychoanalysis)-239.9(a)]TJ T* [(method)-250(of)-250(inquiry)-250(rather)-250(than)-250(change.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Freud)-255.8(popularized,)-255.8(but)-255.8(did)-255.8(not)-255.8(coin)-255.8(the)-255.8(term)-255.8(talking)-255.8(cure.)-237.8(That)-255.8(honor)-255.8(goes)-255.8(to)]TJ -1.1459 -1.1818 TD [(Anna)-363(O.)-363(\(R)40(ychlak,)-363(1968,)-363(p.)-363(325\),)-363(the)-363(pseudonym)-363(used)-363(for)-363(Bertha)-363(Pappenheim,)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(a)-410.5(patient)-410.5(Josef)-410.5(Breuer)-410.5(began)-410.5(treating)-410.5(while)-410.5(Freud)-410.5(was)-410.5(still)-410.5(in)-410.5(medical)-410.5(school.)]TJ T* [(Breuer)-312.2(regressed)-257.2(Anna)-312.2(using)-312.2(hypnosis)-312.2(described)-312.2(by)-312.2(Charcot)-312.2(and)-312.2(discovered)-312.2(that)]TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj > endobj 39 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(16)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 703.0657 Tm [(Anna)-264.6(could)-264.6(recall)-264.6(the)-264.6(onset)-264.6(of)-264.6(each)-264.6(symptom)-264.6(and)-264.6(the)-264.6(strong)-264.6(emotion)-264.6(surrounding)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(these)-331.8(events)-331.8(that)-331.8(she)-331.8(could)-331.8(not)-331.8(ordinarily)-331.8(express.)-331.8(Breuer)-331.8(and)-331.8(Freud)-331.8(coauthored)]TJ /F3 1 Tf T* [(Studies)-259(on)-259(Hysteria)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.1101 0 TD [(in)-259(1895.)-259(Unfortunately)65(,)-259(these)-259(methods)-259(did)-259(not)-259(provide)-259(lasting)]TJ -8.1101 -1.1818 TD 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[(2006,)-213.8(Beck)-213.8(won)-213.8(the)-213.8(prestigious)-213.8(Lasker)-213.8(Clinical)-213.8(Research)-158.8(A)92(ward)-213.8(for)-213.8(his)-213.8(pioneering)]TJ T* [(work)-250(in)-250(cognitive)-250(therapy)65(.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 346.6254 Tm [(Cognitiv)15(e-Behavioral)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.2913 327.1983 Tm [(Although)-362.1(cognitive)-362.1(therapies)-362.1(did)-362.1(not)-362.1(repudiate)-362.1(behavioral)-362.1(therapies,)-362.1(neither)-362.1(did)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(they)-327.8(build)-327.8(directly)-327.8(upon)-327.8(them)-327.8(in)-327.8(an)-327.8(integrative)-327.8(way)65(.)-327.8(Cognitive)-327.8(therapy)-327.8(texts)-327.8(did)]TJ T* [(not)-366.7(start)-366.7(from)-366.7(or)-366.7(presume)-366.7(that)-366.7(the)-366.7(reader)-366.7(understood)-366.7(issues)-366.7(of)-366.7(behavioral)-366.7(diag-)]TJ T* [(nosis,)-284.5(reinforcer)-284.5(and)-284.5(contingency)-284.5(identication,)-284.5(and)-284.5(principles)-284.5(of)-284.5(operant)-284.5(and)-284.5(re-)]TJ T* [(spondent)-408.9(conditioning.)-408.9(Rather)40(,)-408.9(they)-408.9(presumed)-408.9(learning)-408.9(and)-408.9(discussed)-408.9(informa-)]TJ T* [(tion)-408.1(processing,)-408.1(its)-408.1(cognitive)-408.1(distortions,)-408.1(and)-408.1(new)-408.1(treatment)-408.1(methods)-408.1(designed)]TJ T* [(to)-427.7(detect)-427.7(and)-427.7(correct)-427.7(cognitive)-427.7(problems.)-427.7(Ellis)-427.7(rst)-427.7(introduced)-427.7(what)-427.7(he)-427.7(called)]TJ T* [(rational)-296.6(therapy)-296.6(in)-296.6(1955,)-296.6(expanded)-296.6(it)-296.6(to)-296.6(rational)-296.6(emotive)-296.6(psychotherapy)65(,)-296.6(and)-296.6(fur)20(-)]TJ T* [(ther)-411.5(expanded)-411.5(it)-411.5(to)-411.5(rational)-411.5(emotive)-411.5(behavior)-411.5(therapy)-411.5(\(REBT)18(\))-411.3(i)0(n)-411.5(1993)-411.5(\(http://)]TJ T* (rebt-cbt.net/My)Tj ET 0.398 w 188.034 210.835 m 191.322 210.835 l S BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 192.3182 210.6355 Tm (Homepage)Tj ET 240.45 210.835 m 243.738 210.835 l S BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 244.7339 210.6355 Tm [(Files/Page2.html;)-244.1(Ellis,)-244.1(1994,)-244.1(pp.)-244.1(46,)-244.1(173174\).)-244.1(Ellis)]TJ -11.4829 -1.1818 TD [(\(1958\))-242.8(was)-242.8(among)-242.8(the)-242.8(rst)-242.8(to)-242.8(emphasize)-242.8(the)-242.8(role)-242.8(of)-242.8(cognitive)-242.8(therapy)-242.8(in)-242.8(treating)-242.8(a)]TJ T* [(broad)-153.9(range)-153.9(of)-153.9(psychological)-153.9(problems.)-153.9(He)-153.9(explicitly)-153.9(connected)-153.9(reason)-153.9(and)-153.9(emotion)]TJ T* [(in)-309.1(his)-309.1(1962)-309.1(book)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.1815 0 TD [(Reason)-309.1(and)-309.1(Emotion)-309.1(in)-309.1(Psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.7606 0 TD [(.)-309.1(Lazarus)-309.1(\(1976\))-309.1(formu-)]TJ -22.9421 -1.1818 TD [(lated)-223(multimodal)-223(therapy)-223(to)-223(deal)-223(with)-223(the)-223(rich)-223(complexities)-223(of)-223(clinical)-223(practice)-223(and)]TJ T* [(to)-316.8(include)-316.8(a)-316.8(role)-316.8(for)-316.8(medication.)-316.8(Linehan)-316.8(\(1993\))-316.8(developed)-633.5(dialectical)-316.7(behavior)]TJ T* [(therapy)-323.2(\(DBT\))-323.2(by)-323.2(combining)-323.2(elements)-323.2(of)-323.2(cognitive)-323.2(and)-323.2(behavioral)-323.2(therapy)-323.2(with)]TJ T* [(aspects)-306.5(of)-306.5(philosophy)-306.5(and)-306.5(psychoanalytic)-306.5(theory)-306.5(to)-306.5(treat)-306.5(persons)-306.5(with)-306.5(borderline)]TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 49 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(20)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(personality)-592.6(disorder)55(.)-592.6(Cognitive-behavioral)-592.6(therapy)-592.6(was)-592.6(extended)-592.6(to)-592.6(families)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(\(Epstein,)-250(Schlesinger)40(,)-250(&)-250(Dryden,)-250(1988\).)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 662.861 Tm [(Acceptance)-250(and)-250(Commitment)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 643.4338 Tm [(Acceptance)-344.7(and)-344.7(commitment)-344.7(therapy)-344.7(\()55(ACT)18(\))-344.6(was)-344.7(developed)-344.7(by)-344.7(Hayes,)-344.7(S)18(trosahl,)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(and)-284(W)40(ilson)-302(\(1999\))-302(and)-302(can)-302(be)-302(understood)-302(as)-302(an)-302(extension)-302(of)-302(DBT)-284(in)-302(that)-302(it)-302(aug-)]TJ T* [(ments)-258.1(cognitive)-258.1(therapy)-258.1(with)-258.1(Eastern)-258.1(philosophy)65(.)-203.1(ACT)-240.1(dif)18(fers)-258.1(from)-258.1(cognitive)-258.1(and)]TJ T* [(behavioral)-202.5(therapies)-202.5(in)-202.5(that)-202.5(it)-202.5(is)-202.5(not)-202.4(aimed)-202.5(directly)-202.5(at)-202.4(change.)-202.4(Ef)18(forts)-202.4(to)-202.4(make)-202.4(direct)]TJ T* [(changes)-274.6(are)-274.6(seen)-274.6(as)-274.6(part)-274.6(of)-274.6(the)-274.6(problem.)-274.6(Instead,)-274.6(acceptance)-274.6(of)-274.6(one)55(s)-274.6(condition)-274.6(is)]TJ T* [(necessary)-148.9(for)-148.9(change)-148.9(to)-148.9(take)-148.9(place.)-148.9(ODonohue,)-148.9(Fisher)40(,)-148.9(and)-148.9(Hayes)-148.9(\(2003\))-148.9(developed)]TJ T* [(a)-250(clinician)55(s)-250(guide)-250(for)-250(conducting)-195(ACT)74(.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 538.4721 Tm [(Social)-250(Learning)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 519.045 Tm [(Patterson)-226.1(and)-226.1(his)-226.1(colleagues)-226.1(at)-226.1(the)-226.1(Oregon)-226.1(Social)-226.1(Learning)-226.1(Center)-226.1(\(www)65(.oslc.or)18(g\))]TJ T* [(pioneered)-504.1(parent)-252(management)-252(training)-252(\(PMT)18(\).)-234(Their)-252(social)-252(learning)-252(theory)-252(based)]TJ T* [(research)-384.8(and)-384.8(clinical)-384.8(treatment)-384.8(center)-384.8(observed,)-384.8(coded,)-384.8(and)-384.8(analyzed)-384.8(child)-384.8(and)]TJ T* [(parent)-246.1(behaviors)-246.1(at)-246.1(home)-246.1(and)-246.1(school.)-191.1(A)-191.1(coercive)-246.1(family)-246.1(process)-246.1(was)-246.1(discovered)]TJ T* [(to)-276.4(be)-276.4(a)-276.4(core)-276.4(cause)-276.4(of)-276.4(male)-276.4(delinquent)-276.4(behavior)-276.4(\(Patterson,)-276.4(1982,)-276.4(1986;)-276.4(Patterson,)]TJ T* [(Dishon,)-194.3(&)-194.3(Chamberlain,)-194.3(1993\).)-194.3(Kazdin)-194.3(\(2002\))-194.3(noted)-194.3(that)-194.3(PMT)-176.2(is)-194.3(the)-194.3(only)-194.3(indepen-)]TJ T* [(dently)-192.7(replicated,)-192.7(empirically)-192.7(supported)-192.7(treatment)-192.7(for)-192.7(conduct)-192.7(disorder)-192.7(\(cf.)-192.7(Brestan)]TJ T* [(&)-263.2(Eyber)18(g,)-263.2(1998\).)-245.2(The)-263.2(OSLC)-263.2(web)-263.2(page)-263.2(provides)-263.2(access)-263.2(to)-263.2(an)-263.2(extensive)-263.2(bibliogra-)]TJ T* [(phy)-237.3(of)-237.3(their)-237.3(evidence-based)-237.3(interventions.)-237.3(Granic)-237.3(and)-237.3(Patterson)-237.3(\(2006\))-237.3(provided)-237.3(a)]TJ T* [(comprehensive)-219.6(social)-219.6(learning-dynamic)-219.6(systems)-219.6(model)-219.6(of)-219.6(antisocial)-219.6(development.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 375.2289 Tm [(Sc)10(hema-F)70(ocused)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 355.8017 Tm [(Schemas)-290.2(are)-290.2(understood)-290.2(to)-290.2(be)-290.2(cognitive)-290.2(structures)-290.2(that)-290.2(characterize)-290.2(and)-290.2(facilitate)]TJ T* [(information)-215.8(processing.)-197.8(They)-215.8(help)-215.8(us)-215.8(or)18(ganize)-215.8(and)-215.8(understand)-215.8(our)-215.8(world.)-215.8(Persona-)]TJ T* [(lity)-155.9(traits)-155.9(can)-155.9(be)-155.9(thought)-155.9(of)-155.9(as)-155.9(enduring)-155.9(ways)-155.9(that)-155.9(people)-155.9(or)18(ganize)-155.9(thoughts,)-155.9(feelings,)]TJ T* [(and)-169.9(behaviors.)-169.9(J.)-132.9(Y)100(oung)-169.9(\(1990\))-169.9(introduced)-169.9(schema-focused)-169.9(therapy)-169.9(as)-169.9(a)-169.9(way)-169.9(to)-169.9(treat)]TJ T* [(people)-238.1(with)-238.1(personality)-238.1(disorders.)-238.1(He)-238.1(noticed)-238.1(and)-238.1(named)-238.1(what)-238.1(he)-238.1(refers)-238.1(to)-238.1(as)-238.1(mal-)]TJ T* [(adaptive)-198.2(schemas)-198.2(that)-198.2(are)-198.2(listed)-198.2(and)-198.2(dened)-198.2(at)-198.2(www)65(.schematherapy)65(.com/id73.htm.)]TJ T* [(McGinn)-250(and)-213(Y)100(oung)-250(\(1996\))-250(devote)-250(a)-250(chapter)-250(to)-250(this)-250(therapy)65(.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 250.84 Tm [(Interpersonal)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 231.4128 Tm [(Klerman)-223.4(\(1984\))-223.4(developed)-223.4(the)-223.4(interpersonal)-223.4(therapy)-223.4(of)-223.4(depression)-223.4(based)-223.4(on)-223.4(a)-223.4(psy-)]TJ T* [(choanalytic)-362(understanding)-362(of)-362(grief)-362(and)-362(loss.)-307(Additional)-362(information)-362(is)-362(available)]TJ T* [(at)-759.4(www)65(.interpersonalpsychotherapy)65(.or)18(g/index.html)-759.4(and)-759.4(www)65(.med.umich.edu/)]TJ T* (depression/ipt.htm.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 165.3053 Tm [(Netw)15(ork)-250(Processing)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 145.8782 Tm [(Informal)-251.3(network)-251.3(theories)-251.3(were)-251.3(introduced)-251.3(to)-251.3(advance)-251.3(an)-251.3(understanding)-251.3(of)-251.3(cogni-)]TJ T* [(tive)-215.7(and)-215.7(emotional)-215.7(processes)-215.7(and)-215.7(their)-215.7(interaction.)-215.7(Foa)-215.7(and)-215.7(Kozak)-215.7(\(1986\))-215.7(hypothe-)]TJ T* [(sized)-157.8(fear)-157.8(structures)-157.8(consisting)-157.8(of)-157.8(a)-157.8(network)-157.8(of)-157.8(perceptual,)-157.8(cognitive,)-157.8(and)-157.8(behavioral)]TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj > endobj 51 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(21)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(tendencies.)-290.3(Foa,)-290.3(S)18(teketee,)-290.3(and)-290.3(Rothbaum)-290.3(\(1989\))-290.3(hypothesized)-290.3(that)-290.3(fear)-290.3(networks)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(vary)-332.3(in)-332.3(size,)-332.3(structure)-332.3(\(interconnectedness\),)-332.3(and)-332.3(accessibility)65(.)-332.3(Chemtob,)-332.3(Roiblat,)]TJ T* [(Hamada,)-229.4(Carlson,)-229.4(and)-211.4(T)70(wentyman)-229.4(\(1988\))-229.4(discussed)-229.4(a)-229.4(four)20(-level)-229.4(cognitive)-229.4(schema)]TJ T* [(network)-312.2(wherein)-312.2(activation)-312.2(at)-312.2(one)-312.2(level)-312.2(inuenced)-312.2(all)-312.2(others)-312.2(through)-312.2(spreading)]TJ T* [(activation)-362.3(thereby)-362.3(interrelating)-362.3(thoughts,)-362.3(feelings,)-362.3(and)-362.3(actions.)-362.3(Foa)-362.3(and)-362.3(Kozak)]TJ T* [(\(1986\))-348.7(and)-348.7(Rachman)-348.7(\(1980,)-348.7(1990\))-348.7(developed)-348.7(emotional)-348.7(processing)-348.7(therapies.)]TJ T* [(Creamer)40(,)-220.3(Bur)18(gess,)-220.3(and)-220.3(Pattison)-220.3(\(1992\))-220.3(discussed)-220.3(network)-220.3(resolution)-220.3(processing.)]TJ T* [(Interventions)-359.5(based)-359.5(on)-359.5(fear)-359.5(network)-359.5(reprocessing)-359.5(currently)-359.5(form)-359.5(the)-359.5(contempo-)]TJ T* [(rary)-233.4(basis)-233.4(for)-233.4(treating)-233.4(Posttraumatic)-233.4(S)18(tress)-233.4(Disorder)-233.4(\(PTSD\))-233.4(and)-233.4(related)-233.4(disorders.)]TJ T* [(Formal)-344.3(network)-344.3(theories)-344.3(are)-344.3(mentioned)-344.3(in)-344.3(the)-344.3(mechanism)-344.3(of)-344.3(action)-344.3(section)-344.3(that)]TJ T* (follows.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 541.0348 Tm [(Other)-250(Therapies)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 521.6077 Tm [(The)-372.7(interventions)-372.7(mentioned)-372.7(are)-372.7(but)-372.7(a)-372.7(sampling)-372.7(of)-372.7(the)-372.7(more)-372.7(popular)-372.7(and)-372.7(well-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(established)-324(psychological)-324(therapies.)-306(W)80(ampold)-324(reported)-324(that)-324(There)-324(are)-324(over)-324(250)]TJ T* [(distinct)-208.1(psychotherapeutic)-208.1(approaches,)-208.1(which)-208.1(are)-208.1(described,)-208.1(in)-208.1(one)-208.1(way)-208.1(or)-208.1(another)40(,)]TJ T* [(in)-323.3(over)-323.3(10,000)-323.3(books)-323.3(\(2001,)-323.3(p.)-323.3(1\).)-305.3(The)-323.3(term)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.8339 0 TD (distinct)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.2683 0 TD [(has)-323.3(a)-323.3(clinically)-323.3(trivial)-323.3(and)]TJ -22.1022 -1.1818 TD [(important)-337.6(meaning.)-337.6(Rosen)-337.6(and)-337.6(Davison)55(s)-337.6(\(2003\))-337.6(Purple)-337.6(Hat)-337.6(therapies)-337.6(capture)]TJ T* [(the)-300.5(trivial)-300.5(meaning,)-300.5(referring)-300.5(to)-300.5(new)-300.5(therapies)-300.5(that)-300.4(add)-300.4(an)-300.4(inert)-300.4(element)-300.4(to)-300.4(an)-300.5(al-)]TJ T* [(ready)-320.2(proven)-320.2(ef)18(fective)-320.2(intervention.)-302.2(Their)-320.2(example)-320.2(was)-320.2(having)-320.2(the)-320.2(client)-320.2(wear)-320.2(a)]TJ T* [(purple)-244.1(hat)-244.1(during)-244.1(exposure)-244.1(therapy)65(.)-244.1(Such)-244.1(an)-244.1(approach)-244.1(is)-244.1(distinct,)-244.1(but)-244.1(scientically)]TJ T* [(trivial.)-318.2(However)40(,)-318.2(controlled)-318.2(research)-318.2(will)-318.2(nd)-318.2(such)-318.2(variations)-318.2(of)-318.2(therapies)-318.2(ef)18(fec-)]TJ T* [(tive)-243.9(because)-243.9(of)-243.9(the)-243.9(ef)18(fective)-243.9(treatment)-243.9(on)-243.9(which)-243.9(they)-243.9(are)-243.9(based.)-188.9(Advocates)-243.9(of)-243.9(new)]TJ T* [(therapies)-201(need)-201(to)-201(demonstrate)-201(the)-201(incremental)-201(validity)-201(of)-201(proposed)-201(additional)-201(com-)]TJ T* [(ponents.)-102.4(Alternatively)65(,)-157.4(Rosen)-157.4(and)-157.4(Davison)-157.4(recommend)-157.4(that)-157.4(we)-157.4(focus)-157.4(on)-157.4(empirically)]TJ T* [(supported)-301(principles)-301(of)-301(change)-301(rather)-301(than)-301(on)-301(listing)-301(empirically)-301(supported)-301(treat-)]TJ T* [(ments)-302(in)-302(order)-302(to)-302(avoid)-302(endorsing)-302(purple)-302(hat)-302(therapies.)-246.9(A)-246.9(therapy)-302(that)-302(employs)-302(a)]TJ T* [(new)-258.5(principle)-258.5(of)-258.5(change)-258.5(exemplies)-258.5(the)-258.5(clinically)-258.5(important)-258.5(meaning)-258.5(of)-258.5(the)-258.5(word)]TJ T* (distinctive.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 294.8197 Tm [(Common)-250(F)25(actors)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 275.3925 Tm [(W)80(ampold)55(s)-166.4(\(2001\))-166.4(interpretation)-166.4(of)-166.4(the)-166.4(meta-analytic)-166.4(evidence)-166.4(published)-166.4(by)-166.4(Lipsey)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(and)-254.3(W)40(ilson)-272.3(\(1993\))-272.3(regarding)-272.3(the)-272.3(empirical)-272.3(ef)18(fectiveness)-272.3(of)-272.3(psychological,)-272.3(educa-)]TJ T* [(tional,)-199.6(and)-199.6(behavioral)-199.6(treatments)-199.6(and)-199.6(his)-199.6(own)-199.6(meta)-199.6(analysis)-199.6(\(W)80(ampold)-199.6(et)-199.6(al.,)-199.6(1997\))]TJ T* [(of)-343.4(bona)-343.4(de)-343.4(psychotherapies)-343.4(was)-343.4(that)-343.4(factors)-343.4(common)-343.4(to)-343.4(all)-343.4(treatments)-343.4(may)-343.4(be)]TJ T* [(responsible)-313.5(for)-313.5(the)-313.5(ef)18(fectiveness)-313.5(of)-313.5(such)-313.5(a)-313.5(diverse)-313.5(set)-313.5(of)-313.5(interventions.)-313.5(Grencav-)]TJ T* [(age)-303.9(and)-303.9(Norcross)-303.9(\(1990\))-303.9(identied)-303.9(the)-303.9(following)-303.9(ve)-303.9(common)-303.9(factors:)-303.9(\(1\))-303.9(client)]TJ T* [(characteristics)-323.4(such)-323.4(as)-323.4(positive)-323.4(expectation)-323.4(of)-323.4(change)-323.4(and)-323.4(actively)-323.4(seeking)-323.4(help;)]TJ T* [(\(2\))-233.6(therapist)-233.6(qualities)-233.6(such)-233.6(as)-233.6(warmth,)-233.6(acceptance,)-233.6(and)-233.6(positive)-233.6(regard;)-233.6(\(3\))-233.6(general)]TJ T* [(features)-359.4(of)-359.4(the)-359.4(change)-359.4(process)-359.4(including)-359.4(an)-359.4(opportunity)-359.4(for)-359.4(catharsis,)-359.4(provision)]TJ T* [(of)-295.2(a)-295.2(therapeutic)-295.2(rationale,)-295.2(and)-295.2(the)-295.2(practice)-295.2(of)-295.2(new)-295.2(behaviors;)-295.2(\(4\))-295.2(treatment)-295.2(struc-)]TJ T* [(tures)-197.9(including)-197.9(specic)-197.9(techniques,)-197.9(rituals,)-197.9(that)-197.9(according)-197.9(to)-197.9(theory)-197.9(are)-197.9(predicted)-197.9(to)]TJ T* [(work;)-278.8(and)-278.8(\(5\))-278.8(relationship)-278.8(elements)-278.8(including)-278.8(the)-278.8(establishment)-278.8(and)-278.8(maintenance)]TJ T* [(of)-250(a)-250(working)-250(alliance.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj > endobj 53 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(22)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 702.2198 Tm [(Mec)10(hanism)-250(of)-250(Action)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 682.7927 Tm [(How)-305.1(do)-305.1(common)-305.1(and)-305.1(specic)-305.1(factors)-305.1(exert)-305.1(their)-305.1(ef)18(fects?)-287.1(What)-305.1(is/are)-305.1(the)-305.1(mecha-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(nism\(s\))-223.4(by)-223.4(which)-223.4(people)-223.4(change?)-168.4(Action)-223.4(mechanism)-223.4(frequently)-223.4(means)-223.4(component)]TJ T* [(analysis.)-313.4(For)-313.4(example,)-313.4(the)-313.4(article)-313.4(by)-313.4(DeRubeis)-313.4(et)-313.4(al.)-313.4(\(1990\))-313.4(entitled)-313.4(How)-313.4(Does)]TJ T* [(Cognitive)-285.7(Therapy)-285.7(W)80(ork?)