Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 2: Children and Adolescents by Michel HersenHandbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 2: Children and Adolescents by Michel Hersen

Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 2: Children and Adolescents

EditorMichel Hersen, Alan M. Gross

Hardcover | January 9, 2008

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Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 2: Children and Adolescents provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of clinical psychological practice for the young from assessment through treatment, including the innovations of the past decade in ethics, cross cultural psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, cognitive behavioral treatment, psychopharmacology, and pediatric psychology.
Michel Hersen, Ph.D., ABPP, Co-Editor, is Professor and Dean of the School of Professional Psychology at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Oregon. He has edited numerous books, including Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, four-volume set (Wiley), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, three-volume...
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Title:Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Volume 2: Children and AdolescentsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:1088 pages, 10.3 × 7.4 × 2.2 inPublished:January 9, 2008Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0471946788

ISBN - 13:9780471946786

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[(rary)-299.1(assessment)-299.1(practices)-299.1(or)-299.1(activities)-299.1(were)-299.1(identied)-299.1(\(L.)-281.1(V)129(.)-299.1(McReynolds,)-299.1(1974\).)]TJ T* [(First,)-383.3(there)-383.3(was)-383.3(an)-383.3(emphasis)-383.3(on)-383.3(individual)-383.3(dif)18(ferences.)-383.3(Second,)-383.3(the)-383.3(assessment)]TJ T* [(paradigm)-326(emphasized)-326(the)-326(notions)-326(of)-326(assessor)-326(and)-326(subject,)-326(the)-326(systematic)-326(collec-)]TJ T* [(tions)-401.1(of)-401.1(data)-401.1(during)-401.1(a)-401.1(single)-401.1(session,)-401.1(and)-401.1(written)-401.1(reports)-401.1(that)-401.1(usually)-401.1(included)]TJ T* [(qualitative)-204.8(proles.)-186.8(Third,)-204.8(the)-204.8(phrenological)-204.8(movement)-204.8(helped)-204.8(advance)-204.8(objectivity)]TJ T* [(through)-267.4(blind)-267.4(assessment)-267.4(and)-267.4(rating)-267.4(scales.)-267.4(Fourth,)-267.4(phrenology)-267.4(contributed)-267.4(to)-267.4(the)]TJ T* [(development)-209.9(of)-209.9(a)-209.9(primitive)-209.9(taxonomical)-209.9(system,)-209.9(which)-209.9(included)-209.9(af)18(fective)-209.9(faculties)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-341.8(propensities,)-341.8(sentiments\))-341.8(and)-341.8(intellectual)-341.8(faculties)-341.8(\(e.g.,)-341.8(perceptive,)-341.8(reec-)]TJ T* [(tive\).)-340.5(This)-358.5(line)-358.5(of)-358.5(reasoning)-358.5(was)-358.5(likely)-358.5(inuential)-358.5(in)-358.5(later)-358.5(conceptualizations)-358.5(of)]TJ T* [(diagnostic)-250(and)-250(classication)-250(systems.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 293.385 Tm (Implications)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 273.9579 Tm [(This)-285.3(brief)-285.3(historical)-285.3(overview)-285.3(of)-285.3(ancient)-285.3(inuences)-285.3(points)-285.3(out)-285.3(that)-285.3(many)-285.3(contem-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(porary)-322.7(assessment)-322.7(practices)-322.7(have)-322.7(their)-322.7(roots)-322.7(deep)-322.7(in)-322.7(our)-322.7(past.)-322.7(Noteworthy)-322.7(is)-322.7(the)]TJ T* [(fact)-214.9(that)-214.9(the)-214.9(work)-214.9(of)-214.9(the)-214.9(phrenologists)-214.9(\(and)-214.9(later)40(,)-214.9(Quetelet)55(s)-214.9(work)-214.9(on)-214.9(psychological)]TJ T* [(statistics\))-261.6(set)-261.6(the)-261.6(stage)-261.6(for)-261.6(the)-261.6(emer)18(gence)-261.6(of)-261.6(Galton)55(s)-261.6(contributions)-261.6(and)-261.6(the)-261.6(subse-)]TJ T* [(quent)-310.6(more)-310.6(modern)-310.6(era)-310.6(in)-310.6(assessment.)-310.6(It)-310.6(is)-310.6(interesting)-310.6(to)-310.6(speculate)-310.6(how)-310.6(some)-310.6(of)]TJ T* [(the)-342.8(ancient)-342.8(procedures)-342.8(might)-342.8(have)-342.8(set)-342.8(the)-342.8(stage)-342.8(for)-342.8(child)-342.8(diagnoses)-342.8(specically)65(.)]TJ T* 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[]0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(6)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 702.3752 Tm [(ASSESSMENT)-250(AND)-250(DIA)55(GNOSIS:)]TJ 0 -1.0833 TD [(NINETEENTH-CENTUR)35(Y)-250(INFLUENCES)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 670.0963 Tm [(During)-216.4(the)-216.4(nineteenth)-216.4(century)-216.4(signicant)-216.4(developments)-216.4(were)-216.4(taking)-216.4(place)-216.4(in)-198.4(W)80(est-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(ern)-237.3(Europe)-237.3(and)-237.3(the)-237.3(United)-237.3(S)18(tates)-237.3(that)-237.3(would)-237.3(shape)-237.3(the)-237.3(future)-237.3(of)-237.3(psychological)-237.3(and)]TJ T* 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[(Maskelyne)-279(\(the)-279(astronomer\))-279(and)-279(Kinnebrook)-279(\(the)-279(assistant\))-279(in)-279(their)-279(measurement)]TJ T* [(of)-225.1(the)-225.1(timing)-225.1(of)-225.1(stellar)-225.1(transits)-225.1(was)-225.1(later)-225.1(analyzed)-225.1(by)-225.1(Bessel.)-225.1(Bessel)-225.1(concluded)-225.1(that)]TJ T* [(dif)18(ferent)-198.8(persons)-198.8(had)-198.8(dif)18(ferent)-198.8(transit)-198.8(tracking)-198.8(times,)-198.8(and)-198.8(that)-198.8(when)-198.8(all)-198.8(astronomers)]TJ T* [(were)-339.6(checked)-339.6(against)-339.6(one)-339.6(standard,)-339.6(individual)-339.6(error)-339.6(could)-339.6(be)-339.6(calculated;)-339.6(thus,)-339.6(a)]TJ T* [(sort)-250(of)-250(personal)-250(equation)-250(was)-250(developed)-250(\(cf.)-250(Boring,)-250(1950\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Another)-353.9(signicant)-353.9(inuence)-353.9(on)-353.9(assessment)-353.9(came)-353.9(from)-335.9(W)40(undt,)-353.9(who)-353.9(set)-353.9(up)-353.9(a)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(psychological)-261(laboratory)-261(in)-261(Leipzig)-261(to)-261(study)-261(such)-261(processes)-261(as)-261(reaction)-261(time,)-261(sen-)]TJ T* [(sation,)-381.3(psychophysics,)-381.3(and)-381.3(association.)-363.3(This)-381.3(work,)-381.3(as)-381.3(well)-381.3(as)-381.3(the)-381.3(general)-381.3(work)]TJ ET endstream endobj 14 0 obj > endobj 15 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 377.054 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm 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[(from)-211.2(regular)-211.2(instruction.)-193.2(The)-211.2(policies)-211.2(and)-211.2(procedures)-211.2(for)-211.2(diagnosis)-211.2(and)-211.2(assessment)]TJ T* [(of)-355.5(children)-355.5(during)-355.5(this)-355.5(time)-355.5(set)-355.5(a)-355.5(direction)-355.5(that)-355.5(has)-355.5(only)-355.5(recently)-355.5(been)-355.5(changed)]TJ T* [(with)-376.9(new)-376.9(federal)-376.9(regulations)-376.9(that)-376.9(has,)-376.9(as)-376.9(one)-376.9(focus,)-376.9(to)-376.9(reduce)-376.9(the)-376.9(emphasis)-376.9(on)]TJ T* [(an)-362.2(IQ-achievement)-362.2(discrepancy)-362.2(to)-362.2(make)-362.2(a)-362.2(determination)-362.2(of)-362.2(disability)-362.2(status)-362.2(for)]TJ T* [(children)-257.7(with)-257.7(learning)-257.7(problems.)-239.7(The)-257.7(new)-257.7(focus)-257.7(in)-257.7(assessment)-257.7(is)-257.7(called)-257.7(response)]TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj > endobj 20 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 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[(published)-234.2(the)-234.2(rst)-234.2(revision)-234.2(of)-234.2(the)-234.2(Binet)-234.2(scale,)-234.2(and)-216.2(T)70(erman)-234.2(developed)-234.2(the)-234.2(S)18(tanford-)]TJ T* [(Binet.)-219.4(Thereafter)40(,)-237.4(the)-237.4(Binet)-237.4(scale)-237.4(was)-237.4(used)-237.4(to)-237.4(identify)-237.4(children)-237.4(who)-237.4(were)-237.4(regarded)]TJ T* [(as)-288(backwards)-288(or)-288(feebleminded.)-288(In)-288(191)37(1)-288(the)-288(Binet)-288(scale)-288(was)-288(being)-288(used)-288(in)-288(71)]TJ T* [(of)-360.5(84)-360.5(cities)-360.5(that)-360.5(administered)-360.5(tests)-360.5(to)-360.5(identify)-360.5(feebleminded)-360.5(children.)-360.5(However)40(,)]TJ T* [(the)-351.3(Binet)-351.3(scale)-351.3(was)-351.3(also)-351.3(being)-351.3(used)-351.3(experimentally)-351.3(to)-351.3(screen)-351.3(out)-351.2(and)-351.3(turn)-351.3(back)]TJ T* [(retarded)-250(immigrants)-250(\(Knox,)-250(1914,)-250(as)-250(cited)-250(in)-232(W)40(idgor)-250(&)-250(Garner)40(,)-250(1982\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-222.9(S)18(tanford)-222.9(version)-222.9(of)-222.9(the)-222.9(Binet-Simon)-222.9(scale)-222.9(was)-222.9(originally)-222.9(published)-222.9(in)-222.9(1916)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(by)-172.2(T)70(erman;)-190.2(it)-190.2(was)-190.2(revised)-190.2(by)-172.2(T)70(erman)-190.2(and)-190.2(Merrill)-190.2(in)-190.2(1937)-190.2(and)-190.2(1960)-190.2(and)-190.2(renormed)-190.2(in)]TJ T* [(1972)-227.9(and)-227.9(subsequently)65(.)-209.9(This)-227.9(translation)-227.9(and)-227.9(revision)-227.9(of)-227.9(Binet)55(s)-227.9(earlier)-227.9(work)-227.9(rmly)]TJ T* [(established)-241.3(intelligence)-241.3(testing)-241.3(in)-241.3(schools)-241.3(and)-241.3(clinics)-241.3(throughout)-241.3(the)-241.3(United)-241.3(S)18(tates)]TJ T* [(\(DuBois,)-250(1970\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 507.6086 Tm [(De)15(v)10(elopment)-250(of)-250(Gr)18(oup)-250(T)92(esting)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 488.1814 Tm [(The)-305.5(assessment)-305.5(movement)-305.5(was)-305.5(given)-305.5(a)-305.5(major)-305.5(thrust)-305.5(through)-305.5(the)-305.5(development)-305.5(of)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(group)-224.7(tests)-224.7(during)-206.7(W)80(orld)-206.7(W)80(a)0(r)-224.7(I)0(.)-224.7(Many)-224.7(assessment)-224.7(ef)18(forts)-224.7(during)-224.7(this)-224.7(time)-224.7(reected)]TJ T* [(a)-184.6(pattern)-184.6(of)-184.6(procedures)-184.6(similar)-184.6(to)-184.6(that)-184.6(used)-184.6(by)-184.6(Binet)-184.6(\(T)74(.)-184.6(E)0(.)-184.6(Newland,)-184.6(1977\).)-184.6(Ebbing-)]TJ T* [(haus)-220.2(demonstrated)-220.2(the)-220.2(feasibility)-220.2(of)-220.2(group)-220.2(tests,)-220.2(and)-220.2(some)-165.2(American)-220.2(psychologists)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-282.8(Otis,)-282.8(1918;)-264.8(Whipple,)-282.8(1910\))-282.8(recognized)-282.8(that)-282.8(the)-282.8(Binet-Simon)-282.8(scale)-282.8(could)-282.8(be)]TJ T* [(adapted)-211.9(for)-211.9(group)-211.9(testing.)