-303.7(Cognitive)-303.7(Change)-303.7(and)-303.7(Symptom)-303.7(Change)-303.7(in)-303.7(Cognitive)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(Therapy)-336.7(and)-336.7(Pharmacotherapy)-336.7(for)-336.7(Depression)-336.7(does)-336.7(not)-336.7(provide)-336.7(mechanism)-336.7(in-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(formation)-227.2(regarding)-227.2(how)-227.2(cognitive)-227.2(therapy)-227.2(or)-227.2(pharmacotherapy)-227.2(changes)-227.2(thoughts,)]TJ T* [(feelings,)-329(or)-329(behaviors.)-329(Persons)-329(\(2005\))-329(description)-329(of)-329(mechanisms)-329(is)-329(limited)-329(to)-329(a)]TJ T* [(box-and-arrow)-295.2(diagram)-295.2(interrelating)-295.2(cognitions,)-295.2(behaviors,)-295.2(moods,)-295.2(schemas,)-295.2(and)]TJ T* [(events)-232.4(but)-232.4(does)-232.4(not)-232.4(provide)-232.4(causal)-232.4(mechanism)-232.4(details)-232.4(regarding)-232.4(how)-232.4(each)-232.4(of)-232.4(these)]TJ T* [(domains)-245.9(inuence)-245.9(the)-245.9(others.)-245.9(Brent)-245.9(and)-245.9(Kolko)-245.9(\(1998\))-245.9(included)-245.9(the)-245.9(phrase)-245.9(mech-)]TJ T* [(anisms)-329.4(of)-329.4(action)-329.4(in)-329.4(their)-329.4(title)-329.4(but)-329.4(failed)-329.4(to)-329.4(provide)-329.4(any)-329.4(mechanism)-329.4(information)]TJ T* [(for)-289.8(how)-289.8(covariation)-289.8(among)-289.8(the)-289.8(components)-289.8(identied)-289.8(in)-289.8(their)-289.8(schematic)-289.8(diagram)]TJ T* [(occurred)-294.9(or)-294.9(why)-294.9(any)-294.9(of)-294.9(the)-294.9(implied)-294.9(relationships)-294.9(occurred)-294.9(in)-294.9(the)-294.9(ways)-294.9(indicated.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-364.8(rst)-364.8(dialogue)-364.8(of)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8471 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-364.8(Ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.6886 0 TD [(by)-364.8(Grawe)-364.8(\(2002\))-364.8(is)-364.8(entitled)-364.8(How)]TJ -18.5176 -1.1818 TD [(Does)-233.8(Psychotherapy)-178.8(Achieve)-233.8(Its)-233.8(Ef)18(fects?)-215.8(The)-233.8(following)-233.8(mechanisms)-233.8(were)-233.8(dis-)]TJ T* [(cussed:)-146.1(\(a\))-146.1(change)-146.1(of)-146.1(expectations)-146.1(as)-146.1(a)-146.1(general)-146.1(change)-146.1(mechanism)-146.1(in)-146.1(psychotherapy)65(,)]TJ T* [(\(b\))-310(expectation)-310(induction,)-310(\(c\))-310(resource)-310(activation,)-310(\(d\))-310(activation)-310(and)-310(deactivation)]TJ T* [(of)-273.5(intentions,)-273.5(\(e\))-273.5(formation)-273.5(and)-273.5(realization)-273.5(of)-273.5(intentions,)-273.5(and)-273.5(\(f\))-273.5(intention)-273.5(modi-)]TJ T* [(cation.)-292.7(No)-292.7(causal)-292.7(mechanism)-292.7(information)-292.7(was)-292.7(provided)-292.7(for)-292.7(how)-292.7(these)-292.7(functional)]TJ T* [(ef)18(fects)-285.7(are)-285.7(realized.)-285.7(In)-285.7(sum,)-285.7(all)-285.7(so-called)-285.7(mechanism)-285.7(explanations)-285.7(located)-285.7(to)-285.7(date)]TJ T* [(have)-242(consisted)-242(of)-242(box-and-arrow)-242(diagrams)-242(where)-242(the)-242(boxes)-242(identied)-242(psychologi-)]TJ T* [(cal)-233.3(components)-233.3(such)-233.3(as)-233.3(thoughts,)-233.3(feelings,)-233.3(and)-233.3(behaviors)-233.3(and)-233.3(the)-233.3(arrows)-233.3(indicated)]TJ T* [(covariation)-202.8(among)-202.8(these)-202.8(components)-202.8(without)-202.8(providing)-202.8(any)-202.8(details)-202.8(as)-202.8(to)-202.8(how)-202.8(these)]TJ T* [(relationships)-252.4(could)-252.4(occur)-252.4(or)-252.4(do)-252.4(in)-252.4(fact)-252.4(occur)55(.)-504.8(S)18(timulus-Response)-252.4(\(S-R\))-252.4(psycholo-)]TJ T* [(gists)-598(were)-598(criticized)-598(for)-598(their)-598(so-called)-598(black-box)-598(approach)-598(to)-598(psychology)65(.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-421.9(absence)-421.9(of)-421.9(mechanism)-421.9(information)-421.9(authorizes)-421.9(us)-421.9(to)-421.9(refer)-421.9(to)-421.9(the)-421.9(box-and-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(arrow)-378.6(diagrams)-378.6(just)-378.6(mentioned)-378.6(as)-378.6(black-box-and-arrow)-378.6(diagrams.)-323.6(Alternatively)]TJ T* [(stated,)-401.3(the)-401.3(black-box)-401.3(problem)-401.3(is)-401.3(seemingly)-401.3(solved)-401.3(by)-401.3(a)-401.3(set)-401.3(of)-401.3(smaller)-401.3(black)]TJ T* (boxes.)Tj 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(What)-260.4(language)-260.4(shall)-260.4(we)-260.4(use)-260.4(to)-260.4(describe)-260.4(psychological)-260.4(mechanisms?)-260.4(How)-260.4(shall)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(we)-222.3(understand)-222.3(how)-222.3(mind)-222.3(emer)18(ges)-222.3(from)-222.3(brain?)-222.3(Rumelhart)-222.3(and)-222.3(McClelland)-222.3(\(1986a,)]TJ T* [(1986b\))-262.2(recommended)-262.2(that)-262.2(the)-262.2(microstructure)-262.2(of)-262.2(cognition)-262.2(is)-262.2(best)-262.2(described)-262.2(and)]TJ T* [(understood)-237.9(in)-475.9(parallel)-237.9(distributed)-237.9(processing)-237.9(\(PDP)37(\))-475.8(connectionist)-237.9(neural)-237.9(network)]TJ T* [(\(CNN\))-166.6(terms.)-148.7(The)-166.7(following)-166.7(ve)-166.7(principles)-166.7(play)-166.7(a)-166.7(causative)-166.7(role)-166.7(in)-166.7(how)-166.7(such)-166.7(formal)]TJ T* [(networks)-250(give)-250(rise)-250(to)-250(psychology)-250(and)-250(behavior:)]TJ 1.0909 -2.9025 TD (1.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.1318 0 TD (Priming)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.5196 0 TD [(is)-241.6(an)-241.6(automatic)-241.6(cognitive)-241.6(process)-241.6(that)-241.6(selectively)-241.6(stimulates)-241.6(spread-)]TJ -3.5196 -1.1818 TD [(ing)-360.5(activation)-360.5(across)-360.5(a)-360.5(network)-360.5(and)-360.5(creates)-360.5(dif)18(ferent)-360.5(ef)18(fects)-360.5(depending)-360.5(on)]TJ T* [(the)-270.8(priming)-270.8(method)-270.8(used.)-270.8(Priming)-270.8(can)-270.8(lead)-270.8(to)-270.8(automatic)-270.8(responding)-270.8(that)-270.8(in-)]TJ T* [(cludes)-253.5(the)-253.5(automatic)-253.5(thoughts)-253.5(discussed)-253.5(by)-253.5(Beck)-253.5(and)-253.5(others.)-253.5(Priming)-253.5(comes)]TJ T* [(in)-230.6(several)-230.6(forms.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 6.8848 0 TD [(Repetition)-230.6(priming)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.7392 0 TD [(refers)-230.6(to)-230.6(facilitation)-230.6(in)-230.6(the)-230.6(processing)-230.6(of)]TJ -14.6241 -1.1818 TD [(a)-325.6(stimulus)-325.6(subsequent)-325.6(to)-325.6(repetitive)-325.6(prior)-325.6(presentations)-325.6(of)-325.6(that)-325.6(stimulus,)-325.6(the)]TJ T* [(ef)18(fects)-323.2(of)-323.2(which)-323.2(can)-323.2(persist)-323.2(for)-323.2(hours)-323.2(to)-323.2(several)-323.2(months.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.3485 0 TD [(Semantic)-323.2(priming)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -23.3485 -1.1818 TD [(occurs)-257.5(when)-257.5(people)-257.5(read)-257.5(faster)-257.5(and)-257.5(more)-257.5(accurately)-257.5(a)-257.5(word)-257.5(such)-257.5(as)-257.5(butter)-37()]TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj > endobj 55 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(23)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 143.2527 703.0657 Tm [(when)-325.1(it)-325.1(is)-325.1(preceded)-325.1(by)-325.1(a)-325.1(semantically)-325.1(related)-325.1(word)-325.1(such)-325.1(as)-325.1(bread)-325.1(versus)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(an)-278.7(unrelated)-278.7(word)-278.7(such)-278.7(as)-278.7(doctor)55(.)-278.7(Repetition)-278.7(augments)-278.7(semantic)-278.7(priming.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf T* [(Emotional)-302.6(priming)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.9392 0 TD [(uses)-302.6(words)-302.6(with)-302.6(a)-302.6(common)-302.6(af)18(fective)-302.6(tone)-302.6(to)-302.6(predispose)]TJ -7.9392 -1.1818 TD [(associations)-302.5(of)-302.5(that)-302.5(type.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.3481 0 TD [(Evaluative)-302.5(priming)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.0491 0 TD [(occurs)-302.5(when)-302.5(af)18(fectively)-302.5(laden)]TJ -18.3971 -1.1818 TD [(words)-250(or)-250(pictures)-250(precede)-250(the)-250(tar)18(get)-250(stimulus.)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(2.)-381.8(Networks)-346.6(seek)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.49 0 TD (consonance)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.0676 0 TD (via)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.5686 0 TD [(constr)15(aint)-346.6(satisfaction)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9996 0 TD [(.)-346.6(Constraints)-346.6(refer)-346.6(to)]TJ -21.994 -1.1818 TD [(often-conicting)-229.7(factors)-229.7(such)-229.7(as)-229.7(acceleration)-229.7(and)-229.7(gas)-229.7(mileage)-229.7(when)-229.7(deciding)]TJ T* [(on)-263.3(which)-263.3(automobile)-263.3(to)-263.3(purchase.)-245.3(The)-263.3(search)-263.3(for)-263.3(coherence)-263.3(entails)-263.3(Heider)-37()55(s)]TJ T* [(\(1958\))-332.5(balance)-332.5(theory)65(.)-332.5(Festinger)-332.5(\(1957\))-332.5(chose)-332.5(to)-332.5(discuss)-332.5(this)-332.5(process)-332.5(from)]TJ T* [(the)-245.1(alternate)-245.1(perspective)-245.1(of)-245.1(dissonance)-245.1(reduction.)-245.1(Formal)-245.1(network)-245.1(theory)-245.1(in-)]TJ T* [(corporates)-253.3(both)-253.3(perspectives.)-235.3(Thagard)-253.3(\(2000\))-253.3(discussed)-253.3(how)-253.3(to)-253.3(measure)-253.3(and)]TJ T* [(compute)-229.3(coherence)-229.3(and)-229.3(described)-229.3(several)-229.3(types)-229.3(of)-229.3(coherence)-229.3(and)-229.3(their)-229.3(appli-)]TJ T* [(cations)-250(to)-250(psychology)-250(and)-250(philosophy)65(.)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(3.)-381.8(Networks)-229.4(exhibit)-229.4(a)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9301 0 TD [(part-whole)-229.4(pattern)-229.4(completion)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.4103 0 TD [(property)-229.4(that)-229.4(confers)-229.4(con-)]TJ -20.2085 -1.1818 TD [(siderable)-266.5(explanatory)-266.5(power)55(.)-266.5(Given)-266.5(partial)-266.5(input,)-266.5(the)-266.5(network)-266.5(completes)-266.5(the)]TJ T* [(pattern)-346.7(to)-346.7(the)-346.7(best)-346.7(of)-346.7(its)-346.7(ability)65(.)-328.7(This)-346.7(principle)-346.7(frequently)-346.7(works)-346.7(in)-346.7(a)-346.7(posi-)]TJ T* [(tive)-301.9(way)-301.9(such)-301.9(as)-301.9(when)-301.9(we)-301.9(recognize)-301.9(someone)-301.9(after)-301.9(catching)-301.9(just)-301.9(a)-301.9(glimpse)]TJ T* [(of)-278.9(them,)-278.9(or)-278.9(we)-278.9(remember)-278.9(personal)-278.9(details)-278.9(after)-278.9(hearing)-278.9(someone)55(s)-278.9(name,)-278.9(or)]TJ T* [(we)-367(remember)-367(our)-367(vacation)-367(experience)-367(after)-367(hearing)-367(the)-367(name)-367(of)-367(a)-367(city)-367(or)]TJ T* [(hotel)-291.1(we)-291.1(previously)-291.1(visited.)-291.1(Pattern)-291.1(completion)-291.1(can)-291.1(also)-291.1(work)-291.1(in)-291.1(a)-291.1(negative)]TJ T* [(way)-261.3(such)-261.3(as)-261.3(in)-261.3(PTSD)-261.3(when)-261.3(an)-261.3(isolated)-261.3(sight)-261.3(or)-261.3(sound)-261.3(brings)-261.3(back)-261.3(traumatic)]TJ T* [(memories.)-232.7(T)35(ryon)-250.7(\(1999\))-250.7(used)-250.7(the)-250.7(part-whole)-250.7(pattern)-250.7(completion)-250.7(principle)-250.7(to)]TJ T* [(provide)-237.3(a)-237.3(comprehensive)-237.3(bidirectional)-237.3(associative)-237.3(memory)-237.3(model)-237.3(\(BAM\))-237.3(of)]TJ T* [(PTSD.)-303.7(Emotions)-303.7(appear)-303.7(to)-303.7(be)-303.7(encoded)-303.7(along)-303.7(with)-303.7(cognitions)-303.7(and)-303.7(therefore)]TJ T* [(can)-288.9(trigger)-288.9(pattern)-288.9(completion.)-270.9(This)-288.9(phenomenon)-288.9(has)-288.9(also)-288.9(been)-288.9(called)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 28.6157 0 TD (state)Tj -28.6157 -1.1818 TD [(dependent)-205(r)37(ecall)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.816 0 TD [(where)-205(sad)-205(people)-205(recall)-205(unpleasant)-205(events)-205(more)-205(readily)-205(than)]TJ -6.816 -1.1818 TD [(do)-250(happy)-250(people)-250(and)-250(vice)-250(versa.)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD [(4.)-381.8(Networks)-166.9(extract)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.0747 0 TD [(pr)45(ototypes)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.177 0 TD [(.)-148.9(W)40(inkielman,)-166.9(Halberstadt,)-166.9(Fazendeiro,)-166.9(and)-166.9(Catty)]TJ -11.1199 -1.1818 TD [(\(2006\))-167.8(reported)-167.8(that)-167.8(people)-167.8(prefer)-167.8(highly)-167.8(prototypical)-167.8(stimuli)-167.8(because)-167.8(they)-167.8(are)]TJ T* [(processed)-143.1(more)-143.1(easily)65(.)-143.1(Prototypicality)-143.1(predicted)-143.1(uency)65(,)-143.1(categorization)-143.1(speed,)]TJ T* [(and)-269.6(attractiveness)-269.6(in)-269.6(two)-269.6(experiments.)-269.6(Networks)-269.6(can)-269.6(respond)-269.6(more)-269.6(strongly)]TJ T* [(to)-206.8(the)-206.8(protytpe)-206.8(they)-206.8(extract)-206.8(than)-206.8(to)-206.8(any)-206.8(stimulus)-206.8(the)-206.8(network)-206.8(has)-206.8(experienced.)]TJ T* [(Maladaptive)-162.2(prototypes)-162.2(can)-162.2(form)-162.2(stable)-162.2(core)-162.2(beliefs)-162.2(and)-162.2(schemas)-162.2(that)-162.2(strongly)]TJ T* [(modify)-256.8(behavior)55(.)-256.8(Clinicians)-256.8(who)-256.8(treat)-256.8(clients)-256.8(with)-256.8(personality)-256.8(disorders)-256.8(nd)]TJ T* [(these)-383.2(concepts)-383.2(especially)-383.2(relevant)-383.2(\(Linehan,)-383.2(1993;)-383.2(McGinn)-383.2(&)-383.2(Sanderson,)]TJ T* [(1999;)-213(Y)100(oung,)-250(1990\).)]TJ -1.1318 -1.4545 TD (5.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.1318 0 TD [(Gr)15(aceful)-335.9(de)40(gr)15(adation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.0458 0 TD [(refers)-335.9(to)-335.9(the)-335.9(fact)-335.9(that)-335.9(networks)-335.9(gradually)-335.9(rather)-335.9(than)]TJ -9.0458 -1.1818 TD [(catastrophically)-185.3(lose)-185.3(function)-185.3(as)-185.3(damage)-185.3(increases.)-167.3(This)-185.3(network)-185.3(principle)-185.3(in-)]TJ T* [(forms)-226.4(us)-226.4(about)-226.4(the)-226.4(psychological)-226.4(and)-226.4(behavioral)-226.4(ef)18(fects)-226.4(of)-226.4(or)18(ganic)-226.4(insult)-226.4(and)]TJ T* [(normal)-262.5(aging.)-244.5(The)-262.5(aging)-262.5(brain)-262.5(loses)-262.5(many)-262.5(synapses)-262.5(and)-262.5(some)-262.5(neurons)-262.5(daily)]TJ T* [(but)-230.8(continues)-230.8(to)-230.8(function)-230.8(quite)-230.8(well.)-230.8(More)-230.8(processing)-230.8(cycles)-230.8(are)-230.8(required)-230.8(be-)]TJ T* [(fore)-186(the)-186(network)-186(settles)-186(into)-186(a)-186(stable)-186(state)-186(thus)-186(explaining)-186(why)-186(slower)-186(reaction)]TJ T* [(times)-267.9(are)-267.9(consistently)-267.9(observed)-267.9(as)-267.9(a)-267.9(function)-267.9(of)-267.9(age.)-212.9(A)-212.9(broad)-267.9(range)-267.9(of)-267.9(aging)]TJ T* [(ef)18(fects)-167(can)-167(be)-167(understood)-167(in)-167(network)-167(terms)-167(\(cf.,)-167(Li,)-167(Lindenber)18(ger)40(,)-167(&)-167(Sikstr)]TJ 29.0602 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD (om,)Tj -28.9767 -1.1818 TD [(2001;)-250(Li,)-250(Naveh-Benjamin,)-250(&)-250(Lindenber)18(ger)40(,)-250(2005;)-250(Li)-250(&)-250(Sikstr)]TJ 25.2187 -0.051 TD 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13.8062 0 TD [(began)-533.5(publishing)]TJ -25.5829 -1.1818 TD [(in)-567.8(1945.)-549.8(The)-512.8(American)-567.8(Board)-567.8(of)-567.8(Professional)-567.8(Psychology)-567.8(began)-567.8(certifying)]TJ T* [(professional)-493.6(psychologists)-493.6(in)-493.6(1947.)-475.6(The)-438.6(Association)-493.6(for)-493.6(the)-438.6(Advancement)-493.6(of)]TJ T* [(Behavior)-285.3(Therapy)-303.3(was)-303.3(founded)-303.3(in)-303.3(New)-266.3(Y)100(ork)-303.3(City)-303.3(in)-303.3(1966)-303.3(and)-303.3(changed)-303.3(its)-303.3(name)]TJ T* [(to)-250(the)-195(Association)-250(for)-250(Behavioral)-250(and)-250(Cognitive)-232(Therapies)-250(in)-250(2004.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj > endobj 59 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(25)]TJ 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 702.3752 Tm [(IMP)74(A)55(C)0(T)-250(O)0(F)-250(W)120(AR)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 684.0439 Tm [(In)-312.2(1917,)-312.2(when)-312.2(the)-312.2(United)-312.2(S)18(tates)-312.2(became)-312.2(involved)-312.2(in)-294.2(W)80(orld)-294.2(W)80(a)0(r)-312.2(I)0(,)-312.2(the)-257.2(American)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(Psychological)-242.3(Association)-297.3(developed)-242.3(Alpha)-297.3(and)-297.3(Beta)-297.3(tests)-297.3(of)-297.3(general)-297.3(intellectual)]TJ T* [(development)-215.3(for)-215.3(the)-215.3(army)-215.3(under)-215.3(the)-215.3(direction)-215.3(of)-215.3(Robert)-215.3(M.)-178.3(Y)100(erkesthe)-215.3(rst)-215.3(lar)18(ge-)]TJ T* 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[(public)-170.4(became)-170.4(fascinated)-170.4(with)-170.4(psychoanalysis.)-170.4(Benjamin)-170.4(\(2005\))-170.4(wrote)-170.4(that)-170.4(by)-170.4(1920)]TJ T* [(the)-262.7(American)-317.7(public)-317.7(had)-317.7(accepted)-317.7(Freud)55(s)-317.7(psychoanalysis)-317.7(as)-317.7(the)-317.7(one)-317.7(legitimate)]TJ T* [(science)-347.9(of)-347.9(psychology)-347.9(\(p.)-347.9(8\))-347.9(although)-347.9(Benjamin)-347.9(noted)-347.9(that)-347.9(most)-347.9(psychologists)]TJ T* [(of)-291.4(that)-291.4(day)-291.4(rejected)-291.4(Freud)55(s)-291.4(theories)-291.4(as)-291.4(unscientic.)-291.4(Luborsky)-291.4(and)-291.4(Barrett)-291.4(\(2006\))]TJ T* [(give)-257.7(the)-257.7(history)-257.7(and)-257.7(current)-257.7(empirical)-257.7(status)-257.7(of)-257.7(key)-257.7(psychoanalytic)-257.7(concepts.)-239.7(That)]TJ T* [(scientic)-272.6(psychology)-272.6(in)-272.6(1909)-272.6(presented)-272.6(no)-272.6(alternative)-272.6(theory)-272.6(of)-272.6(psychopathology)]TJ T* 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55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(26)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(a)-237.6(comprehensive)-237.6(history)-237.6(of)-237.6(clinical)-237.6(training)-237.6(in)-237.6(Europe)-237.6(and)-237.6(the)-237.6(United)-237.6(S)18(tates.)-219.6(They)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(noted)-351.3(that)-351.3(for)-351.3(many)-351.3(years)-351.3(clinical)-351.3(training)-351.3(in)-351.3(Europe)-351.3(was)-351.3(conducted)-351.3(at)-351.3(the)-351.3(pre-)]TJ T* [(doctoral)-241.6(level)-241.6(resulting)-241.6(in)-241.6(a)-241.6(master)-37()55(s)-241.6(degree,)-241.6(a)-241.6(diploma,)-241.6(or)-241.6(a)-241.6(licentiate)-241.6(degree)-241.6(with)]TJ T* [(doctoral)-296.8(training)-296.8(reserved)-296.8(for)-296.8(those)-296.8(preparing)-296.8(for)-296.8(an)-296.8(academic)-296.8(career)55(.)-296.8(During)-296.8(the)]TJ T* [(past)-185.5(decade,)-185.5(the)-185.5(United)-185.5(Kingdom)-185.5(and)-185.5(other)-185.5(European)-185.5(countries)-185.5(have)-185.5(extended)-185.5(clin-)]TJ T* [(ical)-269.8(training)-269.8(to)-269.8(the)-269.8(doctoral)-269.8(level)-269.8(resulting)-269.8(in)-269.8(DClinPsy)65(,)-269.8(DEdPsy)65(,)-269.8(and)-269.8(DCounsPsy)]TJ T* [(degrees.)-272.8(The)-290.8(United)-290.8(S)18(tates)-290.8(has)-290.8(consistently)-290.8(preferred)-290.8(doctoral)-290.8(training)-290.8(in)-290.8(clinical)]TJ T* [(psychology)-295.5(but)-295.5(dif)18(ferences)-295.5(in)-295.5(opinion)-295.5(regarding)-295.5(the)-295.5(content)-295.5(of)-295.5(that)-295.5(training)-295.5(have)]TJ T* [(also)-284.5(existed)-284.5(from)-284.5(the)-284.5(beginning.)