-211.9(However)40(,)-211.9(there)-211.9(were)-211.9(important)-211.9(dif)18(ferences.)-193.9(Whereas)-211.9(the)]TJ T* [(Binet-type)-260.9(items)-260.9(typically)-260.9(required)-260.9(a)-260.9(denite)-260.9(answer)-260.9(provided)-260.9(by)-260.9(the)-260.9(child,)-260.9(group)]TJ T* [(tests)-263.8(usually)-263.8(called)-263.8(for)-263.8(recognition)-263.8(of)-263.8(a)-263.8(correct)-263.8(answer)-263.8(among)-263.8(several)-263.8(alternatives)]TJ T* [(\(Carroll,)-250(1978\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(A)-133.5(committee)-188.6(of)-188.6(the)-133.6(AP)92(A)-133.5(chaired)-188.6(by)-188.6(Robert)-188.6(M.)-151.6(Y)100(erkes)-188.6(developed)-188.6(the)-133.6(Army)-133.6(Alpha)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(and)-111.7(Army)-166.7(Beta)-166.7(group)-166.7(tests.)-148.7(The)-111.7(Army)-166.7(Beta)-166.7(\(a)-166.7(nonverbal)-166.7(group)-166.7(test\))-166.7(was)-166.7(designed)-166.7(so)]TJ T* [(as)-175.8(not)-175.8(to)-175.8(discriminate)-175.8(against)-175.8(illiterates)-175.8(and)-175.8(individuals)-175.8(speaking)-175.8(foreign)-175.8(languages.)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Although)-290.4(the)-290.4(impact)-290.4(of)-290.4(this)-290.4(development)-290.4(was)-290.4(to)-290.4(create)-290.4(a)-290.4(new)-290.4(interest)-290.4(in)-290.4(and)-290.4(role)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(for)-313.8(testing,)-313.8(a)-313.8(review)-313.8(of)-313.8(the)-313.8(tests)-313.8(used)-313.8(revealed)-313.8(that)-313.8(the)-313.8(source)-313.8(of)-313.8(many)-313.8(tests)-313.8(was)]TJ T* [(increasingly)-250(used)-250(for)-250(nonmilitary)-250(purposes)-250(\(T)74(.)-250(E)0(.)-250(Newland,)-250(1977\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Following)-276.2(the)-276.2(war)40(,)-276.2(many)-276.2(clinical)-276.2(psychologists)-276.2(who)-276.2(were)-276.2(involved)-276.2(in)-276.2(wartime)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(testing)-229.8(sought)-229.8(employment)-229.8(in)-229.8(the)-229.8(civilian)-229.8(ranks,)-229.8(and)-229.8(many)-229.8(became)-229.8(involved)-229.8(in)-229.8(the)]TJ T* [(schools.)-250(Resnick)-250(\(1982,)-250(p.)-250(183\))-250(notes:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 130.3287 243.3063 Tm [(Aiding)-258.2(this)-258.2(movement)-258.2(was)-258.2(Philander)-258.2(P)111(.)-258.2(Clarxton,)-258.2(U.S.)-258.2(Commissioner)-258.2(of)-258.2(education,)-258.2(who)]TJ 0.055 -1.2632 TD [(communicated)-398.4(to)-398.4(school)-398.4(superintendents)-398.4(throughout)-398.4(the)-398.4(country)-398.4(about)-398.4(the)-398.4(reserve)-398.4(of)]TJ T* [(trained)-326.4(people)-326.4(that)-326.4(could)-326.4(be)-326.4(tapped)-326.4(for)-326.4(the)-326.4(needs)-326.4(of)-326.4(the)-326.4(schools.)-326.4(He)-326.4(wrote)-326.4(enthusiasti-)]TJ T* [(cally)-259.4(about)-259.4(the)-259.4(unusual)-259.4(opportunity)-259.4(for)-259.4(city)-259.4(schools)-259.4(to)-259.4(obtain)-259.4(the)-259.4(services)-259.4(of)-259.4(competent)]TJ T* [(men.)-154.6(Among)-209.6(the)-209.6(services)-209.6(that)-209.6(they)-209.6(could)-209.6(render)-209.6(was)-209.6(discovering)-209.6(defective)-209.6(children)-209.6(and)]TJ T* [(children)-250(of)-250(superior)-250(intelligence.)]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 158.8297 Tm [(This)-301.2(movement,)-301.2(in)-301.2(part,)-301.2(facilitated)-301.2(the)-301.2(use)-301.2(of)-301.2(group)-301.2(intelligence)-301.2(tests)-301.2(in)-301.2(the)-301.2(pub-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(lic)-294.8(schools)-294.8(for)-294.8(purposes)-294.8(of)-294.8(diagnosis)-294.8(and)-294.8(classication.)-294.8(Many)-294.8(of)-294.8(these)-294.8(tests)-294.8(were)]TJ T* [(administered)-220.4(to)-220.4(identify)-220.4(children)-220.4(who)-220.4(could)-220.4(not)-220.4(prot)-220.4(from)-220.4(regular)-220.4(instruction.)-165.4(Al-)]TJ T* [(though)-175(some)-175(schools)-175(had)-175(made)-175(provisions)-175(for)-175(special)-175(children,)-175(the)-175(intelligence)-175(tests)]TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj > endobj 22 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(10)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(formalized)-291.5(the)-291.5(decision-making)-291.5(process)-291.5(for)-291.5(these)-291.5(special)-291.5(services.)-236.5(Also,)-291.5(between)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(1919)-180(and)-180(1923,)-162(T)70(erman)-180(introduced)-180(the)-180(National)-180(Intelligence)-162(T)70(est)-180(for)-180(grades)-180(three)-180(to)]TJ T* [(eight)-218(and)-218(the)-200(T)70(erman)-218(Group)-200(T)70(est,)-218(for)-218(grades)-218(seven)-218(to)-218(12)-218(and)-218(found)-218(that)-218(the)-218(schools)]TJ T* [(were)-213(most)-213(receptive)-213(\(Resnick,)-213(1982\).)-213(Resnick)-213(reported)-213(that)-213(the)-213(most)-213(important)-213(use)]TJ T* [(of)-250(the)-250(tests)-250(was)-250(for)-250(placement)-250(of)-250(children)-250(into)-250(homogeneous)-250(groups:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 132.1942 623.7247 Tm [(Sixty-four)-255.2(percent)-255.2(of)-255.2(the)-255.2(reporting)-255.2(cities)-255.2(used)-255.2(group)-255.2(intelligence)-255.2(tests)-255.2(for)-255.2(this)-255.2(purpose)-255.2(in)]TJ 0 -1.2632 TD [(elementary)-324.8(schools,)-324.8(56%)-324.8(in)-324.8(junior)-324.8(high)-324.8(schools,)-324.8(and)-324.8(41%)-324.8(in)-324.8(high)-324.8(schools.)-324.8(Enthusiasm)]TJ T* [(for)-261.5(the)-261.5(use)-261.5(of)-261.5(testing)-261.5(systemwide)-261.5(for)-261.5(this)-261.5(purpose)-261.5(was)-261.5(at)-261.5(a)-261.5(high)-261.5(level.)-261.5(In)-261.5(1923,)-243.5(T)70(erman)55(s)]TJ T* [(group)-205.2(test)-205.2(for)-205.2(grades)-205.2(seven)-205.2(to)-205.2(thirteen)-205.2(sold)-205.2(more)-205.2(than)-205.2(a)-205.2(half-million)-205.2(copies.)-205.2(\(pp.)-205.2(184185\))]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 131.9969 560.324 Tm [(The)-316.9(stage)-316.9(for)-316.9(the)-316.9(rapid)-316.9(development)-316.9(of)-316.9(ability)-316.9(tests)-316.9(was)-316.9(also)-316.9(set)-316.9(by)-316.9(such)-316.9(psy-)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(chologists)-357(as)-357(Spearman,)-339(Thorndike,)-357(and)-339(Thurstone)-357(and)-357(their)-357(respective)-357(theories)]TJ T* [(of)-316.1(intelligence.)-316.1(For)-316.1(example,)-316.1(Spearman)-316.1(developed)-316.1(an)-316.1(elaborate)-316.1(theory)-316.1(of)-316.1(the)-316.1(or)20(-)]TJ T* [(ganization)-313.8(of)-313.8(human)-313.8(abilities)-313.8(in)-313.8(which)-313.8(he)-313.8(concluded)-313.8(that)-313.8(all)-313.8(intellectual)-313.8(abilities)]TJ T* [(have)-214.1(a)-214.1(common)-214.1(factor)40(,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.2304 0 TD (g)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0.5 0 TD [(,)-214.1(and)-214.1(a)-214.1(number)-214.1(of)-214.1(specic)-214.1(factors,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.5507 0 TD (s)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0.389 0 TD [(,)-214.1(which)-214.1(relate)-214.1(uniquely)]TJ -23.6701 -1.1818 TD [(to)-352.8(each)-352.8(presumed)-352.8(ability)65(.)-352.8(Spearman)55(s)-352.8(two-factor)-352.8(theory)-352.8(was)-352.8(the)-352.8(basis)-352.8(on)-352.8(which)]TJ T* [(tests)-309.4(examining)-309.4(specic)-309.4(abilities)-309.4(\(Edwards,)-309.4(1971\))-309.4(rather)-309.4(than)-309.4(global)-309.4(scores)-309.4(were)]TJ T* [(developed)-250(\(Laosa,)-250(1977\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(Thorndike)-267.7(viewed)-267.7(intelligence)-267.7(as)-267.7(comprising)-267.7(a)-267.7(multitude)-267.7(of)-267.7(separate)-267.7(elements,)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(each)-378.4(of)-378.4(which)-378.4(represented)-378.4(a)-378.4(specic)-378.4(ability)65(.)-378.4(Intelligence)-378.4(was)-378.4(also)-378.4(perceived)-378.4(as)]TJ T* [(having)-277.8(both)-277.8(hereditary)-277.8(and)-277.8(environmental)-277.8(components.)-259.8(Thurstone)-277.8(concluded)-277.8(that)]TJ T* [(there)-180.4(were)-180.4(seven)-180.4(primary)-180.4(mental)-180.4(abilities)-180.4(\(in)-180.4(contrast)-180.4(to)-180.4(Spearman)55(s)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 26.7992 0 TD (s)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0.5694 0 TD (and)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.6244 0 TD (g)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0.6804 0 TD (factors\))Tj -29.6735 -1.1818 TD [(and)-250(developed)-250(the)-250(Primary)-250(Mental)-195(Abilities)-232(T)70(est)-250(to)-250(measure)-250(each)-250(specic)-250(ability)65(.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Intelligence)-142.3(tests)-142.3(gradually)-142.3(evolved)-142.3(into)-142.3(major)-142.3(diagnostic)-142.3(instruments)-142.3(throughout)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(the)-314.6(world.)-314.6(Such)-314.6(instruments)-314.6(became)-314.6(an)-314.6(important)-314.6(diagnostic)-314.6(tool)-314.6(for)-314.6(identifying)]TJ T* [(children)-241.9(with)-241.9(cognitive)-241.9(disabilities.)-241.9(However)40(,)-241.9(not)-241.9(all)-241.9(countries)-241.9(accepted)-241.9(the)-241.9(use)-241.9(of)]TJ T* [(these)-208(tests.)-208(For)-208(example,)-208(in)-208(the)-208(Soviet)-208(Union)-208(such)-208(tests)-208(were)-208(banned)-208(in)-208(1936)-208(by)-208(the)]TJ T* [(Communist)-180(Party)-180(because)-180(they)-180(were)-180(considered)-180(methods)-180(that)-180(discriminated)-180(against)]TJ T* [(the)-245.5(peasants)-245.5(and)-245.5(the)-245.5(working)-245.5(class)-245.5(in)-245.5(favor)-245.5(of)-245.5(the)-245.5(culturally)-245.5(advantaged)-245.5(\(Sunber)18(g,)]TJ T* [(1977;)-206(W)80(ortis,)-224(1960\).)-169(As)-224(an)-224(alternative,)-224(diagnosis)-224(in)-224(the)-224(USSR)-224(was)-224(based)-224(primarily)]TJ T* [(on)-353(neurophysiological)-353(evidence.)-335(The)-353(neurologist)-353(and)-353(psychophysiologist,)-353(rather)]TJ T* [(than)-231.4(the)-231.4(clinical)-231.4(psychologist,)-231.4(were)-231.4(primarily)-231.4(engaged)-231.4(in)-231.4(diagnosing)-231.4(children)-231.4(with)]TJ T* [(mental)-250(retardation)-250(\(Dunn)-250(&)-250(Kirk,)-250(1963\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(W)80(ork)-183.7(in)-183.7(these)-183.7(areas,)-183.7(as)-183.7(well)-183.7(as)-183.7(other)-183.7(contributions)-183.7(prior)-183.7(to)-183.7(and)-183.7(during)-183.7(this)-183.7(period,)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(led)-185.2(to)-185.2(diverse)-185.2(views)-185.2(on)-185.2(the)-185.2(nature)-185.2(of)-185.2(intelligence)-185.2(and)-185.2(its)-185.2(assessment.)-130.2(A)-130.1(major)-185.2(contri-)]TJ T* [(bution)-267.3(to)-267.3(the)-267.3(testing)-267.3(movement)-267.3(was)-267.3(the)-267.3(development)-267.3(of)-267.3(the)-249.3(W)80(echsler)-267.3(intelligence)]TJ T* [(scales.)-362.7(Psychologist)-362.7(David)-344.7(W)80(echsler)-362.7(developed)-362.7(the)-344.7(W)80(echsler)-307.7(Adult)-362.7(Intelligence)]TJ T* [(Scale)-309.9(\(W)111(AIS\))-309.8(by)-309.9(including)-309.9(a)-309.9(group)-309.9(of)-309.9(subtests)-309.9(from)-291.9(WWI)-309.8(vintage)-309.9(that)-309.9(he)-309.9(found)]TJ T* [(valuable)-229.1(in)-229.1(his)-229.1(work)-229.1(with)-229.1(adults.)-229.1(His)-229.1(criterion)-229.1(of)-229.1(general)-229.1(adaptability)-229.1(\(W)80(echsler)40(,)]TJ T* [(1975\))-338.8(was)-338.8(extended)-338.8(downward)-338.8(in)-338.8(the)-338.8(development)-338.8(of)-338.8(the)-320.8(W)80(echsler)-338.8(Intelligence)]TJ T* [(Scale)-300.9(for)-300.9(Children)-300.9(\(WISC\))-300.8(and)-300.9(the)-282.9(W)80(echsler)-300.9(Preschool)-300.9(and)-300.9(Primary)-300.9(Scale)-300.9(of)-300.9(In-)]TJ T* [(telligence)-250.7(\(WPPSI\).)-232.7(The)-250.7(work)-250.7(of)-232.7(W)80(echsler)-250.7(contrasted)-250.7(with)-250.7(that)-250.7(of)-250.7(Binet.)-232.7(Whereas)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(W)80(echsler)-37()55(s)-356.9(scales)-356.9(emer)18(ged)-356.9(from)-356.9(work)-356.9(with)-356.9(adults)-356.9(and)-356.9(were)-356.9(later)-356.9(developed)-356.9(for)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(use)-259.4(with)-259.4(children,)-259.4(Binet)55(s)-259.4(emer)18(ged)-259.4(from)-259.4(work)-259.4(with)-259.4(young)-259.4(children)-259.4(and)-259.4(later)-259.4(were)]TJ T* [(developed)-250(for)-250(use)-250(with)-250(older)-250(children)-250(\(T)74(.)-250(E)0(.)-250(Newland,)-250(1977\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj > endobj 24 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(1)0(1)]TJ 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 702.3752 Tm [(PERSON)20(ALITY)-250(ASSESSMENT)-250(MO)50(VEMENT)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 683.0477 Tm [(While)-409.7(tests)-409.7(of)-409.7(cognitive)-409.7(ability)-409.7(were)-409.7(rapidly)-409.7(evolving)-409.7(during)-409.7(the)-409.7(early)-409.7(part)-409.7(of)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-386.4(twentieth)-386.4(century)65(,)-386.4(tests)-386.4(of)-386.4(personality)-386.4(were)-386.4(in)-386.4(their)-386.4(infancy)65(.)-331.4(Although)-386.4(such)]TJ T* [(devices)-323.9(as)-323.9(the)-305.9(W)80(oodworth)-323.9(Personal)-323.9(Data)-323.9(Sheet)-323.9(were)-323.9(used)-323.9(in)-323.9(the)-323.9(military)-323.9(during)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(WWI,)-271(the)-271(personality)-271(assessment)-271(movement)-271(received)-271(increased)-271(attention)-271(through)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-286.8(development)-286.8(of)-286.8(projective)-286.8(techniques)-286.8(such)-286.8(as)-286.8(the)-286.8(Rorschach)-286.8(Inkblot)-268.8(T)70(est)-286.8(and)]TJ T* [(the)-232(Thematic)-195(Apperception)-232(T)70(est)-250(\(T)80(A)111(T\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(W)80(orld)-233.2(W)80(a)0(r)-251.2(II,)-251.2(like)-251.2(the)-251.2(rst)-251.2(war)40(,)-251.2(did)-251.2(much)-251.2(to)-251.2(set)-251.2(the)-251.2(stage)-251.2(for)-251.2(rapid)-251.2(proliferation)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(of)-223.1(testing)-223.1(practices.)-223.1(Indeed,)-223.1(psychological)-223.1(testing)-223.1(combined)-223.1(with)-223.1(the)-223.1(military)-223.1(need)]TJ T* [(for)-176.1(assessment)-176.1(was)-176.1(one)-176.1(of)-176.1(the)-176.1(primary)-176.1(factors)-176.1(leading)-176.1(to)-176.1(the)-176.1(development)-176.1(of)-176.1(clinical)]TJ T* [(psychology)-250(as)-250(an)-250(independent)-250(specialty)-250(\(Maloney)-250(&)-232(W)80(ard,)-250(1976\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(During)-354.6(the)-354.5(period)-354.5(following)-336.5(WWII,)-354.5(testing)-354.5(practices)-354.5(developed)-354.5(dramatically)65(.)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Most)-227.6(tests)-227.6(developed)-227.6(during)-227.6(this)-227.6(period)-227.6(were)-227.6(tied)-227.6(to)-227.6(an)-227.6(intrapsychic)-227.6(disease)-227.6(model)]TJ T* [(or)-241.9(state-trait)-241.9(conceptualization)-241.9(of)-241.9(behavior)-241.9(\(cf.)-223.9(W)92(.)-241.9(Mischel,)-241.9(1968\).)-241.9(Psychoanalytic)]TJ T* [(theory)-217(generally)-217(accelerated)-217(assessment)-217(procedures)-217(that)-217(would)-217(reveal)-217(unconscious)]TJ T* [(processes.)-200.6(Assessment)-255.6(practices)-255.6(emphasized)-255.6(an)-255.6(indirect-sign)-255.6(paradigm.)-200.6(Assess-)]TJ T* [(ment)-214(was)-214(indirect)-214(in)-214(that)-214(measurement)-214(of)-214(certain)-214(facets)-214(of)-214(behavior)-214(were)-214(disguised)]TJ T* [(or)-278.4(hidden)-278.5(from)-278.5(the)-278.5(client)-278.5(\(e.g.,)-278.5(such)-278.5(as)-278.5(in)-278.5(the)-260.5(T)80(A)111(T\).)-278.5(Moreover)40(,)-278.5(within)-278.5(the)-278.5(context)]TJ T* [(of)-327.4(the)-327.4(intrapsychic)-327.4(model,)-327.4(testing)-327.4(practices)-327.4(were)-327.4(said)-327.4(to)-327.4(predict)-327.4(certain)-327.4(states)-327.4(or)]TJ T* [(traits.)-274.5(The)-292.5(clinician)55(s)-292.5(task)-292.5(was)-292.5(to)-292.5(administer)-292.5(a)-292.5(battery)-292.5(of)-292.5(tests)-292.5(to)-292.5(a)-292.5(child)-292.5(and)-292.5(look)]TJ T* [(for)-306.5(certain)-306.5(signs)-306.5(of)-306.5(traits)-306.5(or)-306.5(states.)-251.5(An)-306.5(example)-306.5(of)-306.5(this)-306.5(approach)-306.5(was)-306.5(represented)]TJ T* [(in)-294.5(the)-294.5(work)-294.5(of)-294.5(Rappaport,)-294.5(Gill,)-294.4(and)-294.5(Schafer)-294.5(\(1945\).)-294.4(In)-294.5(their)-294.5(classic)-294.4(book,)-294.4(the)-294.4(au-)]TJ T* [(thors)-287.6(demonstrated)-287.6(how)-287.6(a)-287.6(battery)-287.6(of)-287.6(tests)-287.6(\(e.g.,)-269.6(T)80(A)111(T)74(,)-287.6(Rorschach,)-269.6(W)111(AIS\))-287.6(could)-287.6(be)]TJ T* [(used)-266.9(to)-266.9(diagnose)-266.9(deviant)-266.9(behavior)-266.9(within)-266.9(the)-266.9(intrapsychic)-266.9(model)-266.9(\(in)-266.9(this)-266.9(case,)-266.9(the)]TJ T* [(psychoanalytic)-250(model\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Similar)-252.7(to)-252.7(the)-252.7(sign)-252.7(approach)-252.7(was)-252.7(the)-252.7(cookbook)-252.7(method)-252.7(of)-252.7(assessment,)-252.7(which)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(reached)-289.3(a)-289.3(zenith)-289.3(during)-289.3(the)-289.3(mid-1950s)-289.3(\(cf.)-289.3(Meehl,)-289.3(1956\).)-234.3(An)-289.3(example)-289.3(of)-289.3(this)-289.3(ap-)]TJ T* [(proach)-291(is)-291(the)-291(Minnesota)-291(Multiphasic)-291(Personality)-291(Inventory)-291(\(MMPI;)-291(Hathaway)-291(&)]TJ T* [(McKinley)65(,)-291(1943\).)-236(As)-291(these)-291(authors)-291(noted,)-291(one)-291(of)-291(the)-291(presumed)-291(advantages)-291(of)-291(the)]TJ T* [(cookbook)-201.2(approach)-201.2(was)-201.2(that)-201.2(it)-201.2(would)-201.2(stress)-201.2(representativeness)-201.2(of)-201.2(behavioral)-201.2(sam-)]TJ T* [(pling,)-309.3(accuracy)-309.3(in)-309.3(recording)-309.3(and)-309.3(cataloguing)-309.3(data)-309.3(from)-309.3(research)-309.3(studies,)-309.3(and)-309.3(op-)]TJ T* [(tional)-324(weighting)-324(of)-324(relevant)-324(variables)-324(and)-324(it)-324(would)-324(permit)-324(professional)-324(time)-324(and)]TJ T* [(talent)-250(to)-250(be)-250(used)-250(economically)-250(\(p.)-250(243\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 243.0141 Tm [(Emer)10(gence)-250(of)-250(Beha)25(vior)-250(Modication)-250(and)-250(Assessment)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 223.5869 Tm [(Behavior)-208.3(modication)-208.3(\(also)-208.3(referred)-208.3(to)-208.3(as)-208.3(behavior)-208.3(therapy\))-208.3(and)-208.3(the)-208.3(related)-208.3(assess-)]TJ T* [(ment)-329.2(procedures)-329.2(associated)-329.2(with)-329.2(this)-329.2(model)-329.2(have)-329.2(made)-329.2(a)-329.2(tremendous)-329.2(impact)-329.2(on)]TJ T* [(psychology)-325.7(and)-325.7(education)-325.7(\(Kazdin,)-325.7(1978;)-325.7(Kratochwill)-325.7(&)-325.7(Bijou,)-325.7(1987\).)-270.7(As)-325.7(some)]TJ T* [(historical)-232.9(reviews)-232.9(illustrate)-232.9(\(Hersen,)-232.9(1976;)-232.9(Kazdin,)-232.9(1978\),)-232.9(behavior)-232.9(therapy)-232.9(repre-)]TJ T* [(sented)-280.7(a)-280.7(departure)-280.7(from)-280.7(traditional)-280.7(models)-280.7(of)-280.7(assessment)-280.7(and)-280.7(treatment)-280.7(of)-280.7(abnor)20(-)]TJ T* [(mal)-182.6(behavior)40(,)-182.6(both)-182.6(psychological)-182.6(and)-182.6(educational.)-127.6(Although)-182.6(the)-182.6(history)-182.6(of)-182.6(behavior)]TJ T* [(therapy)-287.7(cannot)-287.7(be)-287.7(traced)-287.7(along)-287.7(a)-287.7(single)-287.7(line,)-287.7(practice)-287.7(was)-287.7(characterized)-287.7(by)-287.7(diver)20(-)]TJ T* [(sity)-289.9(of)-289.9(viewpoints,)-289.9(a)-289.9(broad)-289.9(range)-289.9(of)-289.9(heterogeneous)-289.9(procedures)-289.9(with)-289.9(vastly)-289.9(dif)18(fer)20(-)]TJ T* [(ent)-275.8(rationales,)-275.8(open)-275.8(debates)-275.8(over)-275.8(conceptual)-275.8(bases,)-275.8(methodological)-275.8(requirements,)]TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj > endobj 26 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(12)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(and)-361.6(evidence)-361.6(of)-361.6(ef)18(cacy)-361.6(\(Kazdin)-361.6(&)-343.6(W)40(ilson,)-361.6(1978\).)-361.6(Some)-361.6(reports)-361.6(of)-361.6(behavioral)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(treatment)-329.7(followed)-311.7(W)80(atson)-329.7(and)-329.7(Raynor)-37()55(s)-329.7(\(1920\))-329.7(work)-329.7(in)-329.7(conditioning)-329.7(of)-329.7(fear)-329.7(in)]TJ T* [(a)-299.3(child,)-299.3(but)-299.3(a)-299.3(signicant)-299.3(impetus)-299.3(to)-299.3(behavioral)-299.3(assessment)-299.3(and)-299.3(treatment)-299.3(is)-299.3(com-)]TJ T* [(monly)-342.9(traced)-342.9(to)-342.9(the)-342.9(publication)-342.9(in)-342.9(1958)-342.9(of)-342.9(Joseph)-324.9(W)80(olpe)55(s)-342.9(reciprocal)-342.9(inhibition)]TJ T* [(therapy)65(.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Independent)-288.4(of)-270.4(W)80(atson)55(s)-288.4(and)-270.4(W)80(olpe)55(s)-288.4(work)-288.4(was)-288.4(research)-288.4(in)-288.4(the)-288.4(psychology)-288.4(of)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(learning,)-305.3(in)-305.3(both)-305.3(Russia)-305.3(and)-305.3(the)-305.3(United)-305.3(S)18(tates.)