-266.5(W)40(undt,)-284.5(who)-284.5(began)-284.5(training)-284.5(modern)-284.5(psycholo-)]TJ T* [(gists)-266.9(in)-266.9(1879,)-266.9(required)-266.9(a)-266.9(doctoral)-266.9(dissertation;)-266.9(and)-266.9(some)-266.9(form)-266.9(of)-266.9(dissertation)-266.9(con-)]TJ T* [(tinues)-190(to)-190(characterize)-190(all)-190(contemporary)-190(doctoral)-190(training.)-190(Lightner)-172(W)40(itmer)-190(received)]TJ T* [(his)-193.4(PhD)-193.3(under)-193.4(the)-193.4(mentorship)-193.4(of)-175.4(W)40(undt)-193.4(and)-193.4(did)-193.4(not)-193.4(question)-193.4(the)-193.4(need)-193.4(for)-193.4(a)-193.4(doctoral)]TJ T* [(dissertation)-217.5(when)-217.5(he)-217.5(developed)-217.5(the)-217.5(rst)-217.5(clinical)-217.5(curriculum)-217.5(in)-217.5(the)-217.5(United)-217.5(S)18(tates.)-217.5(In)]TJ T* [(1918,)-312.5(Leta)-312.5(Hollingworth)-312.5(proposed)-312.5(a)-312.5(training)-312.5(model)-312.5(for)-312.5(consulting)-312.5(psychologists)]TJ T* [(granting)-247.4(the)-247.4(PsD)-247.4(degree)-247.4(\(Hollingworth,)-247.4(1918\).)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 324.943 525.7238 Tm (1)Tj 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 331.9883 521.7457 Tm [(She)-247.4(recommended)-247.4(a)-247.4(standardized)]TJ -19.3221 -1.1818 TD [(curriculum)-237.1(and)-237.1(a)-237.1(national)-237.1(examining)-237.1(board)-237.1(that)-237.1(would)-237.1(license)-237.1(qualied)-237.1(graduates.)]TJ T* [(Unsuccessful)-142.7(ef)18(forts)-142.7(were)-142.7(made)-142.7(at)-142.7(Columbia)-142.7(University)65(,)-142.7(the)-142.7(University)-142.7(of)-142.7(Montreal,)]TJ T* [(the)-217.8(University)-217.8(of)-217.8(Ottawa,)-217.8(and)-217.8(McGill)-217.8(University)-217.8(to)-217.8(implement)-217.8(this)-217.8(training)-217.8(model.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-399.1(president)-399.1(of)-399.1(Harvard)-399.1(University)-399.1(appointed)-399.1(a)-399.1(commission)-399.1(to)-399.1(advise)-399.1(him)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(on)-331.7(how)-331.7(to)-331.7(train)-331.7(psychologists.)-331.7(Gordon)-276.7(Allport)-331.7(and)-331.7(Henry)-331.7(Murray)-331.7(advocated)-331.7(for)]TJ T* [(social-clinical)-371.5(training)-371.5(resulting)-371.5(in)-371.5(a)-371.5(PhD)-371.4(degree)-371.5(whereas)-371.5(Karl)-371.5(Lashley)65(,)-371.5(among)]TJ T* [(other)-514.8(faculty)-514.8(members,)-514.8(advocated)-514.8(for)-514.8(biological)-514.8(training)-514.8(resulting)-514.8(in)-514.8(a)-514.8(PhD)]TJ T* [(degree.)-331(Unable)-331(to)-331(reach)-331(agreement,)-331(the)-331(Department)-331(of)-331(Social)-331(Relations)-331(split)-331(of)18(f)]TJ T* [(from)-250(the)-250(Department)-250(of)-250(Psychology)65(.)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 375.4471 Tm [(Boulder)-250(T)37(raining)-250(Model)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 356.02 Tm [(W)80(orld)-213(W)80(a)0(r)-231(I)0(I)-231(\(19391945\))-231(produced)-231(so)-231(many)-231(psychiatric)-231(casualties)-231(that)-231(in)-231(1945)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-165(V)129(A)-127.9(and)-183(the)-183(National)-183(Institute)-183(of)-183(Mental)-183(Health)-183(asked)-182.9(the)-310.9(American)-183(Psychologi-)]TJ T* [(cal)-108.3(Association)-163.3(\()55(A)0(P)92(A)55(\))-163.2(for)-163.3(a)-163.3(list)-163.3(of)-163.3(universities)-163.3(that)-163.3(could)-163.3(train)-163.3(clinical)-163.3(psychologists.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-240.5(AP)92(A)-240.4(established)-295.5(the)-295.5(Committee)-295.5(on)-277.5(T)35(raining)-295.5(in)-295.5(Clinical)-295.5(Psychology)-295.5(in)-295.5(1947.)]TJ -0.037 -1.1818 TD [(A)-243.1(training)-298.1(conference)-298.1(was)-298.1(held)-298.1(in)-298.1(Boulder)40(,)-298.1(Colorado,)-298.1(in)-298.1(1949.)-298.1(Its)-298.1(report)-298.1(detailed)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(what)-195.2(has)-195.2(become)-195.2(known)-195.2(as)-195.2(the)-195.2(Boulder)-195.2(model)-195.2(of)-195.2(clinical)-195.2(training.)-195.2(Its)-195.2(ndings)-195.2(were)]TJ T* [(published)-264.3(as)-264.3(an)-264.3(article)-264.3(\(Report)-264.3(of)-264.3(the)-264.3(Committee)-264.3(on)-246.3(T)35(raining)-264.3(in)-264.3(Clinical)-264.3(Psychol-)]TJ T* [(ogy)-278.4(of)-278.4(the)-223.4(American)-278.4(Psychological)-223.4(Association)-278.4(Submitted)-278.4(at)-278.4(the)-278.4(Detroit)-278.4(Meeting)]TJ T* [(of)-243.2(the)-188.2(American)-243.2(Psychological)-188.2(Association,)-243.2(September)-243.2(913,)-243.2(1947\))-243.2(and)-243.2(as)-243.2(a)-243.2(book)]TJ T* [(\(Raimy)65(,)-245.8(1950\).)-227.8(The)-245.8(journal)-245.8(article)-245.8(identied)-245.8(the)-245.8(following)-245.8(primary)-245.8(areas)-245.8(of)-245.8(study:)]TJ T* [(\(a\))-293.8(general)-293.8(psychology)65(,)-293.8(\(b\))-293.8(psychodynamics)-293.8(of)-293.8(behavior)40(,)-293.8(\(c\))-293.8(diagnostic)-293.8(methods,)]TJ T* [(\(d\))-250(therapy)65(,)-250(\(e\))-250(research)-250(methods,)-250(\(f\))-250(internship,)-250(and)-250(\(g\))-250(dissertation.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-260.4(Boulder)-260.4(conference)-260.4(is)-260.4(notable)-260.4(for)-260.4(at)-260.4(least)-260.4(three)-260.4(reasons.)-260.4(First,)-260.4(it)-260.4(reaf)18(rmed)]TJ -1.0729 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endstream endobj 62 0 obj > endobj 63 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(27)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(it)-362.1(asserted)-362.1(the)-362.1(scientist-practitioner)-362.1(training)-362.1(model.)-362.1(Benjamin)-362.1(and)-362.1(Baker)-362.1(\(2000\))]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(published)-334.5(a)-334.5(photograph)-334.5(of)-334.5(the)-334.5(Boulder)-334.5(conference)-334.5(participants)-334.5(and)-334.5(introduced)-334.5(a)]TJ T* [(special)-308.5(section)-308.5(of)-308.5(the)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8991 0 TD [(American)-308.5(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.5911 0 TD [(devoted)-308.5(to)-308.5(a)-308.5(review)-308.5(of)-308.5(the)-308.5(Boulder)]TJ -18.4902 -1.1818 TD [(scientist-practitioner)-349(training)-349(model)-349(on)-349(the)-349(occasion)-349(of)-349(its)-349(50th)-349(anniversary)65(.)-294(Al-)]TJ T* [(bee)-298.7(\(2000\))-298.7(declared)-298.7(that)-298.7(Boulder)-37()55(s)-298.7(fatal)-298.7(aw)-298.7(was)-298.7(its)-298.7(implicit)-298.7(endorsement)-298.7(of)-298.7(the)]TJ T* [(medical)-328.2(model)-328.2(of)-328.2(psychopathology;)-328.2(that)-328.2(is,)-328.2(the)-328.2(biological)-328.2(basis)-328.2(of)-328.2(mental)-328.2(disor)20(-)]TJ T* [(ders.)-270.4(Albee)-325.4(claimed)-325.4(that)-325.4(relying)-325.4(on)-325.4(the)-307.4(V)129(A)-270.3(hospitals)-325.4(to)-325.4(train)-325.4(psychologists)-325.4(wed-)]TJ T* [(ded)-347.9(psychology)-347.9(to)-347.9(psychiatry)-347.9(and)-347.9(the)-347.9(medical)-347.9(model)-347.9(in)-347.9(ways)-347.9(that)-347.9(precluded)-347.9(its)]TJ T* [(development)-389(as)-389(an)-389(independent)-389(profession.)-389(Current)-389(ef)18(forts)-389(to)-389(seek)-389(prescription)]TJ T* [(privileges)-383.1(\(see)-383.1(discussion)-383.1(that)-383.1(follows\))-383.1(are)-383.1(an)-383.1(extension)-383.1(of)-383.1(this)-383.1(legacy)65(.)-383.1(Nathan)]TJ T* [(\(2000\))-278.4(noted)-278.4(that)-278.4(the)-278.4(primary)-278.4(intent)-278.4(of)-278.4(the)-278.4(scientist-practitioner)-278.4(model)-278.4(is)-278.4(to)-278.4(bring)]TJ T* [(the)-387(most)-387(empirically)-387(supported)-387(psychological)-387(services)-387(to)-387(the)-387(public)-387(service.)-387(In)]TJ T* [(this)-359.8(view)65(,)-359.8(science)-359.8(is)-359.8(primary)-359.8(and)-359.8(theoretical)-359.8(orientation)-359.8(is)-359.8(secondary)65(.)-359.8(However)40(,)]TJ T* [(Nathan)-339.8(\(2000\))-339.8(also)-339.8(noted)-339.8(that)-339.8(few)-339.8(clinical)-339.8(psychologists)-339.8(read)-339.8(and/or)-339.8(implement)]TJ T* [(research)-326.9(ndings)-326.9(in)-326.9(their)-326.9(clinical)-326.9(practice,)-326.9(let)-326.9(alone)-326.9(engage)-326.9(in)-326.9(research)-326.9(resulting)]TJ T* [(in)-333.7(a)-333.7(lar)18(ge)-333.7(and)-333.7(growing)-333.7(gap)-333.7(between)-333.7(psychological)-333.7(science)-333.7(and)-333.7(clinical)-333.7(practice.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(While)-372.1(professional)-372.1(consensus)-372.1(has)-372.1(lar)18(gely)-372.1(been)-372.1(reached,)-372.1(and)-372.1(is)-372.1(now)-372.1(part)-372.1(of)-372.1(our)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(ethics)-361.8(code,)-361.8(that)-361.8(psychologists)-361.8(use)-361.8(psychological)-361.8(tests)-361.8(that)-361.8(have)-361.8(been)-361.8(shown)-361.8(to)]TJ T* [(be)-400.3(both)-400.3(reliable)-400.3(and)-400.3(valid)-400.3(for)-400.3(the)-400.3(population)-400.3(and)-400.3(purposes)-400.3(at)-400.3(hand,)-400.3(no)-400.3(similar)]TJ T* [(consensus)-418.2(has)-418.2(been)-418.2(reached)-418.2(regarding)-418.2(empirically)-418.2(supported)-418.2(psychological)-418.2(in-)]TJ T* [(terventions.)-382.8(Belar)-382.8(\(2000\))-382.8(ar)18(gued)-382.8(that)-382.8(the)-382.8(scientist-practitioner)-382.8(model)-382.8(was)-382.8(more)]TJ T* [(than)-291.3(science)-291.3(training)-291.3(plus)-291.3(clinical)-291.3(training.)-291.3(Clinical)-291.3(practice)-291.3(was)-291.3(to)-291.3(inform)-291.3(scien-)]TJ T* [(tic)-345.7(study)-345.7(just)-345.7(as)-345.7(much)-345.7(as)-345.7(the)-345.7(results)-345.7(of)-345.7(scientic)-345.7(study)-345.7(were)-345.7(to)-345.7(inform)-345.7(clinical)]TJ T* (practice.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 372.5283 Tm [(V)111(ail)-250(Prof)10(essional)-250(T)37(raining)-250(Model)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 353.1012 Tm [(The)-275.3(continuing)-275.3(contrast)-275.3(between)-275.3(clinical)-275.3(training)-275.3(ideals)-275.3(and)-275.3(the)-275.3(reality)-275.3(of)-275.3(clinical)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(training)-148.3(and)-148.3(professional)-148.3(practice)-148.3(fueled)-148.3(consideration)-148.3(of)-148.3(an)-148.3(alternative)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.8274 0 TD [(pr)45(ofessional)]TJ -27.8274 -1.1818 TD [(tr)15(aining)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.5889 0 TD [(model.)-380.8(In)-380.8(1963,)-380.8(the)-380.8(number)-380.8(of)-380.8(clinical)-380.8(psychologists)-380.8(became)-380.8(equal)-380.8(to)]TJ -3.5889 -1.1818 TD [(the)-296.4(number)-296.4(of)-296.4(academic)-296.4(psychologists)-296.4(thereby)-296.4(giving)-296.4(them)-296.4(an)-296.4(equal)-296.4(voice.)-296.4(Levy)]TJ T* [(\(1962\))-281.4(reported)-281.4(that)-281.4(28.9%)-281.4(of)-281.4(clinical)-281.4(psychologists)-281.4(published)-281.4(no)-281.4(articles,)-281.4(19.2%)]TJ T* [(published)-410.4(one)-410.4(article)-410.4(based)-410.4(on)-410.4(their)-410.4(dissertation,)-410.4(and)-410.4(that)-410.4(just)-410.4(10%)-410.4(of)-410.4(clinical)]TJ T* [(psychologists)-180.1(published)-180.1(45%)-180.1(of)-180.1(all)-180.1(articles)-180.1(surveyed.)-180.1(Outcome)-180.1(results)-180.1(such)-180.1(as)-180.1(these)]TJ T* [(reopened)-220.2(the)-220.2(question)-220.2(of)-220.2(how)-220.2(clinical)-220.2(psychologists)-220.2(should)-220.2(be)-220.2(trained.)-220.2(Psychology)]TJ T* [(was)-260.1(said)-260.1(to)-260.1(have)-260.1(suf)18(ciently)-260.1(matured)-260.1(to)-260.1(warrant)-260.1(the)-260.1(establishment)-260.1(of)-260.1(professional)]TJ T* [(schools)-253.5(similar)-253.5(to)-253.5(those)-253.5(for)-253.5(medicine,)-253.5(dentistry)65(,)-253.5(and)-253.5(law)-253.5(resulting)-253.5(in)-253.5(the)-253.5(Doctor)-253.5(of)]TJ T* [(Psychology)-273.3(\(PhD\))-273.3(degree)-273.3(for)-273.3(those)-273.3(persons)-273.3(whose)-273.3(primary)-273.3(professional)-273.3(goal)-273.3(was)]TJ T* [(clinical)-309.3(practice.)-309.3(Science)-309.3(was)-309.3(still)-309.3(considered)-309.3(important)-309.3(but)-309.3(secondary)-309.3(to)-309.3(quality)]TJ T* [(clinical)-250(practice.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Paul)-213.7(Meehl)-213.7(was)-213.7(president)-213.7(of)-158.7(AP)92(A)-158.7(i)0(n)-213.7(1962)-213.7(and)-213.7(unsuccessfully)-213.7(proposed)-213.7(to)-213.7(mem-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(bers)-162.7(of)-162.7(the)-162.7(Psychology)-162.7(Department)-162.7(at)-162.7(the)-162.7(University)-162.7(of)-162.7(Minnesota)-162.7(that)-162.7(they)-162.7(institute)]TJ T* [(a)-360.5(scientic,)-360.5(scholarly)65(,)-360.5(nonresearch)-360.5(doctorate)-360.5(for)-360.5(clinical)-360.5(practitioners)-360.5(\(Meehl,)]TJ T* 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[(28)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(receive)-536(broad)-536(Psychology)-536(Department)-536(faculty)-536(support)-536(and)-536(was)-536(discontinued)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(in)-421.9(1980.)-421.9(In)-421.9(1975,)-421.9(Donald)-421.9(Peterson)-421.9(went)-421.9(to)-421.9(Rutgers)-421.9(University)-421.9(to)-421.9(become)-421.9(the)]TJ T* [(founding)-367.5(dean)-367.5(of)-367.5(the)-367.5(Graduate)-367.5(School)-367.5(of)-312.5(Applied)-367.5(and)-367.5(Professional)-367.5(Psychology)]TJ T* [(that)-316.9(began)-316.9(operations)-316.9(the)-316.9(year)-316.9(before.)-316.9(Dorothy)-316.9(Cantor)40(,)-316.9(one)-316.9(of)-316.9(its)-316.9(graduates,)-316.9(was)]TJ T* [(the)-210.7(rst)-210.7(person)-210.7(with)-210.7(a)-210.7(PhD)-210.7(degree)-210.7(to)-210.7(become)-210.7(president)-210.7(of)-155.7(AP)92(A.)-155.7(Adelphi)-210.7(University)]TJ T* [(began)-255.7(a)-255.7(PhD)-255.7(practitioner)-255.7(oriented)-255.7(program)-255.7(in)-255.7(1951)-255.7(that)-255.7(was)-255.7(accredited)-255.7(by)-200.7(AP)92(A)-200.7(i)0(n)]TJ T* [(1957.)-209.5(The)-227.5(California)-227.5(School)-227.5(of)-227.5(Professional)-227.5(Psychology)-227.5(founded)-227.5(its)-227.5(PhD)-227.5(program)]TJ T* [(in)-345.7(1969.)-345.7(Hahnemann)-345.7(Medical)-345.7(College)-345.7(began)-345.7(a)-345.7(PhD)-345.6(program)-345.7(in)-345.7(1970)-345.7(that)-345.7(latter)]TJ T* [(moved)-252.5(to)-234.5(W)40(idener)-252.5(University)65(.)-252.5(Baylor)-252.5(University)-252.5(began)-252.5(their)-252.5(practitioner)-252.5(program)]TJ T* [(in)-342.7(1973.)-324.7(These)-342.7(events)-342.7(provided)-342.7(the)-342.7(context)-342.7(for)-342.7(holding)-342.7(a)-342.7(training)-342.7(conference)-342.7(in)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(V)111(ail,)-395.5(Colorado,)-395.5(in)-395.5(1973,)-395.5(known)-395.5(as)-395.5(the)-377.5(V)111(ail)-395.5(Conference)-395.5(to)-395.5(discuss)-395.5(professional)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(training)-303.3(in)-303.3(clinical)-303.3(psychology)65(.)-285.3(The)-248.3(American)-303.3(Psychological)-248.3(Association)-303.3(and)-303.3(the)]TJ T* [(National)-207.9(Institute)-207.9(of)-207.9(Mental)-207.9(Health)-207.9(jointly)-207.9(sponsored)-207.9(the)-207.9(conference.)-207.9(Endorsement)]TJ T* [(of)-475.8(the)-475.8(PhD)-475.6(degree)-475.8(and)-475.8(corresponding)-475.8(training)-475.8(model)-475.8(was)-475.8(perhaps)-475.8(the)-475.8(major)]TJ T* [(accomplishment)-259.5(of)-259.5(this)-259.5(conference.)-259.5(Korman)-259.5(\(1974\))-259.5(published)-259.5(a)-259.5(detailed)-259.5(report)-259.5(of)]TJ T* [(the)-250(proceedings)-250(of)-250(this)-250(conference.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 482.2553 Tm [(Specialized)-250(T)74(raining)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 462.8282 Tm [(A)-283.2(call)-338.3(for)-338.3(specialized)-338.3(training)-338.3(in)-338.3(clinical)-338.3(child)-338.3(psychology)-338.3(was)-338.3(rst)-338.3(made)-338.3(at)-338.3(the)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(1977)-224.8(meeting)-224.8(of)-224.8(the)-224.8(Society)-224.8(of)-224.8(Pediatric)-224.8(Psychologists.)-224.8(It)-224.8(would)-224.8(take)-224.8(until)-224.8(1984)-224.8(to)]TJ T* [(gain)-310.5(suf)18(cient)-310.5(professional)-310.5(support)-310.5(and)-310.5(nancial)-310.5(backing)-310.5(to)-310.5(hold)-310.5(a)-310.5(clinical)-310.5(child)]TJ T* [(training)-218.7(conference)-218.7(at)-218.7(Hilton)-218.7(Head,)-218.7(South)-218.7(Carolina,)-218.7(in)-218.7(1985)-218.7(to)-218.7(discuss)-218.7(the)-218.7(need)-218.7(for)]TJ T* [(specialized)-189.2(training)-189.2(in)-189.2(child)-189.2(psychology)65(.)-189.2(O)0(f)-189.2(special)-189.2(note)-189.2(was)-189.2(their)-189.2(focus)-189.2(on)-189.2(whether)]TJ T* [(specialized)-317.5(training)-317.5(in)-317.5(clinical)-317.5(child)-317.5(psychology)-317.5(was)-317.5(best)-317.5(accomplished)-317.5(within)-317.5(a)]TJ T* [(scientist-practitioner)-330(or)-330(practitioner)20(-scientist)-330(model)-330(or)-330(if)-330(specialty)-330(training)-330(could)]TJ T* [(or)-269.4(should)-269.4(be)-269.4(done)-269.4(within)-269.4(the)-269.4(context)-269.4(of)-269.4(a)-269.4(general)-269.4(developmental)-269.4(psychology)-269.4(pro-)]TJ T* [(gram)-234(or)-234(if)-234(it)-234(should)-234(be)-234(integrated)-234(with)-234(training)-234(in)-234(school)-234(psychology)65(.)-216(T)35(uma)-234(\(1985\))]TJ T* [(published)-292.7(all)-292.7(21)-292.7(training)-292.7(recommendations)-292.7(made)-292.7(by)-292.7(the)-292.7(Hilton)-292.7(Head)-292.7(conference.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(uma)-196.2(\(1986\))-196.2(described)-196.2(the)-196.2(proceedings)-196.2(in)-196.2(a)-196.2(more)-196.2(contextual)-196.2(way)65(.)-196.2(Coursework)-196.2(was)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(to)-215.7(entail)-215.7(a)-215.7(life-span)-215.7(developmental)-215.7(approach.)-215.7(Practicum)-215.7(training)-215.7(was)-215.7(to)-215.7(include)-215.7(as-)]TJ T* [(sessment)-167.6(experiences)-167.6(with)-167.6(culturally)-167.6(diverse)-167.6(normal)-167.6(children)-167.6(in)-167.6(normal)-167.6(settings)-167.6(and)]TJ T* [(experience)-214.1(with)-214.1(interventions.)-196.1(The)-214.1(Division)-214.1(37)-196.1(T)70(ask)-214.1(Force)-214.1(Guidelines)-214.1(for)-196.1(T)35(raining)]TJ T* [(Psychologists)-296.2(to)-278.2(W)80(ork)-296.2(with)-296.2(Children,)-259.2(Y)100(outh,)-296.2(and)-296.2(Families)-296.2(\(Roberts,)-296.2(Erickson,)-296.2(&)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(uma,)-250(1985\))-250(were)-250(adopted.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 242.0179 Tm [(Contemporary)-250(Clinical)-250(T)74(raining)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 222.5907 Tm [(McFall)-278.7(\(2006\))-278.7(published)-278.7(an)-278.7(extensive)-278.7(review)-278.7(of)-278.7(training)-278.7(issues)-278.7(related)-278.7(to)-278.7(clinical)]TJ T* [(psychology)65(.)-350.8(His)-350.8(monograph)-350.8(examines)-350.8(premises)-350.8(on)-350.8(which)-350.8(training)-350.8(decisions)-350.8(are)]TJ T* [(based,)-163(compares)-163(our)-163(past)-163(to)-163(our)-163(present,)-163(considers)-163(how)-163(clinical)-163(training)-163(has)-163(changed)]TJ T* [(over)-250(the)-250(years,)-250(and)-250(proposes)-250(a)-250(blueprint)-250(for)-250(future)-250(clinical)-250(training.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Access)-214.7(to)-214.7(prescription)-214.7(privileges)-214.7(is)-214.7(a)-214.7(very)-214.7(substantial)-214.7(clinical)-214.7(training)-214.7(issue)-214.7(with)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(multiple)-307.9(pros)-307.9(and)-307.9(cons.)-289.9(The)-307.9(ability)-307.9(to)-307.9(write)-307.9(prescriptions)-307.9(for)-307.9(psychotropic)-307.9(medi-)]TJ T* [(cations)-321.3(means)-321.3(that)-321.3(psychologists)-321.3(can)-321.3(practice)-321.3(more)-321.3(independently)65(.)