-305.3(Particularly)-305.3(important)-305.3(in)-305.3(learning)]TJ T* [(research)-336.8(was)-336.8(operant)-336.8(conditioning,)-336.8(which)-336.8(Skinner)-336.8(brought)-336.8(into)-336.8(focus)-336.8(in)-336.8(the)-336.8(late)]TJ T* [(1930s)-271.3(\(e.g.,)-271.3(Skinner)40(,)-271.3(1938\).)-253.3(The)-271.3(evolution)-271.3(of)-271.3(operant)-271.3(work)-271.3(into)-271.3(experimental)-271.3(and)]TJ T* [(applied)-173.2(behavior)-173.2(analysis)-173.2(had)-173.2(an)-173.2(extremely)-173.2(important)-173.2(inuence)-173.2(on)-173.2(the)-173.2(development)]TJ T* [(of)-250(behavior)-250(therapy)-250(and)-250(assessment)-250(practices)-250(in)-250(general.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Although)-210.3(behavior)-210.3(therapy)-210.3(and)-210.3(assessment)-210.3(evolved)-210.3(considerably)-210.3(over)-210.3(the)-210.3(years,)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(some)-229.8(general)-229.8(characteristics)-229.8(represented)-229.8(unities)-229.8(within)-229.8(the)-229.8(heterogeneity)-229.8(of)-229.8(evolv-)]TJ T* [(ing)-250(practice:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 144.1494 503.537 Tm [(1.)-442.1(Focus)-250(upon)-250(current)-250(rather)-250(than)-250(historical)-250(determinants)-250(of)-250(behavior;)]TJ 0 -1.5789 TD [(2.)-442.1(Emphasis)-192.3(on)-192.3(overt)-192.3(behavior)-192.3(change)-192.3(as)-192.3(the)-192.3(main)-192.3(criterion)-192.3(by)-192.3(which)-192.3(treatment)-192.3(should)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(be)-250(evaluated;)]TJ -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(3.)-442.1(Specication)-250(of)-250(treatment)-250(in)-250(objective)-250(terms)-250(so)-250(as)-250(to)-250(make)-250(replication)-250(possible;)]TJ T* [(4.)-442.1(Reliance)-261.9(upon)-261.9(basic)-261.9(research)-261.9(in)-261.9(psychology)-261.9(as)-261.9(a)-261.9(source)-261.9(of)-261.9(hypotheses)-261.9(about)-261.9(treat-)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(ment)-250(and)-250(specic)-250(therapy)-250(techniques;)-250(and)]TJ -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(5.)-442.1(Specicity)-463.8(in)-463.8(dening,)-463.8(treating,)-463.8(and)-463.8(measuring)-463.8(the)-463.8(tar)18(get)-463.8(problem)-463.8(in)-463.8(therapy)65(.)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(\(Kazdin,)-250(1978,)-250(p.)-250(375\))]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 131.9969 379.004 Tm [(W)40(ith)-353.9(the)-353.9(advent)-353.9(of)-353.9(behavior)-353.9(modication)-353.9(and)-353.9(its)-353.9(proliferation,)-353.9(a)-353.9(new)-353.9(assess-)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(ment)-273.1(role)-273.1(also)-273.1(developed,)-273.1(particularly)-273.1(for)-273.1(clinical)-273.1(child)-273.1(and)-273.1(school)-273.1(psychologists.)]TJ T* [(Behavioral)-235.2(assessment)-235.2(emphasized)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 14.2586 0 TD [(r)37(epeated)-235.2(measur)37(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.2274 0 TD [(of)-235.2(some)-235.2(tar)18(get)-235.2(problem)]TJ -23.4859 -1.1818 TD [(prior)-220.7(\(baseline\),)-220.7(during,)-220.7(and)-220.7(after)-220.7(\(follow-up\))-220.7(the)-220.7(intervention.)-220.7(Hersen)-220.7(and)-220.7(Bellack)]TJ T* [(\(1976a\))-364.5(noted)-364.5(that)-364.5(the)-364.5(psychologist)55(s)-364.5(expertise)-364.5(in)-364.5(theory)-364.5(and)-364.5(application)-364.5(of)-364.5(be-)]TJ T* [(havioral)-245.1(therapy)-245.1(techniques)-245.1(\(e.g.,)-245.1(classical)-245.1(and)-245.1(operant)-245.1(conditioning\))-245.1(also)-245.1(enabled)]TJ T* [(both)-365.6(an)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 3.4532 0 TD (assessment)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.8096 0 TD [(and)-365.6(a)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 2.6192 0 TD [(tr)37(eatment)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.1616 0 TD [(role)-365.6(to)-365.6(emer)18(ge)-365.6(in)-365.6(psychiatric)-365.6(settings.)-347.6(This)]TJ -15.0437 -1.1818 TD [(focus)-308.6(was)-308.6(also)-308.6(to)-308.6(occur)-308.6(as)-308.6(a)-308.6(basis)-308.6(for)-308.6(the)-308.6(scientist-practitioner)-308.6(model)-308.6(of)-308.6(psycho-)]TJ T* [(logical)-311.5(services)-311.5(\(Hayes,)-311.5(Barlow)65(,)-311.5(&)-311.5(Nelson-Gray)65(,)-311.5(1999\))-311.5(and)-311.5(represented)-311.5(a)-311.5(strong)]TJ T* [(foundation)-359.3(for)-359.3(the)-359.3(evidence-based)-359.3(treatment)-359.3(movement)-359.3(\(Kratochwill)-359.3(&)-359.3(S)18(toiber)40(,)]TJ T* [(2002\))-329.2(and)-329.2(what)-329.2(is)-329.2(now)-329.2(called)-329.2(response)-329.2(to)-329.2(intervention)-329.2(in)-329.2(psychological)-329.2(practice)]TJ T* [(in)-324.7(schools)-324.7(\(Brown-Chidsey)-324.7(&)-324.7(S)18(teege,)-324.7(2006;)-324.7(Kratochwill)-324.7(et)-324.7(al.,)-324.7(2007\).)-306.7(Thus,)-324.7(the)]TJ T* [(psychologist)-256.9(in)-256.9(various)-256.9(settings)-256.9(\(e.g.,)-256.9(clinics,)-256.9(hospitals,)-256.9(schools\))-256.9(became)-256.9(involved)]TJ T* [(in)-317.9(direct)-317.9(service)-317.9(rather)-317.9(than)-317.9(engaged)-317.9(in)-317.9(only)-317.9(testing)-317.9(and)-317.9(diagnosis,)-317.9(although)-317.9(this)]TJ T* [(was)-291.1(slower)-291.1(to)-291.1(evolve)-291.1(in)-291.1(schools.)-291.1(Behavior)-291.1(modication)-291.1(provided)-291.1(the)-291.1(impetus)-291.1(for)]TJ T* [(these)-210.3(new)-210.3(roles)-210.3(and)-210.3(has)-210.3(continued)-210.3(to)-210.3(move)-210.3(practice)-210.3(forward)-210.3(in)-210.3(both)-210.3(prevention)-210.3(and)]TJ T* (treatment.)Tj 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Developments)-342.8(in)-342.8(behavioral)-342.8(assessment)-342.8(also)-342.8(inuenced)-342.8(the)-342.8(eld)-342.8(of)-342.8(personal-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(ity)-352.9(assessment)-352.9(in)-352.9(general.)-352.9(In)-352.9(many)-352.9(respects,)-352.9(assessment)-352.9(has)-352.9(acted)-352.9(as)-352.9(a)-352.9(barome-)]TJ T* [(ter)-320.4(for)-320.4(the)-320.4(thinking)-320.4(of)-320.4(personality)-320.4(theorists.)-320.4(For)-320.4(example,)-320.4(a)-320.4(barometer)-320.4(of)-320.4(change)]TJ T* [(in)-479.3(views)-479.3(about)-479.3(assessment)-479.3(has)-479.3(been)-479.3(the)-479.3(evolution)-479.3(of)-479.3(the)-479.3(title)-479.3(of)-479.3(the)-479.3(journal)]TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj > endobj 28 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(1)0(3)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(specically)-306.7(devoted)-306.7(to)-306.7(assessment)-306.7(in)-306.7(professional)-306.7(psychology)-306.7(\(Goldfried,)-306.7(1976\).)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-206.1(journal,)-206.1(founded)-206.1(in)-206.1(1936,)-206.1(was)-206.1(initially)-206.1(entitled)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 20.2591 0 TD [(Ror)10(sc)15(hac)15(h)-206.1(Resear)37(c)15(h)-206.1(Exc)15(hang)10(e)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.2363 0 TD (.)Tj -32.4775 -1.1818 TD [(Other)-240.9(projective)-240.9(techniques)-240.9(came)-240.9(into)-240.9(existence)-240.9(in)-240.9(the)-240.9(assessment)-240.9(process,)-240.9(and)-240.9(by)]TJ T* [(1947)-364.2(the)-364.2(journal)-364.2(title)-364.2(was)-364.2(changed)-364.2(to)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.8255 0 TD [(Ror)10(sc)15(hac)15(h)-364.2(Resear)37(c)15(h)-364.2(Exc)15(hang)10(e)-364.2(and)-364.2(J)25(our)20(-)]TJ -15.8255 -1.1818 TD [(nal)-210.4(of)-210.4(Pr)45(ojective)-210.4(T)92(e)0(c)15(hniques)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.2002 0 TD [(.)-210.4(Gradually)65(,)-210.4(the)-210.4(more)-210.4(objective)-210.4(personality)-210.4(assessment)]TJ -11.2002 -1.1818 TD [(techniques)-402.5(\(e.g.,)-402.5(the)-402.5(MMPI\))-402.3(were)-402.5(being)-402.5(used,)-402.5(and)-402.5(in)-402.5(1963)-402.5(the)-402.5(title)-402.5(was)-402.5(again)]TJ T* [(changed)-410.3(to)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.9305 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-410.3(of)-410.3(Pr)45(ojective)-410.3(T)92(e)0(c)15(hniques)-410.3(and)-410.3(P)80(e)0(r)10(sonality)-410.3(Assessment)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 25.4147 0 TD [(.)-410.3(Pro-)]TJ -30.3452 -1.1818 TD [(jective)-309.2(techniques)-309.2(continued)-309.2(to)-309.2(show)-309.2(disappointing)-309.2(research)-309.2(results,)-309.2(and)-309.2(in)-309.2(1971)]TJ T* [(this)-362(may)-362(have)-362(prompted)-362(the)-362(journal)55(s)-362(change)-362(to)-362(the)-362(title)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.6184 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-362(of)-362(P)80(e)0(r)10(sonality)]TJ -23.6184 -1.1818 TD (Assessment)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.555 0 TD (.)Tj -3.4641 -1.1818 TD [(Nevertheless,)-298.4(there)-298.4(remained)-298.4(some)-298.4(doubt)-298.4(as)-298.4(to)-298.4(whether)-298.4(the)-298.4(future)-298.4(direction)-298.4(of)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(assessment)-313.9(would)-313.9(take)-313.9(a)-313.9(distinct)-313.9(behavioral)-313.9(orientation.)-313.9(Even)-313.9(in)-313.9(1963,)-313.9(when)-313.9(the)]TJ T* (journal)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.0448 0 TD [(Behavior)111(,)-211.8(Resear)37(c)15(h)0(,)-211.8(and)-211.8(Ther)15(apy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.3891 0 TD [(made)-211.8(its)-211.8(appearance,)-211.8(the)-211.8(issue)-211.8(was)-211.8(raised)]TJ -16.4339 -1.1818 TD [(as)-378.3(to)-378.3(whether)-378.3(there)-378.3(would)-378.3(be)-378.3(a)-378.3(lar)18(ge)-378.3(enough)-378.3(readership)-378.3(to)-378.3(justify)-378.3(its)-378.3(existence)]TJ T* [(\(Brady)65(,)-328.5(1976\).)-328.5(However)40(,)-328.5(a)0(s)-328.5(Hersen)-328.5(and)-328.5(Bellack)-328.5(\(1976a\))-328.5(documented,)-328.5(the)-328.5(future)]TJ T* [(looked)-199(very)-199(positive,)-199(as)-199(reected)-199(in)-199(major)-199(journals)-199(inaugurated)-199(in)-199(the)-199(United)-199(S)18(tates)]TJ T* [(between)-397.8(1968)-397.8(and)-397.8(1970)-397.8(\(e.g.,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.7922 0 TD [(J)25(ournal)-397.8(of)-397.8(Applied)-397.8(Behavior)-397.8(Analysis,)-397.8(Behavior)]TJ -12.7922 -1.1818 TD [(Ther)15(apy)55(,)-310(J)25(ournal)-310(of)-310(Behavior)-310(Ther)15(apy)-310(and)-310(Experimental)-310(Psyc)15(hiatry)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 27.6814 0 TD [(\).)-310(Moreover)40(,)]TJ -27.6814 -1.1818 TD [(several)-243.7(other)-243.7(behaviorally)-243.7(oriented)-243.7(journals)-243.7(emer)18(ged)-243.7(\(e.g.,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.543 0 TD [(Co)10(gnitive)-243.7(Ther)15(apy)-243.7(and)]TJ -23.543 -1.1818 TD [(Resear)37(c)15(h)0(,)-314.5(Biofeedbac)20(k)-314.5(and)-314.5(Self-contr)45(ol)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.9627 0 TD [(\),)-314.5(and)-314.5(specic)-314.5(journals)-314.5(devoted)-314.5(primarily)]TJ -15.9627 -1.1818 TD [(to)-266.4(behavioral)-266.4(assessment)-266.4(\(e.g.,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.5355 0 TD [(Behavior)15(al)-266.4(Assessment,)-266.4(J)25(ournal)-266.4(of)-266.4(Behavior)15(al)-266.4(As-)]TJ -12.5355 -1.1818 TD (sessment)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.555 0 TD [(\))-250(were)-250(formed,)-250(although)-250(they)-250(were)-250(eventually)-250(changed.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 398.3315 Tm [(CONCEPTU)60(AL)-250(MODELS)-250(OF)-250(HUMAN)-250(BEHA)145(VIOR:)]TJ 0 -1.0833 TD [(IMPLICA)95(TIONS)-250(FOR)-250(CHILD)-250(THERAPY)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.2913 366.0526 Tm [(An)-385.4(extraordinary)-385.4(amount)-385.4(of)-385.4(theory)-385.4(and)-385.4(research)-385.4(has)-385.4(been)-385.4(generated)-385.4(that)-385.4(has)-385.4(a)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD 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[(ing)-343.4(held)-343.4(by)-343.4(the)-343.4(psychologist.)-343.4(Dif)18(ferent)-343.4(models,)-343.4(with)-343.4(their)-343.4(dif)18(ferent)-343.4(perspectives)]TJ T* [(on)-235(behavior)40(,)-235(yield)-235(vastly)-235(dif)18(ferent)-235(assessment)-235(approaches)-235(and)-235(data)-235(that)-235(are)-235(used)-235(in)]TJ T* [(making)-182.7(decisions)-182.7(relative)-182.7(to)-182.7(assessment)-182.7(and)-182.7(intervention.)-182.7(In)-182.7(this)-182.7(section,)-182.7(we)-182.7(review)]TJ T* [(some)-260.5(models)-260.5(of)-260.5(human)-260.5(behavior)-260.5(that)-260.5(inuence)-260.5(contemporary)-260.5(psychological)-260.5(prac-)]TJ T* [(tices.)-240.4(The)-258.4(models)-258.4(reviewed)-258.4(include)-258.4(the)-258.4(medical)-258.4(or)-258.4(biogenetic)-258.4(model,)-258.4(intrapsychic)]TJ T* [(disease)-185.4(model,)-185.4(psychoeducational)-185.4(process)-185.4(test-based)-185.4(model,)-185.4(and)-185.4(behavioral)-185.4(model.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(These)-247.6(various)-247.6(models)-247.6(have)-247.6(been)-247.6(discussed)-247.6(by)-247.6(others)-247.6(in)-247.6(the)-247.6(professional)-247.6(literature,)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(and)-215.9(due)-215.9(to)-215.9(space)-215.9(limitations)-215.9(we)-215.9(are)-215.9(not)-215.9(able)-215.9(to)-215.9(discuss)-215.9(them)-215.9(in)-215.9(detail)-215.9(or)-215.9(cover)-215.9(other)]TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj > endobj 30 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 31 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(14)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(models)-222.4(\(see)-222.4(Kratochwill)-222.4(&)-222.4(Morris,)-222.4(1993,)-222.4(for)-222.4(coverage)-222.4(of)-222.4(other)-222.4(models\).)-204.4(The)-222.4(mod-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(els)-219.7(dif)18(fer)-219.7(in)-219.7(their)-219.7(conceptualization)-219.7(of)-219.7(deviant)-219.7(behavior)-219.7(and)-219.7(assessment)-219.7(procedures)]TJ T* [(and)-329.2(devices)-329.2(\(sometimes\),)-329.2(as)-329.2(well)-329.2(as)-329.2(the)-329.2(nature)-329.2(of)-329.2(the)-329.2(intervention)-329.2(implemented.)]TJ T* [(Each)-268.5(model)-268.5(is)-268.5(discussed)-268.5(in)-268.5(the)-268.5(context)-268.5(of)-268.5(various)-268.5(components)-268.5(and)-268.5(considerations)]TJ T* [(in)-250(its)-250(use.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 621.9812 Tm [(Medical)-250(or)-250(Biological)-250(Model)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 0 -1.625 TD (Components)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 583.1269 Tm [(The)-284.8(medical)-284.8(model)-284.8(is)-284.8(one)-284.8(of)-284.8(the)-284.8(oldest)-284.8(approaches)-284.8(guiding)-284.8(assessment)-284.8(and)-284.8(treat-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(ment.)-176.6(The)-194.6(medical)-194.6(model)-194.6(can)-194.6(be)-194.6(applied)-194.6(in)-194.6(either)-194.6(a)-194.6(literal)-194.6(or)-194.6(a)-194.6(metaphorical)-194.6(context)]TJ T* [(\(Phillips,)-191.3(Draguns,)-191.3(&)-191.3(Bartlett,)-191.3(1975\).)-173.3(W)80(e)-191.3(view)-191.3(the)-191.3(model)-191.3(in)-191.3(its)-191.3(literal)-191.3(sense.)-173.3(That)-191.3(is,)]TJ T* [(abnormal)-178.6(biological)-178.6(systems)-178.6(can)-178.6(be)-178.6(traced)-178.6(to)-178.6(some)-178.6(underlying)-178.6(biological)-178.6(pathology)]TJ T* [(which)-246.4(is)-246.4(then)-246.4(treated.)-246.4(For)-246.4(example,)-246.4(defective)-246.4(hearing)-246.4(\(symptom\))-246.4(may)-246.4(be)-246.4(traced)-246.4(to)]TJ T* [(some)-156.2(type)-156.2(of)-156.2(infection)-156.2(\(the)-156.2(cause\),)-156.2(which)-156.2(may)-156.2(be)-156.2(treated)-156.2(with)-156.2(antibiotics.)-138.2(The)-156.2(preva-)]TJ T* [(lence)-314.9(of)-314.9(medical)-314.9(problems)-314.9(in)-314.9(children)-314.9(is)-314.9(actually)-314.9(quite)-314.9(high)-314.9(\(see)-314.9(Bear)-314.9(&)-314.9(Minke,)]TJ T* [(2006,)-270(for)-270(an)-270(overview)-270(of)-270(various)-270(problems\).)-215(A)-215(variety)-270(of)-270(health)-270(problems)-270(may)-270(be)]TJ T* [(found)-183.6(in)-183.6(children)-183.6(in)-183.6(the)-183.6(school)-183.6(setting,)-183.6(including)-183.6(those)-183.6(children)-183.6(who)-183.6(are)-183.6(chronically)]TJ T* [(ill)-211.8(and)-211.8(those)-211.8(with)-211.8(nutritional)-211.8(disorders)-211.8(\(undernutrition,)-211.8(obesity\),)-211.8(hearing)-211.8(and)-211.8(visual)]TJ T* [(disorders,)-228.7(dental)-228.7(problems,)-228.7(disorders)-228.7(of)-228.7(bones)-228.7(and)-228.7(joints,)-228.7(infectious)-228.7(disorders,)-228.7(res-)]TJ T* [(piratory)-205.2(disorders,)-205.2(aller)18(gic)-205.2(disorders,)-205.2(urinary)-205.2(disorders,)-205.2(and)-205.2(drug-related)-205.2(problems.)]TJ T* [(It)-365.8(seems)-365.8(clear)-365.8(that)-365.8(a)-365.8(medical)-365.8(model)-365.8(is)-365.8(appropriate)-365.8(to)-365.8(deal)-365.8(with)-365.8(the)-365.8(diversity)-365.8(of)]TJ T* [(medical)-250(problems)-250(in)-250(the)-250(schools.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-308.7(medical)-308.7(model)-308.7(is)-308.7(a)-308.7(disease-based)-308.7(model.)-290.7(The)-308.7(pathology)-308.7(is)-308.7(assumed)-308.7(to)-308.7(be)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(within)-295.1(the)-295.1(individual,)-295.1(although)-295.1(the)-295.1(causes)-295.1(may)-295.1(be)-295.1(environmental.)-295.1(Some)-295.1(theorists)]TJ T* [(consider)-270.9(biological)-270.9(deviations)-270.9(to)-270.9(be)-270.9(the)-270.9(necessary)-270.9(and)-270.9(suf)18(cient)-270.9(factors)-270.9(in)-270.9(the)-270.9(de-)]TJ T* [(velopment)-356.5(of)-356.5(the)-356.5(pathology;)-356.5(others)-356.5(claim)-356.5(that)-356.5(chemical)-356.5(or)-356.5(neurological)-356.5(anoma-)]TJ T* [(lies)-376.4(are)-376.4(the)-376.4(necessary)-376.4(but)-376.4(not)-376.4(suf)18(cient)-376.4(condition)-376.4(for)-376.4(pathogenesis.)-376.4(Here,)-376.4(envi-)]TJ T* [(ronmental)-334(conditions)-334(may)-334(or)-334(may)-334(not)-334(catalyze)-334(a)-334(constitutional)-334(predisposition)-334(to)]TJ T* [(pathology)65(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 294.8197 Tm (Considerations)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 275.3926 Tm [(Medical)-158.4(model)-158.4(procedures)-158.4(are)-158.4(clearly)-158.4(justiable)-158.4(when)-158.4(there)-158.4(is)-158.4(no)-158.4(basis)-158.4(for)-158.4(assuming)]TJ T* [(physiological)-252.5(change)-252.5(in)-252.5(the)-252.5(or)18(ganism)-252.5(as)-252.5(a)-252.5(result)-252.5(of)-252.5(the)-252.5(sociocultural)-252.5(environment.)]TJ T* [(Controversial)-211.6(practices)-211.6(characterize)-211.6(medical)-211.6(model)-211.6(procedures)-211.6(when)-211.6(they)-211.6(are)-211.6(used)]TJ T* [(to)-175.4(interpret)-175.4(measures)-175.4(of)-175.4(learned)-175.4(behavior)-175.4(\(e.g.,)-175.4(various)-175.4(forms)-175.4(of)-175.4(disruptive)-175.4(behavior)]TJ T* [(in)-150.4(children,)-150.4(academic)-150.4(skill)-150.4(decits\).)-95.4(Although)-150.4(genetic,)-150.4(developmental,)-150.4(neurological,)]TJ T* [(and)-219(biochemical)-219(factors)-219(all)-219(undoubtedly)-219(inuence)-219(behavior)40(,)-219(i)0(n)-219(reality)-219(these)-219(factors)]TJ T* [(are)-371.9(not)-371.9(discrete)-371.9(entities.)-353.9(They)-371.9(are)-371.9(interwoven)-371.9(with)-371.9(one)-371.9(another)-371.9(as)-371.9(well)-371.9(as)-371.9(with)]TJ T* [(environmental)-250(factors.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Applications)-316(of)-316(the)-316(medical)-316(model)-316(inuence)-316(assessment)-316(and)-316(treatment)-316(in)-316(var)20(-)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(ious)-316.5(ways.)-316.5(Or)18(ganic)-316.5(factors)-316.5(may)-316.5(not)-316.5(always)-316.5(be)-316.5(the)-316.5(cause)-316.5(of)-316.5(an)-316.5(observed)-316.5(medical)]TJ T* [(or)-261.1(physical)-261.1(problem.)-243.1(There)-261.1(is)-261.1(growing)-261.1(recognition)-261.1(that)-261.1(psychological)-261.1(factors)-261.1(may)]TJ T* [(af)18(fect)-184.4(a)-184.4(physical)-184.4(condition)-184.4(and)-184.4(that)-184.4(physical)-184.4(symptoms)-184.4(may)-184.4(have)-184.4(no)-184.4(known)-184.4(or)18(ganic)]TJ T* [(or)-324.1(physiological)-324.1(basis.)-324.1(In)-324.1(the)-324.1(past,)-324.1(various)-324.1(concepts)-324.1(such)-324.1(as)-324.1(psychosomatic)-324.1(or)]TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj > endobj 33 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(1)0(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(psychophysiological)-173.3(have)-173.3(been)-173.3(used)-173.3(to)-173.3(describe)-173.3(the)-173.3(psychological)-173.3(basis)-173.3(for)-173.3(phys-)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(ical)-206.7(or)-206.7(somatic)-206.7(disorders.)