-321.3(I)0(t)-321.3(would)-321.3(also)]TJ T* [(expand)-189.7(the)-189.7(services)-189.7(of)18(fered)-189.7(by)-189.7(psychologists)-189.7(and)-189.7(thereby)-189.7(increase)-189.7(the)-189.7(proportion)-189.7(of)]TJ ET endstream endobj 66 0 obj > endobj 67 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(29)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(the)-285.4(population)-285.4(who)-285.4(could)-285.4(receive)-285.4(services;)-285.4(especially)-285.4(currently)-285.4(underserved)-285.4(pop-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(ulations.)-262.3(However)40(,)-262.3(adding)-262.3(suf)18(cient)-262.3(medical)-262.3(training)-262.3(to)-262.3(achieve)-262.3(parity)-262.3(with)-262.3(nurse)]TJ T* [(practitioners)-278.9(who)-278.9(already)-278.9(have)-278.9(prescription)-278.9(privileges)-278.9(would)-278.9(probably)-278.9(have)-278.9(to)-278.9(be)]TJ T* [(done)-168.3(postdoctorally)65(.)-150.3(The)-168.3(Department)-168.3(of)-168.3(Defense)-168.3(Psychopharmacology)-168.3(Demonstra-)]TJ T* [(tion)-232.3(Project)-232.3(rst)-232.3(entailed)-232.3(approximately)-232.3(45)-232.3(semester)-232.3(hours)-232.3(of)-232.3(training)-232.3(over)-232.3(2)-232.3(years)]TJ T* [(of)-219.5(full-time)-219.5(study)-219.5(at)-219.5(the)-201.5(W)80(alter)-219.5(Reed)-164.5(Army)-219.5(Medical)-219.5(Center)-219.5(plus)-219.4(a)-219.5(9-month)-219.5(to)-219.5(year)20(-)]TJ T* [(long)-150.6(full)-150.6(time)-150.6(residency)-150.6(for)-150.6(a)-150.6(total)-150.6(of)-150.6(3)-150.6(years)-150.6(full)-150.6(time)-150.6(postdoctoral)-150.6(training.)-95.6(Added)-150.6(to)]TJ T* [(the)-179.2(6)-179.2(t)0(o)-179.2(7)-179.2(years)-179.2(typically)-179.2(taken)-179.2(to)-179.2(obtain)-179.2(the)-179.2(PhD)-179.1(would)-179.2(extend)-179.2(professional)-179.2(training)]TJ T* [(to)-228.8(approximately)-228.8(a)-228.8(full)-228.8(decade)-228.8(and)-228.8(would)-228.8(proportionally)-228.8(increase)-228.8(student)-228.8(nancial)]TJ T* (debt.)Tj 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Other)-345.8(training)-345.8(models)-345.8(have)-345.8(been)-345.8(proposed.)-290.8(An)-290.8(AP)92(A)-290.7(task)-345.8(force)-345.8(\(Smyer)-345.8(et)-345.8(al.,)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(1993\))-235.1(recommended)-235.1(25)-235.1(to)-235.1(30)-235.1(under)18(graduate)-235.1(semester)-235.1(hours)-235.1(to)-235.1(meet)-235.1(entry)-235.1(require-)]TJ T* 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[(inpatient)-231.4(and)-231.4(outpatient)-231.4(practicum)-231.4(with)-231.4(2)-231.4(hours)-231.4(of)-231.4(supervision)-231.4(per)-231.4(week.)-213.4(This)-231.4(pro-)]TJ T* [(gram)-240.2(was)-240.2(designed)-240.2(to)-240.2(take)-240.2(2)-240.2(years)-240.2(if)-240.2(practicum)-240.2(training)-240.2(is)-240.2(taken)-240.2(concurrently)-240.2(with)]TJ T* [(didactics.)-179.6(In)-179.6(1996,)-179.6(the)-124.6(AP)92(A)-124.5(Council)-179.6(adopted)-179.6(training)-179.6(guidelines)-179.6(that)-179.6(have)-179.6(been)-179.6(used)]TJ T* [(in)-153.6(connection)-153.6(with)-153.6(legislative)-153.6(proposals)-153.6(by)-153.6(several)-153.6(states.)-153.6(Requirements)-153.6(include)-153.6(300)]TJ T* [(graduate)-262.2(contact)-262.2(hours)-262.2(of)-262.2(didactic)-262.2(training,)-262.2(approximately)-262.2(19)-262.2(semester)-262.2(hours,)-262.2(and)]TJ T* [(practicum)-252.4(experience)-252.4(suf)18(cient)-252.4(to)-252.4(cover)-252.4(treatment)-252.4(of)-252.4(100)-252.4(patients)-252.4(seen)-252.4(in)-252.4(both)-252.4(in-)]TJ T* [(patient)-259.2(and)-259.2(outpatient)-259.2(settings)-259.2(with)-259.2(at)-259.2(least)-259.2(2)-259.2(hours)-259.2(of)-259.2(supervision)-259.2(per)-259.2(week.)-259.2(Such)]TJ T* [(training)-312.2(is)-312.2(expected)-312.2(to)-312.2(take)-312.2(no)-312.2(less)-312.2(than)-312.2(2)-312.2(years.)-257.2(Additional)-312.2(details)-312.2(can)-312.2(be)-312.2(found)]TJ T* [(on)-309.3(the)-309.3(web)-309.3(site)-309.3(of)-254.3(AP)92(A)-254.2(Division)-309.3(55American)-309.3(Society)-309.3(for)-309.3(the)-254.3(Advancement)-309.3(of)]TJ T* [(Pharmacotherapy)-250(\(www)65(.division55.or)18(g/pdf/draftguidelines.pdf\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(An)-362.8(article)-362.8(by)-362.8(Heiby)65(,)-362.8(DeLeon,)-362.8(and)-307.8(Anderson)-362.8(\(2004\))-362.8(reported)-362.8(on)-362.8(a)-362.8(2002)-307.8(AP)92(A)]TJ 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[(practitioners,)-255(dentists,)-255(physician)-255(assistants,)-255(optometrists,)-255(and)-255(psychiatrists)-255(receive)]TJ T* [(leaving)-264.4(prescribing)-264.4(psychologists)-264.4(open)-264.4(to)-264.4(law)-264.4(suits)-264.4(on)-264.4(the)-264.4(basis)-264.4(that)-264.4(their)-264.4(training)]TJ T* [(is)-368.8(substandard)-368.8(and)-368.8(inadequate)-368.8(to)-368.8(protect)-368.8(the)-368.8(public.)-350.7(This)-368.8(concern)-368.8(primarily)-368.8(ap-)]TJ T* [(plies)-250.9(to)-250.9(Level)-250.9(3)-250.9(\(independent)-250.9(practice\))-250.9(training,)-250.9(which)-250.9(both)-250.9(parties)-250.9(believe)-250.9(should)]TJ T* [(be)-327(pursued)-327(post-doctorally)65(.)-327(Level)-327(2)-327(training)-327(entails)-327(collaborative)-327(practice)-327(with)-327(a)]TJ T* [(primary)-281.3(care)-281.3(physician)-281.3(who)-281.3(writes)-281.3(the)-281.3(prescription.)-281.3(Level)-281.3(1)-281.3(training)-281.3(entails)-281.3(basic)]TJ T* [(psychopharmacology)65(.)]TJ 1.0909 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[(collaborative)-268(practice.)-268(If)-268(successful,)-268(social)-268(workers)-268(and)-268(counselors)-268(may)-268(also)-268(seek)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(brief)-250(training)-250(as)-250(gateway)-250(to)-250(prescription)-250(privileges.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 657.36 Tm [(SUMMAR)35(Y)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 638.0325 Tm [(This)-234.8(chapter)-234.8(considers)-234.8(both)-234.8(the)-234.8(history)-234.8(and)-234.8(theoretical)-234.8(foundations)-234.8(of)-234.8(clinical)-234.8(psy-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(chology)-299.9(in)-299.9(three)-299.9(major)-299.9(sections.)-281.9(The)-299.9(rst)-299.9(section)-299.9(considers)-299.9(several)-299.9(philosophical)]TJ T* [(foundations)-275.2(because)-275.2(they)-275.2(inuence)-275.2(theory)-275.2(construction,)-275.2(assessment,)-275.2(intervention,)]TJ T* [(and)-237.3(training)-237.3(decisions.)-219.3(Three)-237.3(general)-237.3(positions)-237.3(can)-237.3(be)-237.3(distinguished)-237.3(along)-237.3(a)-237.3(philo-)]TJ T* [(sophical)-172(continuum)-172(dened)-172(by)-172(the)-172(demonstrative)-172(tradition)-172(of)-172(John)-172(Locke)-172(at)-172(one)-172(end)]TJ T* [(and)-284.8(the)-284.8(dialectical)-284.8(tradition)-284.8(of)-284.8(Immanuel)-284.8(Kant)-284.8(at)-284.8(the)-284.8(other)-284.8(end.)-229.8(A)-229.8(mixed)-284.8(position)]TJ T* [(has)-270.8(also)-270.8(been)-270.8(identied.)-215.8(Among)-270.8(the)-270.8(more)-270.8(inuential)-270.8(philosophical)-270.9(issues)-270.8(are:)-270.8(du-)]TJ T* [(alism)-243.9(versus)-243.9(monism;)-243.9(idealism)-243.9(versus)-243.9(realism;)-243.9(introspection)-243.9(versus)-243.9(extraspection;)]TJ T* [(procedural)-250(versus)-250(validating)-250(evidence;)-250(and)-250(nal)-250(versus)-250(ef)18(cient)-250(causes.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-277.4(second)-277.4(section)-277.4(addresses)-277.4(the)-277.4(scientic)-277.4(\(research\))-277.4(academic)-277.4(foundations)-277.4(of)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(clinical)-247.5(psychology)-247.5(beginning)-247.5(with)-247.5(the)-247.5(principle)-247.5(of)-247.5(falsiability)-247.5(that)-247.5(distinguishes)]TJ T* [(science)-281.8(from)-281.8(philosophy)65(.)-281.8(Religion)-281.8(and)-281.8(philosophy)-281.8(are)-281.8(both)-281.8(empirical)-281.8(in)-281.8(that)-281.8(they)]TJ T* [(are)-331.9(based)-331.9(on)-331.9(experience.)-331.9(Scientic)-331.9(hypotheses)-331.9(must)-331.9(be)-331.9(falsiable)-331.9(in)-331.9(order)-331.9(to)-331.9(be)]TJ T* [(testable)-214.9(and)-214.9(that)-214.9(requires)-214.9(some)-214.9(form)-214.9(of)-214.9(measurement)-214.9(and/or)-214.9(operational)-214.9(denition.)]TJ T* [(Science)-197.5(aims)-197.5(to)-197.5(predict)-197.5(and)-197.5(explain)-197.5(and)-197.5(that)-197.5(only)-197.5(occurs)-197.5(when)-197.5(uncertainty)-197.5(has)-197.5(been)]TJ T* [(reduced.)-237.7(Explanations)-237.7(are)-237.7(based)-237.7(on)-237.7(necessary)-237.7(and)-237.7(suf)18(cient)-237.7(conditions)-237.7(and)-237.7(can)-237.7(be)]TJ T* [(primarily)-195.9(mathematical,)-195.9(behavioral,)-195.9(or)-195.9(biological.)-195.9(Cognitive)-195.9(neuroscience)-195.9(network)]TJ T* [(explanations)-220.7(combine)-220.7(elements)-220.7(of)-220.7(all)-220.7(three)-220.7(types)-220.7(of)-220.7(explanations.)-220.7(Domain)-220.7(B)-220.7(o)0(f)-220.7(the)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(AP)92(A)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 2.0667 0 TD [(Guidelines)-213.7(and)-213.7(Principles)-213.7(for)-213.7(Accr)37(editation)-213.7(of)-213.7(Pr)45(o)10(g)0(r)15(ams)-213.7(in)-213.7(Pr)45(ofessional)-213.7(Psy-)]TJ -2.0117 -1.1818 TD [(c)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.3871 0 TD [(\(www)65(.apa.or)18(g/ed/gp2000.html\))-246(stipulates)-246(that)-246.1(clinical)-246(psychologists)-246.1(shall)]TJ -3.3871 -1.1818 TD [(be)-265.8(trained)-265.8(in)-265.8(the)-265.8(following)-265.8(six)-265.8(foundational)-265.8(areas:)-265.8(history)-265.9(and)-265.9(systems,)-265.8(biological)]TJ T* [(bases)-217.7(of)-217.7(behavior)40(,)-217.7(cognitive)-217.7(and)-217.7(af)18(fective)-217.7(bases)-217.7(of)-217.7(behavior)40(,)-217.7(social)-217.7(bases)-217.7(of)-217.7(behav-)]TJ T* [(ior)40(,)-250.6(individual)-250.6(bases)-250.6(of)-250.6(behavior)40(,)-250.6(and)-250.6(developmental)-250.6(bases)-250.6(of)-250.6(behavior)-250.6(in)-250.6(addition)]TJ T* [(to)-183.2(assessment,)-183.2(research)-183.2(methods,)-183.2(and)-183.2(statistics.)-165.2(The)-183.2(histories)-183.2(of)-183.2(clinical)-183.2(psychology)]TJ T* [(and)-244.6(psychometrics)-244.6(overlap)-244.6(substantially)65(.)-244.6(Psychological)-244.6(assessment)-244.6(was)-244.6(psycholo-)]TJ T* [(gist)55(s)-239.7(rst)-239.7(professional)-239.7(practice)-239.7(activity)-239.7(and)-239.7(psychological)-239.7(testing)-239.7(remains)-239.7(a)-239.7(major)]TJ T* [(tool)-173(for)-173(assessing)-173(and)-173(understanding)-173(individual)-173(dif)18(ferences.)-173(Causal)-173(inferences)-173(seem)]TJ T* [(frequently)-198(to)-198(require)-198(the)-198(structure)-198(and)-198(logical)-198(discipline)-198(imposed)-198(by)-198(research)-198(meth-)]TJ T* [(ods)-386.1(because)-386.1(Freud)55(s)-386.1(awed)-386.1(Necessary)-386.1(Condition)-368.1(Thesis)-386.1(no)-386.1(longer)-386.1(certies)-386.1(the)]TJ T* [(consulting)-207.8(room)-207.8(as)-207.8(probative.)-207.8(Qualitative)-207.8(data)-207.8(analyses)-207.8(now)-207.8(complement)-207.8(quantita-)]TJ T* [(tive)-247.4(ones.)-247.4(Questions)-247.4(regarding)-247.4(the)-247.4(ef)18(fectiveness)-247.4(of)-247.4(psychotherapy)-247.4(have)-247.4(concerned)]TJ T* [(clinical)-250.4(psychologists)-250.4(for)-250.4(several)-250.4(decades.)-232.4(While)-250.4(agreement)-250.4(has)-250.4(been)-250.4(reached)-250.4(that)]TJ T* [(ethical)-364.7(considerations)-364.7(require)-364.7(psychologists)-364.7(to)-364.7(use)-364.7(reliable)-364.7(and)-364.7(valid)-364.7(tests,)-364.7(sim-)]TJ T* [(ilar)-393.4(agreement)-393.4(regarding)-393.4(psychological)-393.4(interventions)-393.4(has)-393.4(not)-393.4(yet)-393.4(been)-393.4(reached.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-333.5(more)-333.5(major)-333.5(psychotherapies)-333.5(are)-333.5(briey)-333.5(reviewed.)-333.5(Common)-333.5(factors)-333.5(that)-333.5(un-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(derlay)-391.4(their)-391.4(ef)18(fectiveness)-391.4(are)-391.4(considered.)-373.4(V)111(alidating)-391.4(psychological)-391.4(principles)-391.4(is)]TJ T* [(an)-300.9(alternative)-300.9(to)-300.9(validating)-300.9(specic)-300.9(interventions)-300.9(and)-300.9(entails)-300.9(an)-300.9(understanding)-300.9(of)]TJ T* [(the)-206.2(mechanisms)-206.2(responsible)-206.2(for)-206.2(therapeutic)-206.2(change.)-206.2(Most)-206.2(mechanism)-206.2(explanations)]TJ T* [(mainly)-219.4(entail)-219.4(box)-219.4(and)-219.4(arrow)-219.4(diagrams.)-201.4(The)-219.4(box)-219.4(labels)-219.4(describe)-219.4(the)-219.4(function\(s\))-219.4(per)20(-)]TJ T* [(formed)-357(by)-357(the)-357(boxes)-357(but)-357(nothing)-357(is)-357(revealed)-357(regarding)-357(action)-357(mechanism\(s\).)-357(In)]TJ T* [(other)-199.5(words,)-199.5(the)-199.5(black)-199.5(box)-199.5(explanatory)-199.5(problem)-199.5(is)-199.5(solved)-199.5(with)-199.5(a)-199.5(string)-199.5(of)-199.5(smaller)]TJ ET endstream endobj 70 0 obj > endobj 71 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(31)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(black)-285.5(boxes)-285.5(with)-285.5(functional)-285.5(labels.)-285.5(Formal)-285.5(network)-285.5(theory)-285.5(provides)-285.5(a)-285.5(way)-285.5(to)-285.5(un-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(derstand)-179.5(how)-179.5(mind)-179.5(emer)18(ges)-179.5(from)-179.5(brain.)-161.5(The)-179.5(following)-179.5(ve)-179.5(connectionist)-179.5(principles)]TJ T* [(are)-279.2(discussed:)-279.2(priming,)-279.2(consonance)-279.2(via)-279.2(constraint)-279.2(satisfaction,)-279.2(part-whole)-279.2(pattern)]TJ T* [(completion,)-250(prototype)-250(extraction,)-250(graceful)-250(degradation.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-297.7(third)-297.7(section)-297.7(addresses)-297.7(general)-297.7(professional)-297.7(developments)-297.7(beginning)-297.7(with)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(the)-178.4(establishment)-178.4(of)-178.4(the)-178.4(rst)-178.4(psychological)-178.4(laboratory)-178.4(in)-178.4(Leipzig,)-178.4(Germany)65(,)-178.4(i)0(n)-178.4(1879)]TJ T* [(by)-305.7(W)40(ilhelm)-305.7(W)40(undt)-323.7(and)-323.7(Lightner)-305.7(W)40(itmer)-323.7(who)-323.7(established)-323.7(the)-323.7(rst)-323.7(psychological)]TJ T* [(clinic)-199.9(in)-199.9(1897)-199.9(and)-199.9(also)-199.9(established)-199.9(the)-199.9(rst)-199.9(graduate)-199.9(school)-199.9(curriculum)-199.9(for)-199.9(psychol-)]TJ T* [(ogists.)-258(The)-276(impact)-276(of)-258(W)80(orld)-258(W)80(a)0(r)-276(I)0(I)-276(and)-276(the)-276(big)-276(bang)-276(impact)-276(of)-276(Freud)55(s)-276(lectures)]TJ T* [(at)-316.8(Clark)-316.8(University)-316.8(are)-316.8(considered.)-316.8(Events)-316.8(leading)-316.8(up)-316.8(to)-316.8(the)-316.8(Boulder)-316.8(conference)]TJ T* 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Tm (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 118.4283 448.7425 Tm [(Albee,)-250(G)120(.)-232(W)92(.)-250(\(2000\).)-232(The)-250(Boulder)-250(Model)55(s)-250(fatal)-250(aw)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.4614 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(55)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.7242 0 TD [(,)-250(247248.)]TJ -32.1857 -1.4118 TD [(American)-177.3(Psychological)-122.3(Association)-177.3(Division)-177.3(40)-177.3(\(1995\).)-177.3(\(Clinical)-177.3(Neuropsychology\))-177.3(Records)-177.3(\(Mss.)-177.3(4745\).)]TJ 1.4668 -1.1765 TD [(Final)-157.1(Report)-157.1(of)-157.1(the)-157.1(Blue)-157.1(Ribbon)-157.1(Panel)-157.1(Professional)-157.1(Education)-139.1(T)70(ask)-157.1(Force)-157.1(of)-157.1(the)-157.1(California)-157.1(Psychological)]TJ -0.055 -1.1765 TD [(Association)-250(and)-250(the)-250(California)-250(School)-250(of)-250(Professional)-250(Psychology)65(,)-250(Los)-195(Angeles.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Anastasi,)-195(A.,)-250(&)-250(Urbina,)-250(S.)-250(\(1997\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.8883 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(testing)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.5582 0 TD [(.)-250(\(7th)-250(ed.,)-250(pp.)-250(3245\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Prentice-Hall.)]TJ -22.4465 -1.4118 TD [(A)92(yllon,)-172.4(T)74(.)0(,)-190.4(&)-135.4(Azrin,)-190.4(N.)-190.4(H.)-190.4(\(1968\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.3979 0 TD [(The)-190.4(tok)10(en)-190.4(economy:)-190.4(A)-190.3(motivational)-190.4(system)-190.4(for)-190.4(ther)15(apy)-190.4(and)-190.4(r)37(ehabilitation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 28.761 0 TD (.)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Appleton-Century-Crofts.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Beck,)-235.4(A.)-272.4(T)74(.)-290.4(\(1964\).)-272.4(Thinking)-290.4(and)-290.4(depression:)-290.4(Pt.)-290.4(II.)-272.4(Theory)-290.4(and)-290.4(therapy)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.5384 0 TD [(Ar)37(c)15(hives)-290.4(of)-290.4(Gener)15(al)-290.4(Psyc)15(hiatry)55(,)]TJ -28.1266 -1.1765 TD (10)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1 0 TD [(,)-250(561571.)]TJ -2.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Beck,)-346(A.)-383(T)74(.)-401(\(1970\).)-401(Cognitive)-401(therapy:)-401(Nature)-401(and)-401(relation)-401(to)-401(behavior)-401(therapy)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 33.6226 0 TD [(Behavior)-401(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-401(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4812 0 TD (,)Tj -40.692 -1.1765 TD (184200.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Beck,)-237.1(A.)-274.1(T)74(.)-292.1(\(1976\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.0755 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive)-292.1(ther)15(apy)-292.1(and)-292.1(the)-292.1(emotional)-292.1(disor)37(der)10(s)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.8328 0 TD [(.)-292.1(New)-255.1(Y)100(ork:)-292.1(International)-292.1(Universities)]TJ -25.4965 -1.1765 TD (Press.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Beck,)-277(A.)-314(T)74(.)0(,)-332(Rush,)-277(A.)-332(J.,)-332(Shaw)65(,)-332(B)0(.)-332(F)80(.,)-332(&)-332(Emery)65(,)-332(G)120(.)-332(\(1979\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 24.3664 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive)-332(ther)15(apy)-332(of)-332(depr)37(ession)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.9893 0 TD [(.)-332(New)-295(Y)100(ork:)]TJ -35.944 -1.1765 TD [(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD 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8.4912 0 TD [(,)-250(191244.)]TJ -11.514 -1.4118 TD [(Brent,)-227.4(D.)-172.4(A.,)-227.4(&)-227.4(Kolko,)-227.4(D.)-227.4(J.)-227.4(\(1998\).)-227.4(Psychotherapy:)-227.4(Denitions,)-227.4(mechanisms)-227.4(of)-227.4(action,)-227.4(and)-227.4(relationship)-227.4(to)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(etiological)-250(models.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.8612 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Abnormal)-250(Child)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(2)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.1174 0 TD [(,)-250(1725.)]TJ -26.3903 -1.4118 TD [(Brestan,)-383.7(E.)-365.7(V)129(.)0(,)-383.7(&)-383.7(Eyber)18(g,)-383.7(S.)-383.7(M.)-383.7(\(1998\).)