-206.7(However)40(,)-206.7(such)-206.7(perspectives)-206.7(may)-206.7(be)-206.7(of)-206.7(limited)-206.7(usefulness)]TJ T* [(because)-152.4(they)-152.4(imply)-152.4(a)-152.4(simplistic)-152.4(relation)-152.4(between)-152.4(psychological)-152.4(factors)-152.4(and)-152.4(a)-152.4(distinct)]TJ T* [(group)-304.3(of)-304.3(physical)-304.3(disorders)-304.3(when,)-304.3(in)-304.3(fact,)-304.3(there)-304.3(may)-304.3(be)-304.3(a)-304.3(complex)-304.3(interaction)-304.3(of)]TJ T* [(biological,)-192(environmental,)-192(psychological,)-192(and)-192(social)-192(factors)-192(contributing)-192(to)-192(various)]TJ T* [(physical)-250(disorders)-250(\(Siegel,)-250(1983\).)-250(Long)-250(ago,)-250(Lipowski)-250(\(1977,)-250(p.)-250(234\))-250(noted:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 130.6788 607.6951 Tm [(The)-318.1(concept)-318.2(of)-318.1(psychogenesis)-318.1(of)-318.2(or)18(ganic)-318.2(disease)-210.5(.)-160(.)-160(.)-202.1(is)-318.2(no)-318.2(longer)-318.1(tenable)-318.1(and)-318.1(has)-318.1(given)]TJ 0.018 -1.2632 TD [(way)-287.1(to)-287.2(the)-287.1(multiplicity)-287.1(of)-287.2(all)-287.2(disease)-210.5(.)-160(.)-160(.)-202.1(the)-287.2(relative)-287.2(contribution)-287.1(of)-287.2(these)-287.2(factors)-287.2([social)]TJ T* [(and)-289.6(psychological])-289.6(varies)-289.6(from)-289.6(disease)-289.6(to)-289.6(disease,)-289.6(from)-289.6(person)-289.6(to)-289.6(person,)-289.6(and)-289.6(from)-289.6(one)]TJ T* [(episode)-329.8(of)-329.8(the)-329.8(same)-329.8(disease)-329.8(in)-329.8(the)-329.8(same)-329.8(person)-329.8(to)-329.8(another)-329.8(episode.)-166.7(.)-160(.)-160(.)-212.6(If)-329.8(the)-329.8(foregoing)]TJ T* [(ar)18(guments)-313.8(are)-313.8(accepted)-313.8(then)-313.8(it)-313.8(becomes)-313.8(clear)-313.8(that)-313.8(to)-313.8(distinguish)-313.8(a)-313.8(class)-313.8(of)-313.8(disorders)-313.8(as)]TJ T* [(psychosomatic)-185.6(disorders)-185.6(and)-185.6(to)-185.6(propound)-185.6(generalizations)-185.6(about)-185.6(psychosomatic)-185.6(patients)]TJ T* [(is)-314.4(misleading)-314.4(and)-314.4(redundant.)-314.4(Concepts)-314.4(of)-314.4(single)-314.4(causes)-314.4(and)-314.4(cirilinear)-314.4(causal)-314.4(sequences)]TJ T* [(for)-250(example,)-250(from)-250(psyche)-250(to)-250(soma)-250(and)-250(vise)-250(versa,)-250(are)-250(simplistic)-250(and)-250(obsolete.)]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.652 493.3956 Tm [(The)-302.6(point)-302.6(here)-302.6(is)-302.6(that)-302.6(even)-302.6(in)-302.6(the)-302.6(treatment)-302.6(of)-302.6(physical)-302.6(disease,)-302.6(psychological)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(factors)-287.2(may)-287.2(be)-287.2(involved.)-287.2(Exclusive)-287.2(reliance)-287.2(on)-287.2(medical)-287.2(\(drug\))-287.2(interventions)-287.2(may)]TJ T* [(bias)-209.2(treatment)-209.2(in)-209.2(the)-209.2(sense)-209.2(that)-209.2(psychological)-209.2(\(or)-209.2(other\))-209.2(aspects)-209.2(of)-209.2(functioning)-209.2(may)]TJ T* [(be)-225.4(ignored.)-225.4(Problems)-225.4(most)-225.4(often)-225.4(arise)-225.4(when)-225.4(behavioral)-225.4(measures)-225.4(that)-225.4(can)-225.4(be)-225.4(inu-)]TJ T* [(enced)-241.8(by)-241.8(a)-241.8(variety)-241.8(of)-241.8(environmental)-241.8(circumstances)-241.8(are)-241.8(used)-241.8(to)-241.8(assess)-241.8(the)-241.8(potential)]TJ T* [(or)18(ganic)-291.3(origins)-291.3(of)-291.3(a)-291.3(perceived)-291.3(symptom.)-273.3(The)-291.3(more)-291.3(the)-291.3(individual)-291.3(dif)18(ferences)-291.3(ob-)]TJ T* [(served)-246.2(on)-246.2(a)-246.2(behavioral)-246.2(measure)-246.2(are)-246.2(inuenced)-246.2(by)-246.2(environmental)-246.2(factors,)-246.2(the)-246.2(more)]TJ T* [(the)-212.5(measure)-212.5(has)-212.5(the)-212.5(potential)-212.5(of)-212.5(being)-212.5(biased.)-212.5(Such)-212.5(a)-212.5(circumstance)-212.5(may)-212.5(arise)-212.5(when)]TJ T* [(the)-250(environmental)-250(factors)-250(that)-250(inuence)-250(the)-250(measure)-250(dif)18(fer)-250(across)-250(cultural)-250(groups.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 353.8267 Tm [(Psychodynamic)-250(Model)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 0 -1.625 TD (Components)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 314.9725 Tm [(The)-237.7(psychodynamic)-237.7(model)-237.7(proposes)-237.7(that)-237.7(maladaptive)-237.7(behaviors)-237.7(are)-237.7(symptoms)-237.7(re-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(sulting)-333.2(from)-333.2(underlying)-333.2(processes)-333.2(analogous)-333.2(to)-333.2(disease)-333.2(in)-333.2(the)-333.2(literal)-333.2(sense.)-315.2(This)]TJ T* [(model)-311.9(is)-311.9(sometimes)-311.9(labeled)-311.9(the)-311.9(medical)-311.9(model)-311.9(in)-311.9(psychological)-311.9(and)-311.9(psychoedu-)]TJ T* [(cational)-303.8(practice.)-303.8(Because)-303.8(conceptualization)-303.8(and)-303.8(treatment)-303.8(of)-303.8(abnormal)-303.8(behavior)]TJ T* [(initially)-226.8(resided)-226.8(lar)18(gely)-226.8(within)-226.8(the)-226.8(domain)-226.8(of)-226.8(medicine,)-226.8(the)-226.8(medical)-226.8(model)-226.8(was)-226.8(ex-)]TJ T* [(tended)-177.9(to)-177.9(treatment)-177.9(of)-177.9(abnormal)-177.9(behavior)40(,)-177.9(both)-177.9(medical)-177.9(and)-177.9(psychological.)-159.9(The)-177.9(his-)]TJ T* [(torical)-161.3(developments)-161.3(of)-161.3(the)-161.3(model)-161.3(are)-161.3(not)-161.3(reviewed)-161.3(in)-161.3(detail)-161.3(here;)-161.3(instead,)-161.3(the)-161.3(reader)]TJ T* [(is)-266.3(referred)-266.3(to)-266.3(several)-266.3(historical)-266.3(sources)-266.3(that)-266.3(discuss)-266.3(this)-266.3(approach)-266.3(\(e.g.,)-211.3(Alexander)]TJ T* [(&)-250(Selesnick,)-250(1968;)-250(Kraepelin,)-250(1962\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-250(psychodynamic)-250(approach)-250(can)-250(be)-250(characterized)-250(by)-250(the)-250(following:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 130.8492 167.7963 Tm [(\(a\))-247.2(uses)-247.2(a)-247.2(number)-247.2(of)-247.2(procedures,)-247.2(\(b\))-247.2(intended)-247.2(to)-247.2(tap)-247.2(various)-247.2(areas)-247.2(of)-247.2(psychological)-247.2(func-)]TJ 0 -1.2632 TD [(tioning,)-251(\(c\))-251(both)-251(at)-251(a)-251(conscious)-251(and)-251(unconscious)-251(level,)-251(\(d\))-251(using)-251(projective)-251(techniques)-251(as)]TJ T* [(well)-213.3(as)-213.3(more)-213.3(objective)-213.3(and)-213.3(standardized)-213.3(tests,)-213.3(\(e\))-213.3(in)-213.3(both)-213.3(cases,)-213.3(interpretation)-213.3(may)-213.3(rest)-213.3(on)]TJ T* [(symbolic)-278.6(signs)-278.7(as)-278.6(well)-278.7(as)-278.6(scorable)-278.7(responses,)-278.6(\(f\))-278.6(with)-278.6(the)-278.7(goal)-278.6(of)-278.7(describing)-278.6(individuals)]TJ T* [(in)-250(personological)-250(rather)-250(than)-250(normative)-250(terms.)-250(\(Korchin)-250(&)-250(Schuldber)18(g,)-250(1981,)-250(p.)-250(1)37(147\))]TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj > endobj 35 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(16)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 703.0657 Tm [(As)-382.2(is)-382.2(evident)-382.2(in)-382.2(this)-382.2(characterization,)-382.2(the)-382.2(psychodynamic)-382.2(approach)-382.2(is)-382.2(aimed)-382.2(at)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(providing)-181.8(a)-181.8(multifaceted)-181.8(description)-181.8(and)-181.8(inferences.)-163.8(This)-181.8(process)-181.8(is)-181.9(said)-181.9(to)-181.8(promote)]TJ T* [(a)-250(unique)-250(and)-250(individual)-250(approach)-250(to)-250(child)-250(assessment.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-166(psychoanalytic)-166(model)-166(represents)-166(one)-166(example)-166(of)-166(the)-166(psychodynamic)-166(disease)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(paradigm,)-260(as)-260(do)-260(many)-260(other)-260(dynamic)-260(models)-260(of)-260(human)-260(functioning.)-242(The)-260(dynamic)]TJ T* [(approach)-366.6(to)-366.6(assessment)-366.6(of)-366.6(deviant)-366.6(behavior)-366.6(is)-366.6(best)-366.6(elucidated)-366.6(in)-366.6(the)-366.6(context)-366.6(of)]TJ T* [(assumptions)-296.1(held)-296.1(about)-296.1(the)-296.1(internal)-296.1(dynamics)-296.1(of)-296.1(personality)-296.1(\(W)92(.)-296.1(Mischel,)-296.1(1968\).)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(raditionally)65(,)-380.8(dynamic)-380.8(approaches)-380.8(inferred)-380.8(some)-380.8(underlying)-380.8(constructs)-380.8(that)-380.8(ac-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(count)-243.8(for)-243.8(consistency)-243.8(in)-243.8(behavior)55(.)-188.8(Assessment)-243.8(is)-243.8(viewed)-243.8(as)-243.8(a)-243.8(means)-243.8(of)-243.8(identifying)]TJ T* [(some)-225.5(sign)-225.5(of)-225.5(these)-225.5(hypothetical)-225.5(constructs,)-225.5(which)-225.5(are)-225.5(of)-225.5(central)-225.5(importance)-225.5(in)-225.5(pre-)]TJ T* [(dicting)-226.6(behavior)55(.)-208.6(This)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9118 0 TD [(indir)37(ect)-226.6(sign)-226.6(par)15(adigm)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.2948 0 TD [(in)-226.6(assessment)-226.6(\(cf.)-208.6(W)92(.)-226.6(Mischel,)-226.6(1972,)]TJ -18.2065 -1.1818 TD [(p.)-228.7(319\))-228.7(includes)-228.7(the)-228.7(use)-228.7(of)-228.7(a)-228.7(lar)18(ge)-228.7(variety)-228.7(of)-228.7(projective)-228.7(tests)-228.7(\(e.g.,)-228.7(Rorschach,)-210.7(T)80(A)111(T)74(,)]TJ T* [(Human)-157(Figure)-157(Drawings,)-157(Sentence)-157(Completion)-139(T)70(ests\))-157(as)-157(well)-157(as)-157(objective)-157(personal-)]TJ T* [(ity)-240.7(inventories)-240.7(\(e.g.,)-240.7(MMPI-A)-185.7(for)-240.7(adolescents,)-240.7(MMPI-II,)-240.7(California)-240.7(Psychological)]TJ T* [(Inventory\))-250(that)-250(are)-250(still)-250(used)-250(in)-250(contemporary)-250(practice.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(A)-95.5(second)-150.6(feature)-150.6(of)-150.6(the)-150.6(traditional)-150.6(psychodynamic)-150.6(approach)-150.6(is)-150.6(that)-150.6(it)-150.6(assumes)-150.6(that)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(behavior)-262.1(will)-262.1(remain)-262.1(stable)-262.1(regardless)-262.1(of)-262.1(the)-262.1(specic)-262.1(environmental)-262.1(or)-262.1(situational)]TJ T* [(context.)-298.4(In)-298.4(this)-298.4(regard,)-298.4(test)-298.4(content)-298.4(is)-298.4(of)-298.4(less)-298.4(concern)-298.4(and)-298.4(may)-298.4(even)-298.4(be)-298.4(disguised)]TJ T* [(by)-241.4(making)-241.4(items)-241.4(ambiguous,)-241.4(as)-241.4(is)-241.4(true)-241.4(in)-241.4(projective)-241.4(testing)-241.4(\(Goldfried)-241.4(&)-241.4(Linehan,)]TJ T* [(1977\).)-167.6(Indeed,)-167.6(a)-167.6(particular)-167.6(response)-167.6(to)-167.6(a)-167.6(projective)-167.6(test)-167.6(is)-167.6(rarely)-167.6(examined)-167.6(in)-167.6(view)-167.6(of)]TJ T* [(the)-169.4(overt)-169.4(qualities)-169.4(of)-169.4(the)-169.4(situation)-169.4(in)-169.4(which)-169.4(the)-169.4(test)-169.4(occurred,)-169.4(but)-169.4(rather)-169.4(is)-169.4(interpreted)]TJ T* [(in)-250(the)-250(context)-250(of)-250(a)-250(complex)-250(theoretical)-250(structure.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 398.4312 Tm (Considerations)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 379.004 Tm [(The)-348.8(dynamic)-348.8(approach)-348.8(to)-348.8(assessment)-348.8(can)-348.8(be)-348.8(criticized)-348.8(on)-348.8(several)-348.8(grounds.)-348.8(One)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(problem)-336.5(is)-336.5(the)-336.5(preoccupation)-336.5(with)-336.5(historical)-336.5(events,)-336.5(often)-336.5(in)-336.5(the)-336.5(absence)-336.5(of)-336.5(any)]TJ T* [(verifying)-267.7(data.)-249.7(The)-267.7(second)-267.7(criticism)-267.7(relates)-267.7(to)-267.7(the)-267.7(emphasis)-267.7(during)-267.7(assessment)-267.7(on)]TJ T* [(the)-210.6(individual)55(s)-210.6(presumed)-210.6(unconscious)-210.6(beliefs,)-210.6(attitudes,)-210.6(motivations,)-210.6(and)-210.6(so)-210.6(forth,)]TJ T* [(as)-219.8(interpreted)-219.8(through)-219.8(projections.)-201.8(Third,)-219.8(behavior)-219.8(is)-219.8(assumed)-219.8(to)-219.8(be)-219.8(a)-219.8(consequence)]TJ T* [(of)-326.4(internalized)-326.4(pathological)-326.4(features.)-308.4(This)-326.4(assumption)-326.4(ignores)-326.4(evidence)-326.4(showing)]TJ T* [(that)-250(many)-250(behaviors)-250(are)-250(situationally)-250(specic.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-388.3(use)-388.3(of)-388.3(various)-388.3(psychodynamic)-388.3(indirect)-388.3(measurement)-388.3(procedures)-388.3(has)-388.3(di-)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(rect)-288.9(implications)-288.9(for)-288.9(child)-288.9(assessment)-288.9(and)-288.9(treatment.)-270.9(These)-288.9(measures)-288.9(continue)-288.9(to)]TJ T* [(be)-234.7(used)-234.7(in)-234.7(clinical)-234.7(practice)-234.7(despite)-234.7(data)-234.7(indicating)-234.7(their)-234.7(low)-234.7(predictive)-234.7(validity)-234.7(\(cf.)]TJ T* [(Hersen)-192.9(&)-192.9(Barlow)65(,)-192.9(1976\).)-174.9(When)-192.9(these)-192.9(issues)-192.9(became)-192.9(important,)-192.9(Goldfried)-192.9(and)-192.9(Kent)]TJ T* [(\(1972\))-214.8(noted)-214.8(that)-214.8(although)-214.8(the)-214.8(interpretation)-214.8(of)-214.8(certain)-214.9(signs)-214.8(on)-214.9(the)-214.8(Bender)20(-Gestalt)]TJ T* [(test)-377.9(\(Hutt)-377.9(&)-377.9(Briskin,)-377.9(1960\))-377.9(had)-377.9(no)-377.9(empirical)-377.9(support)-377.9(\(cf.)-377.9(Goldfried)-377.9(&)-377.9(Ingling,)]TJ T* [(1964;)-308.5(Hutt,)-308.5(1968\),)-308.5(the)-308.5(revised)-308.5(version)-308.5(of)-308.5(the)-308.5(Bender)20(-Gestalt)-308.5(manual)-308.5(presumably)]TJ T* [(discounted)-273.2(these)-273.2(research)-273.2(ndings)-273.2(and)-273.2(still)-273.2(recommended)-273.2(the)-273.2(use)-273.2(of)-273.2(questionable)]TJ T* [(interpretations.)-184(A)-184(rather)-239(extensive)-239(literature)-239(on)-239(the)-239(comprehensive)-239(\(predictive\))-239(va-)]TJ T* [(lidity)-335.9(of)-335.9(indirect)-335.9(measurement)-335.9(techniques)-335.9(\(T)74(.)-335.9(Mischel,)-335.9(1971;)-317.9(W)92(.)-335.9(Mischel,)-335.9(1968\))]TJ T* [(suggested)-317.1(that)-317.1(the)-317.1(predictions)-317.1(made)-317.1(on)-317.1(the)-317.1(basis)-317.1(of)-317.1(self-reports)-317.1(were)-317.1(equal)-317.1(to)-317.1(or)]TJ T* [(superior)-218.8(to)-218.8(those)-218.8(made)-218.8(on)-218.8(the)-218.8(basis)-218.8(of)-218.8(indirect)-218.8(measurement)-218.8(techniques)-218.8(that)-218.8(are)-218.8(in-)]TJ T* [(terpreted)-218.2(and)-218.2(scored)-218.2(by)-218.2(clinical)-218.2(experts.)-200.2(These)-218.2(ndings)-218.2(held)-218.2(true)-218.2(for)-218.2(a)-218.2(wide)-218.2(variety)]TJ T* [(of)-250(content)-250(areas)-250(\(cf.)-232(W)92(.)-250(Mischel,)-250(1972\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj > endobj 37 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(1)0(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.8492 703.0657 Tm [(Perhaps)-270.3(the)-270.3(most)-270.3(important)-270.3(issue)-270.3(that)-270.3(has)-270.3(been)-270.3(raised)-270.3(over)-270.3(traditional)-270.3(dynamic)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(assessment)-336.2(is)-336.2(its)-336.2(relation)-336.2(to)-336.2(treatment.)-281.2(A)-281.1(number)-336.2(of)-336.2(authors)-336.2(over)-336.2(the)-336.2(years)-336.2(have)]TJ T* [(noted)-345.4(that)-345.4(there)-345.4(was)-345.4(little)-345.4(relation)-345.4(between)-345.4(traditional)-345.4(assessment)-345.4(and)-345.4(treatment)]TJ T* [(\(Bandura,)-245.2(1969;)-245.2(Goldfried)-245.2(&)-245.2(Pomeranz,)-245.2(1968;)-245.2(Kanfer)-245.2(&)-245.2(Phillips,)-245.2(1970;)-245.2(Peterson,)]TJ T* [(1968;)-264(S)18(tuart,)-264(1970\).)-246(Thus,)-264(although)-264(traditional)-264(dynamic)-264(assessment)-264(may)-264(lead)-264(to)-264(a)]TJ T* [(diagnosis)-317.9(that)-317.9(may)-317.9(in)-317.9(turn)-317.9(lead)-317.9(to)-317.9(the)-317.9(recommendation)-317.9(of)-317.9(a)-317.9(particular)-317.9(treatment,)]TJ T* [(diagnoses)-230.4(resulting)-230.4(from)-230.4(traditional)-230.4(assessment)-230.4(methods)-230.4(cannot)-230.4(accurately)-230.4(predict)]TJ T* [(what)-371.3(particular)-371.3(treatment)-371.3(mode)-371.3(should)-371.3(be)-371.3(implemented)-371.3(\(Ciminero,)-371.3(Calhoun,)-371.3(&)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Adams,)-250(1977;)-250(S)18(tuart,)-250(1970\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 567.1093 Tm [(Psychometric)-250(T)92(est-Based)-250(Model)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 547.6822 Tm [(The)-243.8(psychometric)-243.8(test-based)-243.8(model)-243.8(bears)-243.8(similarity)-243.8(to)-243.8(the)-243.8(psychodynamic)-243.8(disease)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(model)-192.8(in)-192.8(that)-192.8(underlying)-192.8(processes,)-192.8(specically)-192.8(process)-192.8(decits,)-192.8(are)-192.8(said)-192.8(to)-192.8(account)]TJ T* [(for)-186.2(learning)-186.2(and)-186.2(behavior)-186.2(problems.)-186.2(In)-186.2(many)-186.2(respects,)-186.2(this)-186.2(model)-186.2(can)-186.2(be)-186.2(considered)]TJ T* [(a)-300.4(part)-300.4(of)-300.4(the)-300.4(dynamic)-300.4(model;)-300.4(however)40(,)-300.4(a)-300.4(psychometric)-300.4(approach)-300.4(is)-300.4(characterized)]TJ T* [(by)-270.5(the)-270.5(use)-270.5(of)-270.4(a)-270.5(variety)-270.5(of)-270.4(individual)-270.4(and)-270.5(group)-270.5(tests)-270.5(to)-270.5(compare)-270.5(individuals)-270.5(along)]TJ T* [(various)-173.2(trait)-173.2(or)-173.2(construct)-173.2(dimensions.)-173.2(In)-173.2(trait)-173.2(theory)-173.2(approaches,)-173.2(various)-173.2(personality)]TJ T* [(structures)-170.6(are)-170.6(said)-170.6(to)-170.6(account)-170.6(for)-170.6(an)-170.6(individual)55(s)-170.6(behavior)-170.6(\(W)92(.)-170.6(Mischel,)-170.6(1968,)-170.6(1974\).)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(rait)-279.7(theorists)-279.7(disagreed)-279.7(on)-279.7(what)-279.7(traits)-279.7(explained)-279.7(certain)-279.7(patterns)-279.7(of)-279.7(behavior)40(,)-279.7(but)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(generally)-188(agreed)-188(that)-188(certain)-188(behaviors)-188(were)-188(consistent)-188(across)-188(time)-188(and)-188(settings)-188(and)]TJ T* [(that)-250(these)-250(patterns)-250(are)-250(expressions)-250(or)-250(signs)-250(of)-250(underlying)-250(traits.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(In)-266.7(contrast)-266.7(to)-266.7(the)-266.7(psychodynamic)-266.7(position,)-266.7(trait)-266.7(assessors)-266.7(traditionally)-266.7(placed)-266.7(a)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(high)-314.4(premium)-314.4(on)-314.4(objective)-314.4(administration)-314.4(and)-314.4(scoring)-314.4(of)-314.4(tests.)-259.4(Attempts)-314.4(usually)]TJ T* [(were)-206.9(made)-206.9(to)-206.9(establish)-206.9(formal)-206.9(reliability)-206.9(and)-206.9(validity)-206.9(of)-206.9(the)-206.9(various)-206.9(measures)-206.9(used.)]TJ T* [(On)-244.9(empirical)-244.9(grounds,)-244.9(historically)-244.9(this)-244.9(statistical)-244.9(approach)-244.9(proved)-244.9(generally)-244.9(supe-)]TJ T* [(rior)-229.2(to)-229.2(the)-229.2(more)-229.2(clinical)-229.2(method)-229.2(in)-229.2(predicting)-229.2(behavior)-229.2(\(cf.)-229.2(Korchin)-229.2(&)-229.2(Schuldber)18(g,)]TJ T* [(1981\),)-174.1(but)-174.1(questions)-174.1(have)-174.1(been)-174.1(raised)-174.1(over)-174.1(the)-174.1(manner)-174.1(in)-174.1(which)-174.1(the)-174.1(research)-174.1(reects)]TJ T* [(the)-250(reality)-250(of)-250(decision)-250(making)-250(in)-250(actual)-250(clinical)-250(practice.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Closely)-275(related)-275(to)-275(the)-275(psychometric)-275(approach)-275(is)-275(the)-275(psychoeducational)-275(process)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(model)-196.9(used)-196.9(by)-196.9(many)-196.9(practicing)-196.9(school)-196.9(psychologists.)-178.9(The)-196.9(model)-196.9(can)-196.9(be)-196.9(considered)]TJ T* [(analogous)-308.8(to)-308.8(the)-308.8(psychometric)-308.8(trait)-308.8(model)-308.8(in)-308.8(that)-308.8(assessment)-308.8(focuses)-308.8(on)-308.8(internal)]TJ T* [(decits,)-359.3(except)-359.3(its)-359.3(context)-359.3(is)-359.3(psychoeducational)-359.3(rather)-359.3(than)-359.3(personality)-359.3(or)-359.3(emo-)]TJ T* [(tionally)-204.8(oriented.)-204.8(Because)-204.8(a)-204.8(variety)-204.8(of)-204.8(cognitive,)-204.8(perceptual,)-204.8(psycholinguistic,)-204.8(psy-)]TJ T* [(chomotor)40(,)-241.3(and)-241.3(neuropsychological)-241.3(processes)-241.3(or)-241.3(abilities)-241.3(have)-241.3(been)-241.3(cited)-241.3(as)-241.3(causes)]TJ T* [(of)-241.3(children)55(s)-241.3(academic)-241.3(failure,)-241.3(norm-referenced)-241.3(cognitive)-241.3(\(e.g.,)-223.3(WISC,)-241.3(McCarthy)65(,)]TJ T* [(S)18(tanford-Binet\),)-167.3(perceptual)-167.3(\(Bender)-149.3(V)60(isual)-167.3(Motor)-167.3(Gestalt)-149.3(T)70(est,)-167.3(Developmental)-149.3(T)70(est)]TJ T* [(of)-194.3(V)60(isual)-212.3(Perception,)-212.3(Developmental)-194.3(T)70(est)-212.3(of)-194.3(V)60(isual-Motor)-212.3(Integration\),)-212.3(psycholin-)]TJ T* [(guistic)-383.8(\(e.g.,)-383.8(Illinois)-365.8(T)70(est)-383.8(of)-383.8(Psycholinguistic)-328.8(Abilities\),)-383.8(and)-383.8(psychomotor)-383.8(\(e.g.,)]TJ T* [(Purdue)-250(Perceptual-Motor)-250(Survey\))-250(tests)-250(are)-250(used)-250(to)-250(assess)-250(these)-250(abilities.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Most)-671.1(of)-671.1(these)-671.1(assessment)-671.1(procedures)-671.1(follow)-671.1(a)-671.1(diagnostic-predescriptive)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(approach.)-213(Ysseldyke)-250(and)-250(Mirkin)-250(\(1982,)-250(p.)