-383.7(Ef)18(fective)-383.7(psychosocial)-383.7(treatments)-383.7(of)-383.7(conduct-disordered)-383.7(chil-)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(dren)-299.6(and)-299.6(adolescents:)-299.6(29)-299.6(years,)-299.6(82)-299.6(studies,)-299.6(and)-299.6(5,272)-299.6(kids.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 24.104 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-299.6(of)-299.6(Clinical)-299.6(Child)-299.6(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-299.6(2)0(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.5881 0 TD (,)Tj -40.692 -1.1765 TD (180189.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Brown,)-232(T)74(.)-250(S.)-250(\(1980\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.4632 0 TD [(Physiolo)10(gical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.2142 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Academic)-250(Press.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 72 0 obj > endobj 73 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(32)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 120.239 703.786 Tm [(Byrne,)-238.9(B.)-238.9(M.)-238.9(\(2006\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.6219 0 TD [(Structur)15(al)-238.9(equation)-238.9(modeling)-238.9(with)-238.9(EQS:)-238.9(Basic)-238.9(concepts,)-238.9(applications,)-238.9(and)-238.9(pr)45(o)10(g)0(r)15(am-)]TJ -7.2101 -1.1765 TD (ming)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2 0 TD [(.)-250(2nd)-250(ed.)-250(Mahwah,)-250(NJ:)-250(Erlbaum.)]TJ -3.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Cattell,)-250(J.)-250(M.)-250(\(1890\).)-250(Mental)-250(tests)-250(and)-250(measurements.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.6374 0 TD [(Mind,)-250(15)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.6111 0 TD [(,)-250(351373.)]TJ -25.2485 -1.4118 TD [(Chemtob,)-220(C.,)-220(Roitblat,)-220(H.)-220(L.,)-219.9(Hamada,)-220(R.)-220(S.,)-219.9(Carlson,)-220(J.)-220(G)120(.)0(,)-220(&)-202(T)70(wentyman,)-220(C.)-202(T)74(.)-220(\(1988\).)-165(A)-164.9(cognitive)-220(action)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(theory)-250(of)-250(post-traumatic)-250(stress)-250(disorder)55(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.1093 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Anxiety)-250(Disor)37(der)111(,)-250(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.0763 0 TD [(,)-250(253275.)]TJ -29.5974 -1.4118 TD [(Cohen,)-299.3(H.)-299.3(L.,)-299.3(&)-299.3(Filipczak,)-299.3(J.)-299.3(\(1971\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.3441 0 TD [(A)-299.2(n)0(e)15(w)-299.3(learning)-299.3(en)40(vir)45(onment:)-299.3(A)-299.2(case)-299.3(for)-299.3(learning)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.8821 0 TD [(.)-299.3(Boston:)-244.3(Authors)]TJ -33.8144 -1.1765 TD (Cooperative.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Committee)-459.8(on)-441.8(T)35(raining)-459.8(in)-459.8(Clinical)-459.8(Psychology)-459.8(of)-459.8(the)-404.8(American)-459.8(Psychological)-404.8(Association.)-459.8(\(1947\).)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Recommended)-450.8(graduate)-450.8(training)-450.8(program)-450.8(in)-450.8(clinical)-450.8(psychology)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.6153 0 TD [(American)-450.8(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-450.8(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.6259 0 TD [(,)-450.8(539)]TJ -38.2412 -1.1765 TD (558.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Creamer)40(,)-214.3(M.,)-214.3(Bur)18(gess,)-214.3(P)111(.)0(,)-214.3(&)-214.4(Pattison,)-214.3(P)111(.)-214.3(\(1992\).)-214.3(Reaction)-214.3(to)-214.3(trauma:)-159.3(A)-159.3(cognitive)-214.3(processing)-214.3(model.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 39.2678 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)]TJ -37.856 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(Abnormal)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(101)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.8082 0 TD [(,)-250(452459.)]TJ -13.22 -1.4118 TD [(DeRubeis,)-383.5(R.)-383.5(J.,)-383.5(Evans,)-383.5(M.)-383.5(D.,)-383.5(Hollon,)-383.5(S.)-383.5(D.,)-383.5(Garvey)65(,)-383.5(M)0(.)-383.5(J.,)-383.5(Grove,)-365.5(W)92(.)-383.5(M.,)-383.5(&)-365.5(T)35(uason,)-365.5(V)129(.)-383.5(B.)-383.5(\(1990\).)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(How)-325(does)-325(cognitive)-325(therapy)-325(work?)-325(Cognitive)-325(change)-325(and)-325(symptom)-325(change)-325(in)-325(cognitive)-325(therapy)-325(and)]TJ T* [(pharmacotherapy)-250(for)-250(depression.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.3853 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Consulting)-250(and)-250(Clinical)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(5)0(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.2574 0 TD [(,)-250(862869.)]TJ -35.0545 -1.4118 TD [(Dewsbury)65(,)-322(D)0(.)-267(A)0(.)-322(\(2000\).)-322(Introduction:)-322(Snapshots)-322(of)-322(psychology)-322(circa)-322(1900.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 31.2356 0 TD [(American)-322(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-322(55)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.8682 0 TD (,)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD (255259.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Donahoe,)-244.6(J.)-226.6(W)92(.)-244.6(\(1997\).)-226.6(The)-244.6(necessity)-244.6(of)-244.6(neural)-244.6(networks.)-244.6(In)-244.6(G)120(.)-244.6(E.)-244.6(S)18(telmach)-244.6(&)-244.6(P)111(.)-189.6(A)0(.)-226.6(V)60(roon)-244.6(\(Series)-244.6(Eds.\))-244.6(&)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(J.)-215.3(W)92(.)-233.3(Donahoe)-233.3(&)-215.3(V)129(.)-233.3(P)111(.)-233.3(Dorsel)-233.3(\(V)129(ol.)-233.3(Eds.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.6843 0 TD [(Advances)-233.3(in)-233.3(psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-233.3(V)111(ol.)-233.3(121.)-233.3(Neur)15(al-network)-233.3(models)-233.3(of)]TJ -16.6843 -1.1765 TD [(co)10(gnition:)-250(Biobehavior)15(al)-250(foundations)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.2813 0 TD [(\(pp.)-250(119\).)-195(Amsterdam:)-250(Elsevier.)]TJ -16.6931 -1.4118 TD [(Donn,)-203.3(J.)-203.3(E.,)-203.3(Routh,)-203.3(D.)-203.3(K.,)-203.3(&)-203.3(Lunt,)-203.3(I.)-203.3(\(2000\).)-203.3(From)-203.3(Leipzig)-203.3(to)-203.3(Luxembour)18(g)-203.3(\(via)-203.3(Boulder)-203.3(and)-185.3(V)111(ail\):)-148.3(A)-148.3(history)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(of)-205.3(clinical)-205.3(psychology)-205.3(training)-205.3(in)-205.3(Europe)-205.3(and)-205.3(the)-205.3(United)-205.3(S)18(tates.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 25.2278 0 TD [(Pr)45(ofessional)-205.3(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-205.3(Resear)37(c)15(h)-205.3(and)]TJ -25.2278 -1.1765 TD [(Pr)15(actice)10(,)-250(3)0(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.8631 0 TD [(,)-250(423428.)]TJ -6.2749 -1.4118 TD [(Ellis,)-195(A.)-250(\(1958\).)-250(Rational)-250(psychotherapy)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.5733 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Gener)15(al)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(5)0(9)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.9063 0 TD [(,)-250(3549.)]TJ -30.4796 -1.4118 TD [(Ellis,)-195(A.)-250(\(1962\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 6.6671 0 TD [(Reason)-250(and)-250(emotion)-250(in)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.2463 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(L)55(yle)-250(S)18(tuart.)]TJ -21.9135 -1.4118 TD [(Ellis,)-195(A.)-250(\(1994\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 6.6671 0 TD [(Reason)-250(and)-250(emotion)-250(in)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.4963 0 TD [(\(Rev)65(.)-250(ed.\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Birch)-250(Lane)-250(Press.)]TJ -22.1635 -1.4118 TD [(Epstein,)-343.3(N.,)-343.3(Schlesinger)40(,)-343.3(S)0(.)-343.3(E.,)-343.3(&)-343.3(Dryden,)-325.3(W)92(.)-343.3(\(1988\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.3822 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive-behavior)15(al)-343.3(ther)15(apy)-343.3(with)-343.3(families)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.4903 0 TD [(.)-343.3(New)]TJ -38.4977 -1.1765 TD [(Y)100(ork:)-250(Brunner/Mazel.)]TJ -1.3748 -1.4118 TD [(Eysenck,)-228.1(H.)-228.1(J.)-228.1(\(1952\).)-210.1(The)-228.2(ef)18(fects)-228.1(of)-228.1(psychotherapy:)-173.1(An)-228.1(evaluation.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.157 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-228.1(of)-228.1(Consulting)-228.2(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-228.1(1)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.9469 0 TD (,)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD (319324.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Eysenck,)-250(H.)-250(J.)-250(\(Ed.\).)-250(\(1960\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.6922 0 TD [(Behavior)-250(ther)15(apy)-250(and)-250(the)-250(neur)45(oses)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.9383 0 TD [(.)-250(Oxford:)-250(Per)18(gamon)-250(Press.)]TJ -25.6305 -1.4118 TD [(Fernber)18(ger)40(,)-686(S)0(.)-668(W)92(.)-686(\(1922\).)-686(Behavior)-686(versus)-686(introspective)-686(psychology)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 31.0566 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-686(Re)15(vie)15(w)74(,)-686(29)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.0472 0 TD (,)Tj -40.692 -1.1765 TD (409413.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Festinger)40(,)-250(L)0(.)-250(\(1957\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.4592 0 TD [(A)-250(theory)-250(of)-250(co)10(gnitive)-250(dissonance)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.0443 0 TD [(.)-250(S)18(tanford,)-250(CA:)-250(S)18(tanford)-250(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -21.5034 -1.4118 TD [(Foa,)-373.9(E.)-373.9(B.,)-373.9(&)-373.9(Kozak,)-373.9(M.)-373.9(J.)-373.9(\(1986\).)-373.9(Emotional)-373.9(processing)-373.9(of)-373.9(fear:)-373.9(Exposure)-373.9(to)-373.9(corrective)-373.9(information.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Bulletin,)-250(99)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.5582 0 TD [(,)-250(2035.)]TJ -11.97 -1.4118 TD [(Foa,)-429.1(E.)-429.1(B.,)-429.1(S)18(teketee,)-429.1(G)120(.)0(,)-429.1(&)-429.1(Rothbaum,)-429.1(B.)-429.1(O.)-429.1(\(1989\).)-429.1(Behavioral/cognitive)-429.1(conceptualization)-429.1(of)-429.1(post-)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(traumatic)-250(stress)-250(disorder)55(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.2212 0 TD [(Behavior)-250(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-250(2)0(0)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.6792 0 TD [(,)-250(155176.)]TJ -20.3122 -1.4118 TD [(Freedheim,)-195.4(D.)-195.4(K.)-195.4(\(Ed.\).)-195.4(\(1992\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.6411 0 TD [(History)-195.4(of)-195.4(psyc)15(hother)15(apy:)-195.4(A)-195.3(century)-195.4(of)-195.4(c)15(hang)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.3365 0 TD [(.)-177.4(W)80(ashington,)-195.4(DC:)-140.4(American)]TJ -29.5658 -1.1765 TD [(Psychological)-195(Association.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Freeman,)-250(L.)-250(\(1934\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.2762 0 TD [(Intr)45(oduction)-250(to)-250(physiolo)10(gical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.3363 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Ronald)-250(Press.)]TJ -24.6125 -1.4118 TD [(Freud,)-245.7(S.,)-245.7(&)-245.7(Breuer)40(,)-245.7(J)0(.)-245.7(\(1976\).)-245.7(S)18(tudies)-245.7(on)-245.7(hysperia.)-245.7(In)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.7583 0 TD [(The)-245.7(complete)-245.7(psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-245.7(works)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.7664 0 TD [(:)-245.7(J)0(.)-245.7(S)18(trachey)-245.7(\(Ed.)]TJ -34.1129 -1.1765 TD [(&)-232(T)35(rans.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.3351 0 TD [(V)111(ol.)-250(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 2.278 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Norton.)-250(\(Original)-250(work)-250(published)-250(1976\))]TJ -8.0249 -1.4118 TD [(Gareld,)-318(S.)-318(L.)-318(\(1965\).)-318(Historical)-318(introduction.)-318(In)-318(B.)-318(B.)-300(W)80(olman)-318(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 28.9816 0 TD [(Handbook)-318(of)-318(clinical)-318(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -27.5698 -1.1765 TD [(\(pp.)-250(135140\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(McGraw-Hill.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Ghiselli,)-250(E.)-250(E.)-250(\(1964\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.0552 0 TD [(Theory)-250(of)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(measur)37(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.1863 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(McGraw-Hill.)]TJ -24.2415 -1.4118 TD [(Ghiselli,)-213.1(E.)-213.1(E.,)-213.1(Campbell,)-213.1(J.)-213.1(P)111(.)0(,)-213.1(&)-213.1(Zedeck,)-213.1(S.)-213.1(\(1981\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 20.9367 0 TD [(Measur)37(ement)-213.1(theory)-213.1(for)-213.1(the)-213.1(behavior)15(al)-213.1(sciences)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.066 0 TD [(.)-213.1(New)]TJ -38.6279 -1.1765 TD [(Y)100(ork:)-250(Freeman.)]TJ -1.3748 -1.4118 TD [(Goodenough,)-250(D.)-250(R.)-250(\(1949\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.2212 0 TD [(Mental)-250(testing:)-250(Its)-250(history)55(,)-250(principles,)-250(and)-250(applications)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 401.577 173.7737 Tm [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Rinehart.)]TJ -33.2227 -1.4118 TD [(Granic,)-213.7(I.,)-213.7(&)-213.7(Patterson,)-213.7(G)120(.)-213.7(R.)-213.7(\(2006\).)-195.7(T)70(oward)-213.7(a)-213.7(comprehensive)-213.7(model)-213.7(of)-213.7(antisocial)-213.7(development:)-158.7(A)-158.6(systems)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(dynamic)-250(systems)-250(approach.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.2762 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Re)15(vie)15(w)74(,)-250(113)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.6752 0 TD [(,)-250(101131.)]TJ -23.3632 -1.4118 TD [(Grawe,)-250(K.)-250(\(2002\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.5532 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9312 0 TD [(.)-250(Cambridge,)-250(MA:)-250(Hogrefe)-250(&)-250(Huber)55(.)]TJ -16.4843 -1.4118 TD [(Grencavage,)-206.8(L.)-206.8(M.,)-206.8(&)-206.8(Norcross,)-206.8(J.)-206.8(C.)-206.8(\(1990\).)-188.8(Where)-206.8(are)-206.8(the)-206.8(commonalities)-206.8(among)-206.8(the)-206.8(therapeutic)-206.8(common)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD (factors?)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.4151 0 TD [(Pr)45(ofessional)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-250(Resear)37(c)15(h)-250(and)-250(Pr)15(actice)10(,)-250(2)0(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.9614 0 TD [(,)-250(372378.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj > endobj 75 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(33)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 118.894 703.786 Tm [(Grossman,)-250(S.)-250(B.)-250(\(1965\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.9442 0 TD [(Physiolo)10(gical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.2142 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -20.1584 -1.4118 TD (Gr)Tj 1.1385 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD [(unbaum,)-226.1(A.)-281.1(\(1984\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.1484 0 TD [(The)-281.1(foundations)-281.1(of)-281.1(psyc)15(hoanalysis:)-281.1(A)-281.1(philosophical)-281.1(critique)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 24.228 0 TD [(.)-281.1(Berkeley:)-281.1(University)]TJ -32.0197 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(California)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Gulliksen,)-250(H.)-250(\(1950\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.7772 0 TD [(Theory)-250(of)-250(mental)-250(tests)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.8612 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -17.6384 -1.4118 TD [(Hartmann,)-314.1(H.)-314.1(\(1958\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.0794 0 TD [(Ego)-314.1(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)-314.1(and)-314.1(the)-314.1(pr)45(oblem)-314.1(of)-314.1(adaptation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.0918 0 TD [(.)-314.1(\(D.)-314.1(Rapaport,)-296.1(T)35(rans.\).)-314.1(New)-277.1(Y)100(ork:)]TJ -26.7594 -1.1765 TD [(International)-250(Universities)-250(Press.)-250(\(Original)-250(work)-250(published)-250(1939\))]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Hathaway)65(,)-250(S)0(.)-250(R)0(.)-250(\(1942\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.8782 0 TD [(Physiolo)10(gical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.2142 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Appleton-Century-Croft.)]TJ -20.0924 -1.4118 TD [(Haverkamp,)-286.3(B.)-286.3(E.,)-286.3(Morrow)65(,)-286.3(S)0(.)-286.3(L.,)-286.3(&)-286.3(Ponterotto,)-286.3(J.)-286.3(G)120(.)-286.3(\(2005\).)-231.3(A)-231.3(time)-286.3(and)-286.3(place)-286.3(for)-286.3(qualitative)-286.3(and)-286.3(mixed)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(methods)-250(in)-250(counseling)-250(psychology)-250(research.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.9424 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Counseling)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(5)0(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.2003 0 TD [(,)-250(123125.)]TJ -34.5545 -1.4118 TD [(Hayes,)-241.2(S.)-241.2(C.,)-241.2(S)18(trosahl,)-241.2(K.,)-241.2(&)-223.2(W)40(ilson,)-241.2(K.)-241.2(G)120(.)-241.2(\(1999\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 20.4654 0 TD [(Acceptance)-241.2(and)-241.2(commitment)-241.2(ther)15(apy:)-241.2(An)-241.2(e)20(xperimental)]TJ -19.0536 -1.1765 TD [(appr)45(oac)15(h)-250(t)0(o)-250(behavior)-250(c)15(hang)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.7192 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -13.131 -1.4118 TD [(Heiby)65(,)-233.5(E)0(.)-233.5(M.,)-233.5(DeLeon,)-233.5(P)111(.)-233.5(H.,)-233.5(&)-178.5(Anderson,)-215.5(T)74(.)-233.5(\(2004\).)-178.5(A)-178.5(debate)-233.5(on)-233.5(prescription)-233.5(privileges)-233.5(for)-233.5(psychologists.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Pr)45(ofessional)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-250(Resear)37(c)15(h)-250(and)-250(Pr)15(actice)10(,)-250(3)0(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.9614 0 TD [(,)-250(336344.)]TJ -22.3732 -1.4118 TD [(Heider)40(,)-250(F)80(.)-250(\(1958\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.3232 0 TD [(The)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)-250(of)-250(interper)10(sonal)-250(r)37(elations)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.6504 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -23.9735 -1.4118 TD [(Hernstein,)-395.2(R.)-395.2(J.)-395.2(\(1989\).)-395.2(Darwinism)-395.2(and)-395.2(behaviourism:)-395.2(Parallels)-395.2(and)-395.2(intersections.)-395.2(In)-340.2(A.)-395.2(Grafen)-395.2(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Evolution)-250(and)-250(its)-250(inuence)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9442 0 TD [(\(pp.)-250(3561\).)-250(Oxford:)-250(Clarendon.)]TJ -12.356 -1.4118 TD [(Hersen,)-184.7(M.,)-184.7(Sledge,)-166.7(W)92(.)0(,)-184.7(Gross,)-129.7(A.)-184.7(M.,)-184.7(Kay)65(,)-184.7(J.,)-184.7(Rounsaville,)-184.7(B.,)-184.7(&)-166.7(T)35(ryon,)-166.7(W)92(.)-166.7(W)92(.)-184.7(\(Eds.\).)-184.7(\(2002\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 36.9108 0 TD (Encyclopedia)Tj -35.499 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.8301 0 TD [(.)-250(\()18(V)129(ols.)-250(1)-250(&)-250(2\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Academic)-250(Press.)]TJ -8.2419 -1.4118 TD [(Hollingworth,)-299.4(L.)-299.4(S.)-299.4(\(1918\).)-299.4(Further)-299.4(communications)-299.4(regarding)-299.4(A)-244.4(plan)-299.4(for)-299.4(the)-299.4(technical)-299.4(training)-299.4(of)-299.4(con-)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(sulting)-250(psychologists.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.3622 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Applied)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.2553 0 TD [(,)-250(280285.)]TJ -24.0292 -1.4118 TD [(Honaker)40(,)-185.9(L)0(.)-185.9(M)0(.)-185.9(\(1988\).)-167.9(The)-185.9(equivalency)-185.9(of)-185.9(computerized)-185.9(and)-185.9(conventional)-185.9(MMPI)-185.9(administration:)-130.9(A)-130.9(critical)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(review)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 3.1561 0 TD [(Clinical)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.0032 0 TD [(,)-250(561577.)]TJ -13.571 -1.4118 TD [(Ilardi,)-394.4(S.)-394.4(S.)-394.4(\(2002\).)-376.4(The)-394.4(cognitive)-394.4(neuroscience)-394.4(perspective:)-339.4(A)-339.3(brief)-394.4(primer)-394.4(for)-394.4(clinical)-394.4(psychologists.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Behavior)-250(Ther)15(apist,)-250(25)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.2352 0 TD [(,)-250(4952.)]TJ -10.647 -1.4118 TD [(Jones,)-250(M.)-250(C.)-250(\(1924\).)-195(A)-195(laboratory)-250(study)-250(of)-250(fear:)-232(The)-250(case)-250(of)-250(Peter)55(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 26.5895 0 TD [(P)80(eda)10(go)10(gical)-250(Seminary)55(,)-250(3)0(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.4272 0 TD [(,)-250(308315.)]TJ -37.0168 -1.4118 TD [(Kazdin,)-195(A.)-250(E.)-250(\(1977\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8322 0 TD [(The)-250(tok)10(en)-250(economy:)-250(A)-250(r)37(e)15(vie)15(w)-250(and)-250(e)15(valuation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.9604 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Plenum)-250(Press.)]TJ -26.7925 -1.4118 TD [(Kazdin,)-195(A.)-250(E.)-250(\(1978\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8322 0 TD [(History)-250(of)-250(behavior)-250(modication)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.0833 0 TD [(.)-250(Baltimore:)-250(University)-250(Park)-250(Press.)]TJ -21.9155 -1.4118 TD [(Kazdin,)-263.4(A.)-318.4(E.)-318.4(\(2002\).)-318.4(Psychosocial)-318.4(treatments)-318.4(for)-318.4(conduct)-318.4(disorder)-318.4(in)-318.4(children)-318.4(and)-318.4(adolescents.)-318.4(In)-318.4(P)111(.)-318.4(E.)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Nathan)-187.2(&)-187.3(J)0(.)-187.2(M)0(.)-187.2(Gorman)-187.3(\(Eds.\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.5107 0 TD [(A)-187.2(guide)-187.2(to)-187.3(tr)37(eatments)-187.2(that)-187.2(work)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.2884 0 TD [(.)-187.2(\(2nd)-187.2(ed.,)-187.2(pp.)-187.2(5785\).)-187.2(New)-150.3(Y)100(ork:)-187.2(Oxford)]TJ -24.7991 -1.1765 TD [(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Kirsch,)-344.7(I.,)-344.7(&)-326.7(W)40(inter)40(,)-344.7(C)0(.)-344.7(\(1983\).)-289.7(A)-289.6(history)-344.7(of)-344.7(clinical)-344.7(psychology.)-344.7(In)-344.7(C.)-344.7(E.)-326.7(W)80(alker)-344.7(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 36.565 0 TD [(The)-344.7(handbook)]TJ -35.1533 -1.1765 TD [(of)-269.3(clinical)-269.3(psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-269.3(Theory)55(,)-269.3(r)37(esear)37(c)15(h)0(,)-269.3(and)-269.3(pr)15(actice)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 21.6509 0 TD [(.)-269.3(\()18(V)129(ol.)-269.3(1,)-269.3(pp.)-269.3(330\).)-269.3(Homewood,)-269.3(IL:)-269.3(Dow-Jones)]TJ -21.6509 -1.1765 TD (Irwin.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Klerman,)-250(G)120(.)-250(L.)-250(\(1984\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.3782 0 TD [(Interper)10(sonal)-250(ther)15(apy)-250(of)-250(depr)37(ession)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.2983 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Basic)-250(Books.)]TJ -23.6765 -1.4118 TD [(Koocher)40(,)-300.4(G)120(.)-300.4(P)111(.,)-300.4(&)-300.4(Keith-Spiegel,)-300.4(P)111(.)-300.4(\(1998\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.7474 0 TD [(Ethics)-300.4(in)-300.4(psyc)15(holo)10(gy:)-300.4(Pr)45(ofessional)-300.4(standar)37(ds)-300.4(and)-300.4(cases)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 22.7735 0 TD (\(2nd)Tj -39.1091 -1.1765 TD [(ed.,)-250(pp.)-250(1218\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Oxford)-250(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Korman,)-211.6(M.)-211.6(\(1974\).)-211.6(National)-211.6(conference)-211.6(on)-211.6(levels)-211.6(and)-211.6(patterns)-211.6(of)-211.6(professional)-211.6(training)-211.6(in)-211.6(psychology:)-193.6(The)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(major)-250(themes.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 5.9161 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(29,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.2242 0 TD (441449.)Tj -18.5521 -1.4118 TD [(Kunda,)-260.9(Z.,)-260.9(&)-242.9(Thagard,)-260.9(P)111(.)-260.9(\(1996\).)-260.9(Forming)-260.9(impressions)-260.9(from)-260.9(stereotypes,)-260.9(traits,)-260.9(and)-260.9(behaviors:)-205.9(A)-205.9(parallel-)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(constraint-satisfaction)-250(theory)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.0723 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Re)15(vie)15(w)74(,)-250(103,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.1752 0 TD (284308.)Tj -24.6593 -1.4118 TD [(Kvale,)-317.2(S.)-317.2(\(1996\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.3116 0 TD [(InterV)74(ie)15(ws:)-317.2(An)-317.2(intr)45(oduction)-317.2(to)-317.2(qualitative)-317.2(r)37(esear)37(c)15(h)-317.2(intervie)15(wing)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 25.9425 0 TD [(.)-299.2(Thousand)-317.2(Oaks,)-317.2(CA:)]TJ -31.8424 -1.1765 TD (Sage.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Lambert,)-187.9(M.)-187.9(J.,)-187.9(&)-187.9(Ber)18(gin,)-132.9(A.)-187.9(E.)-187.9(\(1994\).)-169.9(The)-187.9(ef)18(fectiveness)-187.9(of)-187.9(psychotherapy.)-187.9(In)-132.9(A.)-187.9(E.)-187.9(Ber)18(gin)-187.9(&)-187.9(S)0(.)-187.9(L)0(.)-187.9(Gareld)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD (\(Eds.\),)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.9161 0 TD [(Handbook)-250(of)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)-250(and)-250(behavior)-250(c)15(hang)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.1644 0 TD [(\(pp.)-250(143189\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -24.4922 -1.4118 TD [(Lambert,)-185(M.)-185(J.,)-185(Shapiro,)-185(D.)-130(A.,)-185(&)-185(Ber)18(gin,)-130(A.)-185(E.)-185(\(1986\).)-167(The)-185(ef)18(fectiveness)-185(of)-185(psychotherapy.)-185(In)-185(S.)-185(L.)-185(Gareld)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(&)-213(A)0(.)-268(E)0(.)-268(Ber)18(gin)-268(\(Eds.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.2663 0 TD [(Handbook)-268(of)-268(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)-268(and)-268(behavior)-268(c)15(hang)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.2725 0 TD [(\(3rd)-268(ed.,)-268(pp.)-268(157212\).)-268(New)]TJ -29.5758 -1.1765 TD [(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -1.3748 -1.4118 TD [(Lazarus,)-195(A.)-195(A.)-250(\(1976\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.1652 0 TD [(Multimodal)-250(behavior)-250(ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.7623 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Springer)55(.)]TJ 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 118.894 171.7812 Tm [(Lehmann,)-188.8(H.)-188.8(E.,)-188.8(&)-188.8(Ban,)-170.8(T)74(.)-133.8(A.)-188.8(\(1997\).)-170.8(This)-188.8(history)-188.8(of)-188.8(the)-188.8(pharmacology)-188.8(of)-188.8(schizophrenia.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 35.134 0 TD [(Canadian)-188.8(J)25(ournal)]TJ -33.7222 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(Psyc)15(hiatry)55(,)-250(4)0(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.7351 0 TD [(,)-250(152162.)]TJ -8.1469 -1.4118 TD [(Levy)65(,)-250(L)0(.)-250(H)0(.)-250(\(1962\).)-232(The)-250(skew)-250(in)-250(clinical)-250(psychology)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.3494 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(17)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.7242 0 TD [(,)-250(244249.)]TJ -32.0737 -1.4118 TD [(Li,)-232.6(S.-C.,)-232.6(Lindenber)18(ger)40(,)-232.6(U.,)-232.6(&)-232.6(Sikstr)]TJ 14.6049 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD [(om,)-232.6(S.)-232.6(\(2001\).)-177.6(Aging)-232.6(cognition:)-232.6(From)-232.6(neuromodulation)-232.6(to)-232.6(representa-)]TJ -13.1096 -1.1765 TD (tion.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.056 0 TD [(T)55(r)37(ends)-250(in)-250(Co)10(gnitive)-250(Sciences,)-250(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.5363 0 TD [(,)-250(479486.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 76 0 obj > endobj 77 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(34)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 120.239 703.786 Tm [(Li,)-320.5(S.-C.,)-320.6(Naveh-Benjamin,)-320.5(M.,)-320.6(&)-320.6(Lindenber)18(ger)40(,)-320.5(U)0(.)-320.5(\(2005\).)-265.5(Aging)-320.6(neuromodulation)-320.6(impairs)-320.6(associative)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(binding:)-195(A)-195(neurocomputational)-250(account.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.3053 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Science)10(,)-250(1)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.4352 0 TD [(,)-250(445450.)]TJ -28.1523 -1.4118 TD [(Li,)-321.4(S.-C.,)-321.4(&)-321.4(Sikstr)]TJ 7.6049 -0.051 TD ()Tj -0.0835 0.051 TD [(om,)-321.4(S.)-321.4(\(2002\).)-321.4(Integrative)-321.4(neurocomputational)-321.4(perspective)-321.4(on)-321.4(cognitive)-321.4(aging,)-321.4(neuro-)]TJ -6.1096 -1.1765 TD [(modulation,)-250(and)-250(representation.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.9153 0 TD [(Neur)45(oscience)-250(and)-250(Biobehavior)15(al)-250(Re)15(vie)15(ws,)-250(26)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.1024 0 TD [(,)-250(795808.)]TJ -32.4294 -1.4118 TD [(Lilienfeld,)-191.5(S.)-191.5(O.,)-191.5(L)55(ynn,)-191.5(S.)-191.5(J.)-191.5(&)-191.5(Lohr)40(,)-191.5(J)0(.)-191.5(M)0(.)-191.5(\(Eds.\).)-191.5(\(2003\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.5638 0 TD [(Science)-191.5(and)-191.5(pseudoscience)-191.5(in)-191.5(clinical)-191.5(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.5401 0 TD (.)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Lilienfeld,)-297.5(S.)-297.5(O.,)-279.5(W)80(ood,)-297.5(J.)-297.5(M.,)-297.5(&)-297.5(Garb,)-297.5(H.)-297.5(N.)-297.5(\(2000\).)-279.5(The)-297.5(scientic)-297.5(status)-297.5(of)-297.5(projective)-297.5(techniques.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 40.5768 0 TD (Psy-)Tj -39.165 -1.1765 TD [(c)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Science)-250(in)-250(the)-250(Public)-250(Inter)37(est,)-250(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.1304 0 TD [(,)-250(2766.)]TJ -18.5421 -1.4118 TD [(Linehan,)-378.8(M.)-378.8(M.)-378.8(\(1993\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.2365 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive-behavior)15(al)-378.8(tr)37(eatment)-378.8(of)-378.8(bor)37(derline)-378.8(per)10(sonality)-378.8(disor)37(der)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 27.0257 0 TD [(.)-378.8(New)-341.8(Y)100(ork:)]TJ -35.8504 -1.1765 TD [(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Lipsey)65(,)-160.5(M)0(.)-142.5(W)92(.,)-160.5(&)-142.5(W)40(ilson,)-160.5(D.)-160.5(B.)-160.5(\(1993\).)-142.5(The)-160.5(ef)18(cacy)-160.5(of)-160.5(psychological,)-160.5(educational,)-160.5(and)-160.5(behavioral)-160.5(treatment:)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Conrmation)-250(from)-250(meta-analyses.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.9433 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(48)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.7242 0 TD [(,)-250(1)37(1811209.)]TJ -26.0793 -1.4118 TD [(Luborsky)65(,)-314.6(L.,)-314.6(&)-314.6(Barrett,)-314.6(M.)-314.6(S.)-314.6(\(2006\).)-296.6(The)-314.6(history)-314.6(and)-314.6(empirical)-314.6(status)-314.6(of)-314.6(key)-314.6(psychoanalytic)-314.6(concepts.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Annual)-250(Re)15(vie)15(w)-250(o)0(f)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.8053 0 TD [(,)-250(19.)]TJ -14.217 -1.4118 TD [(Machover)40(,)-274.7(K)0(.)-274.7(\(1949\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9764 0 TD [(P)80(e)0(r)10(sonality)-274.7(pr)45(ojection)-274.7(in)-274.7(the)-274.7(dr)15(awing)-274.7(of)-274.7(the)-274.7(human)-274.7(gur)37(e:)-274.7(A)-274.7(method)-274.7(of)-274.7(per)10(sonality)]TJ -7.5646 -1.1765 TD [(in)40(vestigation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.1271 0 TD [(.)-250(Springeld,)-250(IL:)-250(Charles)-250(C)-232(Thomas.)]TJ -6.5389 -1.4118 TD [(Mahoney)65(,)-250(M)0(.)-250(J)0(.)-250(\(1974\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.6562 0 TD [(Co)10(gnition)-250(and)-250(behavior)-250(modication)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.7963 0 TD [(.)-250(Cambridge,)-250(MA:)-250(Ballinger)55(.)]TJ -24.4525 -1.4118 TD [(Mahoney)65(,)-243.4(M)0(.)-243.4(J)0(.)-243.4(\(1977\).)-243.4(Reections)-243.4(on)-243.4(the)-243.4(cognitive-learning)-243.4(trend)-243.4(in)-243.4(psychotherapy)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 34.2383 0 TD [(American)-243.4(Psyc)15(holo-)]TJ -32.8265 -1.1765 TD [(gist,)-250(32)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 2.9451 0 TD [(,)-250(513.)]TJ -4.3568 -1.4118 TD [(Malgady)65(,)-206.7(R.,)-206.7(Rogler)40(,)-206.7(L)0(.)-206.7(H.,)-206.7(&)-188.7(T)35(ryon,)-188.7(W)92(.)-188.7(W)92(.)-206.7(\(1992\).)-206.7(Issues)-206.7(of)-206.7(validity)-206.7(in)-206.7(the)-206.7(Diagnostic)-206.7(Interview)-206.7(Schedule.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Psyc)15(hiatric)-250(Resear)37(c)15(h)0(,)-250(2)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.3233 0 TD [(,)-250(5967.)]TJ -15.7351 -1.4118 TD [(Martin,)-329.6(G)120(.)0(,)-329.6(&)-329.6(Pear)40(,)-329.6(J)0(.)-329.6(\(2007\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.3716 0 TD [(Behavior)-329.6(modication:)-329.6(What)-329.6(it)-329.6(is)-329.6(and)-329.6(how)-329.6(to)-329.6(do)-329.6(it)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.8004 0 TD [(.)-329.6(\(8th)-329.6(ed.\).)-329.6(Englewood)]TJ -31.7602 -1.1765 TD [(Clif)18(fs,)-250(NJ:)-250(Prentice-Hall.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Masson,)-221(J.)-221(M.)-221(\(1984\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9392 0 TD [(The)-221(assault)-221(on)-221(truth:)-221(F)55(r)37(eud)40(s)-221(suppr)37(ession)-221(of)-221(the)-221(seduction)-221(theory)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 25.7645 0 TD [(.)-221(New)-184(Y)100(ork:)-221(Farrar)40(,)]TJ -33.292 -1.1765 TD [(S)18(traus,)-250(&)-250(Giroux.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Mays,)-261.8(D.)-243.8(T)74(.)0(,)-261.8(&)-261.8(Franks,)-261.8(C.)-261.8(M.)-261.8(\(Eds.\).)-261.8(\(1985\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.2074 0 TD [(Ne)40(gative)-261.8(outcome)-261.8(in)-261.8(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)-261.8(and)-261.8(what)-261.8(to)-261.8(do)-261.8(about)-261.8(it)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 23.8965 0 TD (.)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Springer)55(.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(McFall,)-274(R.)-274(M.)-274(\(2006\).)-274(Doctoral)-274(training)-274(in)-274(clinical)-274(psychology)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 25.7055 0 TD [(Annual)-274(Re)15(vie)15(w)-274(o)0(f)-274(Clinical)-274(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-274(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.3983 0 TD (,)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD (2149.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(McGinn,)-294.5(L.)-294.5(K.,)-294.5(&)-294.6(Sanderson,)-276.5(W)92(.)-294.5(E.)-294.5(\(1999\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.0777 0 TD [(T)55(r)37(eatment)-294.5(of)-294.5(obsessive-compulsive)-294.5(disor)37(der)10(s)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.021 0 TD [(.)-294.5(Lanham,)-294.5(MD:)]TJ -34.7419 -1.1765 TD (Aronson.)Tj -1.3568 -1.4118 TD [(McGinn,)-154.8(L.)-154.8(K.,)-154.8(&)-117.8(Y)100(oung,)-154.8(J.)-154.8(E.)-154.8(\(1996\).)-154.8(Schema-focused)-154.8(therapy.)-154.8(In)-154.8(D.)-154.8(Clark)-154.8(&)-154.8(P)111(.)-154.8(Salkovskis)-154.8(\(Eds.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 38.6858 0 TD [(F)55(r)45(ontier)10(s)]TJ -37.2741 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(co)10(gnitive)-250(ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.2242 0 TD [(\(pp.)-250(182207\).)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -9.6359 -1.4118 TD [(McLeod,)-273.4(P)111(.)0(,)-273.4(Plunkett,)-273.4(K.,)-273.4(&)-273.4(Rolls,)-273.4(E.)-255.4(T)74(.)-273.4(\(1998\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.536 0 TD [(Intr)45(oduction)-273.4(to)-273.4(connectionist)-273.4(modelling)-273.4(of)-273.4(co)10(gnitive)-273.4(pr)45(o-)]TJ -18.1242 -1.1765 TD (cesses)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.4991 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Oxford)-250(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -3.9108 -1.4118 TD [(Meehl,)-239.2(P)111(.)-239.2(E.)-239.2(\(1971\).)-184.2(A)-184.2(scientic,)-239.2(scholarly)65(,)-239.2(nonresearch)-239.2(doctorate)-239.2(for)-239.2(clinical)-239.2(practitioners:)-184.2(Ar)18(guments)-239.2(pro)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(and)-296.8(con.)-296.8(In)-296.8(R.)-296.8(R.)-296.8(Holt)-296.8(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.9376 0 TD [(Ne)15(w)-296.8(horizon)-296.8(for)-296.8(psyc)15(hother)15(apy:)-296.8(A)20(utonomy)-296.8(as)-296.8(a)-296.8(p)0(r)45(ofession)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 24.0416 0 TD [(\(pp.)-296.8(3781\).)]TJ -35.9792 -1.1765 TD [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(International)-250(Universities)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Meichenbaum,)-284.2(D.)-284.2(\(1977\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.7118 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive-behavior)-284.2(modication:)-284.2(An)-284.2(inte)40(gr)15(ative)-284.2(appr)45(oac)15(h)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 23.3993 0 TD [(.)-284.2(New)-247.2(Y)100(ork:)-284.2(Plenum)]TJ -32.6993 -1.1765 TD (Press.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Monroe,)-250(R.)-250(L.)-250(\(1955\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.1102 0 TD [(Sc)15(hools)-250(of)-250(psyc)15(hoanalytic)-250(thought)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.6643 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Dryden)-250(Press.)]TJ -22.7745 -1.4118 TD [(Mor)18(gan,)-250(C.)-232(T)74(.)-250(\(1965\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.0002 0 TD [(Physiolo)10(gical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.2142 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(McGraw-Hill.)]TJ -19.2144 -1.4118 TD [(Mowrer)40(,)-237.9(O)0(.)-237.9(H)0(.)-237.9(\(1947\).)-237.9(On)-237.9(the)-237.9(dual)-237.9(nature)-237.9(of)-237.9(learning:)-182.9(A)-182.9(re-interpretation)-237.9(of)-237.9(conditioning)-237.9(and)-237.9(problem-)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD (solving.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.8891 0 TD [(Harvar)37(d)-250(Educational)-250(Re)15(vie)15(w)74(,)-250(17)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.0803 0 TD [(,)-250(102148.)]TJ -18.3811 -1.4118 TD [(Mowrer)40(,)-191.8(O)0(.)-191.8(H)0(.)-191.8(\(1956\).)-173.8(T)70(wo-factor)-191.8(learning)-191.8(reconsidered,)-191.8(with)-191.8(special)-191.7(reference)-191.8(to)-191.8(secondary)-191.8(reinforcement)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(and)-250(the)-250(concept)-250(of)-250(habit.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.1092 0 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-250(Re)15(vie)15(w)74(,)-250(63)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.1752 0 TD [(,)-250(1)37(14128.)]TJ -21.6962 -1.4118 TD [(Mowrer)40(,)-195.5(O)0(.)-195.5(H.,)-195.5(&)-195.5(Mowrer)40(,)-177.5(W)92(.)-195.5(M)0(.)-195.5(\(1938\).)-195.5(Enuresis:)-140.5(A)-140.4(method)-195.5(for)-195.5(its)-195.5(study)-195.5(and)-195.5(treatment.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 35.1843 0 TD [(American)-195.5(J)25(ournal)]TJ -33.7725 -1.1765 TD [(of)-250(Orthopsyc)15(hiatry)55(,)-250(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.5132 0 TD [(,)-250(436459.)]TJ -9.9249 -1.4118 TD [(Murray)65(,)-261.8(H)0(.)-206.8(A)0(.)-261.8(\(Ed.\).)-261.8(\(1938\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.5753 0 TD [(Explor)15(ations)-261.8(in)-261.8(per)10(sonality:)-261.8(A)-261.8(clinical)-261.8(and)-261.8(e)20(xperimental)-261.8(study)-261.8(of)-261.8(fty)-261.8(men)-261.8(of)]TJ -10.1635 -1.1765 TD [(colle)40(g)10(e)-250(a)10(g)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 170.4037 165.8036 Tm [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Oxford)-250(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -5.9239 -1.4118 TD [(Murray)65(,)-250(H)0(.)-195(A)0(.)-250(\(1943\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9892 0 TD [(Thematic)-250(apper)37(ception)-250(test:)-250(Manual)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.5453 0 TD [(.)-250(Cambridge,)-250(MA:)-250(Harvard)-250(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -23.5345 -1.4118 TD [(Nagy)65(,)-288(T)74(.)-306(F)80(.)-306(\(2005\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.9862 0 TD [(Ethics)-306(in)-306(plain)-306(English:)-306(An)-306(illustr)15(ative)-306(casebook)-306(for)-306(psyc)15(holo)10(gists)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 26.8535 0 TD [(.)-288(W)80(ashington,)-306(DC:)]TJ -33.4829 -1.1765 TD [(American)-250(Psychological)-195(Association.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj > endobj 79 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 318.2704 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(History)-250(and)-250(Theor)18(etical)-250(F)25(oundations)-1000.5(35)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 118.894 703.786 Tm [(Nathan,)-479.6(P)111(.)-479.6(E.)-479.6(\(2000\).)-461.6(The)-479.6(Boulder)-479.6(Model:)-424.6(A)-424.4(dream)-479.7(deferredOr)-479.6(lost?)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 30.9203 0 TD [(American)-479.6(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-479.6(55)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.1835 0 TD (,)Tj -40.692 -1.1765 TD (250252.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Nathan,)-359.8(P)111(.)-359.8(E.,)-359.8(&)-359.8(Gorman,)-359.8(J.)-359.8(M.)-359.8(\(2002\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.8216 0 TD [(A)-359.7(guide)-359.8(to)-359.8(tr)37(eatments)-359.8(that)-359.8(work)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.5108 0 TD [(\(2nd)-359.8(ed.\).)-359.8(New)-322.8(Y)100(ork:)-359.8(Oxford)]TJ -28.9207 -1.1765 TD [(University)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(ODonohue,)-200.1(W)92(.)-200.1(T)74(.)0(,)-218.1(Fisher)40(,)-218.1(J)0(.)-218.1(E.,)-218.1(&)-218.1(Hayes,)-218.1(S.)-218.1(C.)-218.1(\(2003\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.0991 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive)-218.1(behavior)-218.1(ther)15(apy:)-218.1(A)-218(guide)-218.1(for)-218.1(clinicians)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.0047 0 TD (.)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD [(Hoboken,)-250(NJ:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Ollendick,)-339.6(T)74(.)-357.6(H.,)-357.6(&)-357.6(King,)-357.6(N.)-357.6(J.)-357.6(\(2004\).)-357.6(Empirically)-357.6(supported)-357.6(treatments)-357.6(for)-357.6(children)-357.6(and)-357.6(adolescents:)]TJ 1.3568 -1.1765 TD [(Advances)-370(toward)-370(evidence-based)-370(practice.)-370(In)-370(P)111(.)-370(M.)-370(Barrett)-370(&)-352(T)74(.)-370(H)0(.)-370(Ollendick)-370(\(Eds.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 35.6829 0 TD [(Handbook)-370(of)]TJ -35.6279 -1.1765 TD [(interventions)-245.5(that)-245.5(work)-245.5(with)-245.5(c)15(hildr)37(en)-245.5(and)-245.5(adolescents:)-245.5(Pr)37(e)15(vention)-245.5(and)-245.5(tr)37(eatment)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 32.3689 0 TD [(\(pp.)-245.5(325\).)-245.5(Hoboken,)]TJ -32.3689 -1.1765 TD [(NJ:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(OReilly)65(,)-333.6(R)0(.)-333.6(C.,)-333.6(&)-333.6(Munakata,)-296.6(Y)129(.)-333.6(\(2000\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.8534 0 TD [(Computational)-333.6(e)20(xplor)15(ations)-333.6(in)-333.6(co)10(gnitive)-333.6(neur)45(oscience:)-333.6(Under)20(-)]TJ -15.4416 -1.1765 TD [(standing)-250(the)-250(mind)-250(by)-250(simulating)-250(the)-250(br)15(ain)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.7083 0 TD [(.)-250(Cambridge,)-250(MA:)-250(MIT)-232(Press.)]TJ -18.1201 -1.4118 TD [(Parker)40(,)-148.1(R)0(.)-148.1(I.,)-148.1(&)-148.1(Brossard,)-148.1(D.)-148.1(F)80(.)-148.1(\(2003\).)-148.1(Evaluating)-148.1(single-case)-148.1(research)-148.1(data:)-93.1(A)-93(comparison)-148.1(of)-148.1(seven)-148.1(statistical)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD (methods.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.8891 0 TD [(Behavior)-250(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-250(3)0(4)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.6792 0 TD [(,)-250(18921)37(1.)]TJ -13.98 -1.4118 TD [(Patterson,)-440.4(G)120(.)-440.4(R.)-440.4(\(1982\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.4187 0 TD [(Coer)37(cive)-440.4(family)-440.4(pr)45(ocess:)-440.4(A)-440.2(social)-440.4(learning)-440.4(appr)45(oac)15(h)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 22.2205 0 TD [(.)-440.4(\()0(V)129(ol.)-440.4(3\))-440.4(Eugene,)-440.4(OR:)]TJ -31.2274 -1.1765 TD (Castalia.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Patterson,)-250(G)120(.)-250(R.)-250(\(1986\).)-250(Performance)-250(models)-250(for)-250(antisocial)-250(boys.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 26.0435 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(41)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.7242 0 TD [(,)-250(432444.)]TJ -36.7678 -1.4118 TD [(Patterson,)-254.5(G)120(.)-254.5(R.,)-254.5(Dishon,)-236.5(T)74(.)-254.5(J.,)-254.5(&)-254.5(Chamberlain,)-254.5(P)111(.)-254.5(\(1993\).)-254.5(Outcomes)-254.5(and)-254.5(methodological)-254.5(issues)-254.5(relating)-254.5(to)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(treatment)-238.5(of)-238.5(antisocial)-238.4(children.)-238.5(In)-220.5(T)74(.)-238.5(R.)-238.5(Giles)-238.4(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.0234 0 TD [(Handbook)-238.5(of)-238.4(ef)18(fective)-238.5(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.0141 0 TD [(\(pp.)-238.5(4387\).)]TJ -36.0375 -1.1765 TD [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Plenum)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Paulhus,)-250(D.)-250(L.)-250(\(1998\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.1662 0 TD [(P)80(aulhus)-250(Deception)-250(Scales)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.6132 0 TD [(\(V)111(ersion)-250(7\).)-232(T)70(oronto:)-250(Multi-Health)-250(Systems.)]TJ -19.7794 -1.4118 TD [(Pavlov)65(,)-250(I)0(.)-250(P)111(.)-250(\(1960\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.1572 0 TD [(Conditioned)-250(r)37(ee)20(xes)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.1922 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Dover)55(.)-250(\(Original)-250(work)-250(published)-250(1927\))]TJ -16.3493 -1.4118 TD [(Persons,)-310.8(J.)-310.8(B.)-310.8(\(2005\).)-310.8(Empiricism,)-310.8(mechanism,)-310.8(and)-310.8(the)-310.8(practice)-310.8(of)-310.8(cognitive-behavior)-310.8(therapy)65(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 38.6878 0 TD (Behavior)Tj -37.276 -1.1765 TD [(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-250(3)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.7631 0 TD [(,)-250(1071)37(18.)]TJ -6.1749 -1.4118 TD [(Ponterotto,)-306.1(J.)-306.1(G)120(.)-306.1(\(2005\).)-306.1(Qualitative)-306.1(research)-306.1(in)-306.1(counseling)-306.1(psychology:)-251.1(A)-251(primer)-306.1(on)-306.1(research)-306.1(paradigms)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(and)-250(philosophy)-250(of)-250(science.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.9152 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Counseling)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(5)0(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.2003 0 TD [(,)-250(126136.)]TJ -27.5273 -1.4118 TD [(Rachman,)-250(S.)-250(\(1980\).)-250(Emotional)-250(processing.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.6934 0 TD [(Behaviour)-250(Resear)37(c)15(h)-250(and)-250(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-250(1)0(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.8483 0 TD [(,)-250(5160.)]TJ -32.5417 -1.4118 TD [(Rachman,)-250(S.)-250(\(1990\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.4992 0 TD [(F)75(ear)-250(and)-250(cour)15(a)10(g)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.1111 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Freeman.)]TJ -15.6103 -1.4118 TD [(Raimy)65(,)-232(V)129(.)-250(C)0(.)-250(\(Ed.\).)-250(\(1950\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.0372 0 TD [(T)55(r)15(aining)-250(in)-250(clinical)-250(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.4333 0 TD [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Prentice-Hall.)]TJ -23.4705 -1.4118 TD [(Read,)-347.1(S.)-347.1(J.,)-347.1(&)-347.1(Marcus-Newhall,)-292.1(A.)-347.1(R.)-347.1(\(1993\).)-347.1(Explanatory)-347.1(coherence)-347.1(in)-347.1(social)-347.1(explanations:)-292.1(A)-292(parallel)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(distributed)-250(processing)-250(account.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.6653 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(P)80(e)0(r)10(sonality)-250(and)-250(Social)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(6)0(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.6654 0 TD [(,)-250(429447.)]TJ -33.7425 -1.4118 TD [(Richards,)-163.1(S.)-163.1(B.,)-145.1(T)70(aylor)40(,)-163.1(R)0(.)-163.1(L.,)-163.1(Ramasamy)65(,)-163.1(R.,)-163.1(&)-163.1(Richards,)-163.1(R.)-126.1(Y)129(.)-163.1(\(1996\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.7324 0 TD [(Single)-163.1(subject)-163.1(r)37(esear)37(c)15(h)0(:)-163.1(Applications)]TJ -26.3206 -1.1765 TD [(in)-250(educational)-250(and)-250(clinical)-250(settings)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.0563 0 TD [(.)-250(Belmont,)-250(CA:)-232(W)80(adsworth.)]TJ -15.4681 -1.4118 TD [(Roberts,)-364.6(M.)-364.6(C.,)-364.6(Erickson,)-364.6(M.)-346.6(T)74(.)0(,)-364.6(&)-346.6(T)35(uma,)-364.6(J.)-364.6(M.)-364.6(\(1985\).)-309.6(Addressing)-364.6(the)-364.6(needs:)-364.6(Guidelines)-364.6(for)-364.6(training)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(psychologists)-351.9(to)-351.9(work)-351.9(with)-351.9(children,)-351.9(youth,)-351.9(and)-351.9(families.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.8424 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-351.9(of)-351.9(Clinical)-351.9(Child)-351.9(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-351.9(1)0(4)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.8496 0 TD (,)Tj -40.692 -1.1765 TD (7079.)Tj -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Rogers,)-250(C.)-250(R.)-250(\(1942\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8332 0 TD [(Counseling)-250(and)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.3583 0 TD [(.)-250(Boston:)-250(Houghton)-250(Mif)18(in.)]TJ -21.1914 -1.4118 TD [(Rogers,)-250(C.)-250(R.)-250(\(1951\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8332 0 TD [(Client-center)37(ed)-250(ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.4742 0 TD [(.)-250(Boston:)-250(Houghton)-250(Mif)18(in.)]TJ -18.3074 -1.4118 TD [(Rogers,)-250(C.)-250(R.)-250(\(1955\).)-250(Persons)-250(or)-250(science?)-195(A)-195(philosophical)-250(question.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.3046 0 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(10)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.7242 0 TD [(,)-250(267278.)]TJ -38.0288 -1.4118 TD [(Rogers,)-250(C.)-250(R.)-250(\(1961\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8332 0 TD [(On)-250(becoming)-250(a)-250(per)10(son)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.0722 0 TD [(.)-250(Boston:)-250(Houghton)-250(Mif)18(in.)]TJ -17.9054 -1.4118 TD [(Rogler)40(,)-280.1(L)0(.)-280.1(H.,)-280.1(Malgady)65(,)-280.1(R.,)-280.1(&)-262.1(T)35(ryon,)-262.1(W)92(.)-262.1(W)92(.)-280.1(\(1992\).)-280.1(Evaluation)-280.1(of)-280.1(mental)-280.1(health)-280.1(issues)-280.1(of)-280.1(memory)-280.1(in)-280.1(the)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(Diagnostic)-250(Interview)-250(Schedule.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.8313 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Nervous)-250(and)-250(Mental)-250(Diseases,)-250(180)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.3354 0 TD [(,)-250(215222.)]TJ -32.5784 -1.4118 TD [(Rosen,)-243.4(G)120(.)-243.4(M.,)-243.4(&)-243.4(Davison,)-243.4(G)120(.)-243.4(C.)-243.4(\(2003\).)-243.4(Psychology)-243.4(should)-243.4(list)-243.4(empirically)-243.4(supported)-243.4(principles)-243.4(of)-243.4(change)]TJ 1.4118 -1.1765 TD [(\(ESPs\))-298.5(and)-298.5(not)-298.5(credential)-298.5(trademarked)-298.5(therapies)-298.5(or)-298.5(other)-298.5(treatment)-298.5(packages.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 31.6164 0 TD [(Behavior)-298.5(Modication,)]TJ -31.6164 -1.1765 TD (27)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1 0 TD [(,)-250(300312.)]TJ -2.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Rumelhart,)-237.9(D.)-237.9(E.,)-237.9(McClelland,)-237.9(J.)-237.9(L.,)-237.9(&)-237.9(the)-237.9(PDP)-200.9(Research)-237.9(Group.)-237.9(\(1986a\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.7597 0 TD [(P)80(a)0(r)15(allel)-237.9(distrib)20(uted)-237.9(pr)45(ocessing:)]TJ -28.348 -1.1765 TD [(Explor)15(ation)-250(in)-250(the)-250(micr)45(ostructur)37(e)-250(o)0(f)-250(c)0(o)10(gnition:)-250(V)111(ol.)-250(1.)-250(F)105(oundations)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 26.7336 0 TD [(.)-250(Cambridge)-250(MA:)-250(MIT)-232(Press.)]TJ -28.1453 -1.4118 TD [(Rumelhart,)-233.9(D.)-233.9(E.,)-233.9(McClelland,)-233.9(J.)-233.9(L.,)-233.9(&)-233.9(the)-233.9(PDP)-196.9(Research)-233.9(Group.)-233.9(\(1986b\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.7677 0 TD [(P)80(a)0(r)15(allel)-233.9(distrib)20(uted)-233.9(pr)45(ocessing:)]TJ 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 130.8492 173.7737 Tm [(Explor)15(ation)-182.9(in)-182.9(the)-182.9(micr)45(ostructur)37(e)-182.9(o)0(f)-182.9(c)0(o)10(gnition:)-182.9(V)111(ol.)-182.9(2.)-182.9(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-182.9(and)-183(biolo)10(gical)-182.9(models)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 35.8151 0 TD [(.)-182.9(Cambridge,)]TJ -35.8151 -1.1765 TD [(MA:)-250(MIT)-232(Press.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(R)40(ychlak,)-250(J.)-250(F)80(.)-250(\(1968\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.8242 0 TD [(A)-250(philosophy)-250(of)-250(science)-250(for)-250(per)10(sonality)-250(theory)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.4334 0 TD [(.)-250(Boston:)-250(Houghton)-250(Mif)18(in.)]TJ -27.2576 -1.4118 TD [(R)40(ychlak,)-336.8(J.)-336.8(F)80(.)-336.8(\(1981a\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.6155 0 TD [(Intr)45(oduction)-336.8(to)-336.8(per)10(sonality)-336.8(and)-336.8(psyc)15(hother)15(apy:)-336.8(A)-336.7(theory-construction)-336.8(appr)45(oac)15(h)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 32.4884 0 TD (.)Tj -40.6921 -1.1765 TD [(Boston:)-250(Houghton)-250(Mif)18(in.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 80 0 obj > endobj 81 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(36)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 120.239 703.786 Tm [(R)40(ychlak,)-307.3(J.)-307.3(F)80(.)-307.3(\(1981b\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.5532 0 TD [(A)-307.2(philosophy)-307.3(of)-307.3(science)-307.3(for)-307.3(per)10(sonality)-307.3(theory)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.0841 0 TD [(\(2nd)-307.3(ed.\).)-307.3(Malabar)40(,)-307.3(FL:)-307.3(Robert)-307.3(E.)]TJ -27.2255 -1.1765 TD [(Krieger)55(.)]TJ -1.4118 -1.4118 TD [(Shannon,)-250(C.)-250(E.)-250(\(1949\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.4442 0 TD 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Table of Contents

Preface vii

Contributors ix

PART I General Issues

1 History and Theoretical Foundations 3
Warren W. Tryon

2 Clinical Training 38
Philinda Smith Hutchings, Deborah Lewis, and Frederick Wechsler

3 Professional Practice 66
Deborah Wise and Lisa R. Christiansen

4 Ethical and Legal Issues 95
Catherine Miller

5 Professional Roles 110
Jon Frew and Julianna Machell

PART II Theoretical Models

6 Psychodynamic Perspectives 127
Howard D. Lerner

7 Applied Behavior Analysis 161
Amanda J. Villamar, Bradley C. Donohue, and Daniel N. Allen

8 The Cognitive-Behavioral Model 171
Michele M. Carter, Kelly L. Forys, and Jennifer C. Oswald

PART III Research Contributions

9 Statistical Considerations 205
Jay C. Thomas

10 Single Case Research 224
Valerie I. Photos, Bethany D. Michel, and Matthew K. Nock

11 Psychopathology Research 246
Kathleen A. Tallent and Melanie E. Bennett

12 Temperament, Personality, and Psychopathology 270
Marvin Zuckerman

13 Treatment Research 300
Megan E. Spokas, Thomas L. Rodebaugh, and Richard G. Heimberg

PART IV Diagnosis and Evaluation

14 Classification 341
Thomas A.Widiger and Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt

15 Diagnostic Interviewing 371
Daniel L. Segal, Molly Maxfield, and Frederick L. Coolidge

16 Intellectual Evaluation 395
Gerald Goldstein

17 Neuropsychological Assessment 422
Charles J. Golden

18 Objective Personality Evaluation 451
Leslie C. Morey and Christopher J. Hopwood

19 Personality Assessment Using Implicit (Projective) Methods 475
J. Christopher Fowler and Michael D. Groat

20 Behavioral Assessment 495
Stephen N. Haynes and Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula

PART V Treatment

21 Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 525
Robert C. Lane and Max Harris

22 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy 551
Bunmi O. Olatunji and Greg Feldman

23 Gestalt Therapy 585
Eva K. Gold and Stephen G. Zahm

24 Marital Therapy 617
Gary R. Birchler, Lorelei E. Simpson, and William Fals-Stewart

25 Group Psychotherapy 647
Saul Hopper, Francis Kaklauskas, and Les R. Greene

26 Psychopharmacology as Practiced by Psychologists 663
William J. Burns, Jose Rey, and Kayreen A. Burns

27 Health Psychology 693
Corby K. Martin, Tiffany M. Stewart, Stephen D. Anton, Amy L. Copeland, and Donald A. Williamson

28 Multicultural Treatment 724
Daniel S. McKitrick and Susan Tinsley Li

29 Brief Therapy 752
Brett N. Steenbarger

PART VI Special Issues

30 Depressive Disorders and Inflammatory Processes 779
Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, and Shawn Hayley

31 Successful Aging in Very Old Adults: Resiliency in the Face of Natural Disaster 810
Katie E. Cherry, Sandro Galea, and Jennifer L. Silva

32 Clinical Psychology and Politics 834
Steven W. Quackenbush and Gregg R. Henriques

33 Impaired Professionals: Distress, Professional Impairment, Self-Care, and PsychologicalWellness 857
Jeffrey E. Barnett

Author Index 885

Subject Index 913