-250(398\))-250(noted:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 130.3287 143.8859 Tm [(All)-315.2(of)-315.2(the)-315.2(diagnostic-perspective)-315.2(approaches)-315.2(based)-315.2(on)-315.2(a)-315.2(process)-315.2(dysfunction)-315.2(viewpoint)]TJ 0.055 -1.2632 TD [(of)-221.1(the)-221.1(nature)-221.1(of)-221.1(exceptionality)-221.1(operate)-221.1(similarly)65(.)-203.1(When)-221.1(students)-221.1(experience)-221.1(academic)-221.1(dif-)]TJ T* [(culties)-320.7(it)-320.6(is)-320.7(presumed)-320.6(that)-320.6(the)-320.6(dif)18(culties)-320.7(are)-320.6(caused)-320.7(by)-320.7(inner)-320.7(process)-320.7(dysfunctions)-320.7(or)]TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj > endobj 39 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 40 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(18)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 132.1942 703.786 Tm [(disorders.)-232.6(T)70(ests)-250.6(are)-250.6(administered)-250.6(in)-250.6(an)-250.6(ef)18(fort)-250.6(to)-250.6(identify)-250.6(the)-250.6(specic)-250.6(nature)-250.6(of)-250.6(the)-250.6(within-)]TJ 0 -1.2632 TD [(child)-233.9(disorder)-233.9(that)-233.9(is)-233.9(creating)-233.9(or)-233.9(contributing)-233.9(to)-233.9(learning)-233.9(dif)18(culties.)-233.9(Disorders)-233.9(or)-233.9(decits)]TJ T* [(are)-173.5(test)-173.5(named)-173.5(\(e.g.,)-173.5(gure-ground)-173.5(deciencies,)-173.5(auditory)-173.5(sequential)-173.5(memory)-173.5(decits,)-173.5(body)]TJ T* [(image)-260.6(problems,)-260.6(eye-hand)-260.6(coordination)-260.6(dif)18(culties,)-260.6(visual)-260.6(association)-260.6(dysfunctions,)-260.6(and)]TJ T* [(manual)-292.4(expression)-292.4(disorders\).)-292.4(Specic)-292.4(interventions)-292.4(are)-292.4(developed)-292.4(to)-292.4(cure)-292.4(the)-292.4(under)20(-)]TJ T* [(lying)-250(causative)-250(problems.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 612.2194 Tm (Considerations)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 592.7922 Tm [(There)-292.9(are)-292.9(several)-292.9(important)-292.9(implications)-292.9(that)-292.9(can)-292.9(be)-292.9(raised)-292.9(with)-292.9(regard)-292.9(to)-292.9(the)-292.9(as-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(sessment)-297.6(tactics)-297.6(used)-297.6(in)-297.6(the)-297.6(psychometric)-297.6(model.)-297.6(First,)-297.6(because)-297.6(norm-referenced)]TJ T* [(devices)-331.7(are)-331.7(commonly)-331.7(used)-331.7(in)-331.7(the)-331.7(model,)-331.7(the)-331.7(clinician)-331.7(must)-331.7(assume)-331.7(that)-331.7(clients)]TJ T* [(tested)-314.1(have)-314.1(background)-314.1(and)-314.1(acculturation)-314.1(comparable)-314.1(to)-314.1(those)-314.1(on)-314.1(whom)-314.1(the)-314.1(test)]TJ T* [(was)-329.2(standardized)-329.2(\(cf.)-329.2(Oakland)-329.2(&)-329.2(Matuszek,)-329.2(1977\).)-292.2(Y)100(e)0(t)-329.2(the)-329.2(point)-329.2(was)-329.2(frequently)]TJ T* [(raised)-227.8(that)-227.8(standardized)-227.8(tests)-227.8(are)-227.8(biased)-227.8(and)-227.8(unfair)-227.8(to)-227.8(individuals)-227.8(from)-227.8(cultural)-227.8(and)]TJ T* [(socioeconomic)-246(minorities)-246(because)-246(they)-246(reect)-246(predominantly)-228(White,)-246(middle-class)]TJ T* [(values)-324.9(and)-324.9(do)-324.9(not)-324.9(reect)-324.9(the)-324.9(experiences)-324.9(and)-324.9(the)-324.9(linguistic,)-324.9(cognitive,)-324.9(and)-324.9(other)]TJ T* [(cultural)-276(values)-276(and)-276(styles)-276(of)-276(minority)-276(individuals)-276(\(Laosa,)-276(1977\).)-276(For)-276(example,)-276(al-)]TJ T* [(though)-246.1(the)-246.1(norms)-246.1(for)-246.1(some)-246.1(tests)-246.1(\(e.g.,)-246.1(some)-246.1(group)-246.1(achievement)-246.1(and)-246.1(aptitude)-246.1(tests,)]TJ T* [(the)-215.7(1972)-215.7(S)18(tanford-Binet,)-197.7(WISC-IV\))-215.7(were)-215.7(generally)-215.7(good,)-215.7(norming)-215.7(on)-215.7(other)-215.7(instru-)]TJ T* [(ments)-273.8(\(e.g.,)-273.8(Illinois)-255.8(T)70(est)-273.8(of)-273.8(Psycholinguistic)-218.8(Abilities)-273.8([ITP)92(A],)-273.8(Leiter)-273.8(International)]TJ T* [(Performance)-250(Scale,)-250(Slosson)-250(Intelligence)-232(T)70(est\))-250(was)-250(quite)-250(inadequate.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(A)-169.7(second)-224.8(issue)-224.8(is)-224.8(that)-224.8(research)-224.8(examining)-224.8(components)-224.8(of)-224.8(reliability)-224.8(and)-224.8(validity)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(on)-299.6(various)-299.6(process)-299.6(measures)-299.6(has)-299.6(not)-299.6(been)-299.6(optimistic)-299.6(\(Salvia)-299.6(&)-262.6(Ysseldyke,)-299.6(1978;)]TJ -0.037 -1.1818 TD [(Ysseldyke)-261.1(&)-261.1(Salvia,)-261.1(1974\).)-261.1(For)-261.1(example,)-261.1(several)-261.1(early)-261.1(reviews)-261.1(of)-261.1(research)-261.1(on)-261.1(the)]TJ 0.037 -1.1818 TD [(ITP)92(A)-136.1(\(e.g.,)-191.2(Bateman,)-191.2(1965;)-191.2(Buros,)-191.2(1972;)-191.2(Sedlak)-191.2(&)-173.2(W)80(eener)40(,)-191.2(1973\))-191.2(drew)-191.2(attention)-191.2(to)]TJ T* [(these)-147.1(limitations.)-129.1(The)-147.1(magnitude)-147.1(of)-147.1(the)-147.1(problems)-147.1(of)-147.1(inadequate)-147.1(norming,)-147.1(inadequate)]TJ T* [(or)-149.9(incomplete)-149.9(reliability)-149.9(data,)-149.9(or)-149.9(questionable)-149.9(validity)-149.9(was)-149.9(nicely)-149.9(represented)-149.9(in)-149.9(data)]TJ T* [(presented)-232.5(by)-232.5(Salvia)-232.5(and)-195.5(Ysseldyke)-232.5(\(1978\).)-232.5(Clearly)65(,)-232.5(the)-232.5(potential)-232.5(for)-232.5(biased)-232.5(assess-)]TJ T* [(ment)-240.8(practice)-240.8(is)-240.8(high)-240.8(given)-240.8(the)-240.8(poor)-240.8(psychometric)-240.8(properties)-240.8(of)-240.8(these)-240.8(instruments.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 301.9729 Tm [(Beha)25(vioral)-250(Model)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 0 -1.625 TD (Components)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.0418 263.1187 Tm [(T)70(echnically)65(,)-278.6(there)-278.6(is)-278.6(no)-278.6(one)-278.6(model)-278.6(of)-278.6(behavior)-278.6(therapy)65(,)-278.6(and)-278.6(contemporary)-278.6(behav-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(ior)-311.5(therapy)65(,)-311.5(despite)-311.5(commonalities,)-311.5(is)-311.5(characterized)-311.5(by)-311.5(a)-311.5(great)-311.5(deal)-311.5(of)-311.5(diversity)65(.)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 474.4012 254.1453 Tm ()Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 237.2158 Tm [(Historically)65(,)-223.6(the)-223.6(dif)18(ferent)-223.6(approaches)-223.6(in)-223.6(behavior)-223.6(therapy)-223.6(include)-223.6(applied)-223.6(behavior)]TJ T* [(analysis)-387.5(\(e.g.,)-387.5(Baer)40(,)-369.5(W)80(olf,)-387.5(&)-387.5(Risley)65(,)-387.5(1968;)-387.5(Bijou,)-387.5(1970\),)-387.5(mediational)-387.5(stimulus-)]TJ T* [(response)-280.3(model)-280.3(\(e.g.,)-280.3(Rachman,)-280.3(1963;)-262.3(W)80(olpe,)-280.3(1958\),)-280.3(social)-280.3(learning)-280.3(theory)-280.3(\(e.g.,)]TJ T* [(Bandura,)-243.5(1969,)-243.5(1977b\),)-243.5(and)-243.5(cognitive-behavior)-243.5(modication)-243.5(\(e.g.,)-243.5(Meichenbaum,)]TJ T* [(1974,)-250(1977;)-250(Mahoney)65(,)-250(1974;)-250(Mahoney)-250(&)-195(Arnkof)18(f,)-250(1978.\))]TJ /F5 1 Tf 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 372.8871 189.3881 Tm ()Tj ET 0.498 w 120.239 167.149 m 191.97 167.149 l S BT 6.6251 0 0 6.6251 120.239 159.177 Tm ()Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 123.6683 155.7414 Tm [(A)-195(detailed)-250(account)-250(of)-250(the)-250(history)-250(of)-250(behavior)-250(modication)-250(can)-250(be)-250(found)-250(in)-250(Kazdin)-250(\(1978\).)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 6.6251 0 0 6.6251 120.239 147.3214 Tm ()Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 127.4702 143.8858 Tm [(These)-228(approaches)-228(are)-228(only)-228(briey)-228(reviewed)-228(here.)-210(The)-228(reader)-228(is)-228(referred)-228(to)-228(Kazdin)-228(and)-210(W)40(ilson)]TJ -0.764 -1.2632 TD [(\(1978\))-298(as)-298(well)-298(as)-298(original)-298(sources)-298(within)-298(each)-298(approach)-298(for)-298(a)-298(more)-298(detailed)-298(presentation.)-280(The)]TJ T* [(reader)-250(is)-250(also)-250(referred)-250(to)-250(Kratochwill)-250(\(1982\))-250(and)-250(Kratochwill)-250(and)-250(Bijou)-250(\(1987\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj > stream HTT}l~;|w I?U ) IhQeSu??}G>V>gA1I KJj? 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[(\(e.g.,)-223.4(various)-223.4(social)-223.4(behaviors,)-223.4(learning)-223.4(disorders,)-223.4(mental)-223.4(retardation,)-223.4(social)-223.4(skills\))]TJ T* [(and)-168.1(adheres)-168.1(to)-168.1(certain)-168.1(methodological)-168.1(criteria)-168.1(\(e.g.,)-168.1(experimental)-168.1(analysis,)-168.1(observer)]TJ T* [(agreement)-250(on)-250(response)-250(measures,)-250(generalization)-250(of)-250(therapeutic)-250(ef)18(fects\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Advocates)-257.3(of)-257.3(applied)-257.3(behavior)-257.3(analysis)-257.3(use)-257.3(a)-257.3(more)-257.3(restrictive)-257.3(sense)-257.3(of)-257.3(the)-257.3(term)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(behavior)-37()-270.7(than)-270.7(other)-270.7(areas)-270.7(represented)-270.7(in)-270.7(the)-270.7(eld)-270.7(of)-270.7(behavior)-270.7(therapy:)-270.7(behavior)]TJ T* [(as)-273.2(the)-273.2(overt)-273.2(activity)-273.2(of)-273.2(an)-273.2(or)18(ganism.)-273.2(Internal)-273.2(feelings)-273.2(and)-273.2(cognitions)-273.2(are)-273.2(typically)]TJ T* [(not)-254.4(considered)-254.4(a)-254.4(major)-254.4(focus)-254.4(for)-254.4(the)-254.4(techniques)-254.4(of)-254.4(therapy)65(,)-254.4(research,)-254.4(and)-254.4(practice.)]TJ T* [(However)40(,)-196.4(i)0(t)-196.4(must)-196.4(be)-196.4(stressed)-196.4(that)-196.4(applied)-196.4(behavior)-196.4(analysis)-196.4(focuses)-196.4(on)-196.4(the)-196.4(behavior)]TJ T* [(of)-316.1(an)-316.1(individual)-316.1(as)-316.1(a)-316.1(total)-316.1(functioning)-316.1(or)18(ganism,)-316.1(although)-316.1(there)-316.1(is)-316.1(not)-316.1(always)-316.1(an)]TJ T* [(attempt)-240.1(to)-240.1(observe,)-240.1(measure,)-240.1(and)-240.1(relate)-240.1(an)-240.1(or)18(ganism)55(s)-240.1(entire)-240.1(response)-240.1(taking)-240.1(place)]TJ T* [(at)-250(one)-250(time)-250(\(Bijou,)-250(1976;)-250(Bijou)-250(&)-250(Baer)40(,)-250(1978\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Many)-225.8(intervention)-225.8(procedures)-225.8(associated)-225.8(with)-225.8(applied)-225.8(behavior)-225.8(analysis)-225.8(are)-225.8(de-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(rived)-226.5(from)-226.5(basic)-226.5(laboratory)-226.5(operant)-226.5(research)-226.5(\(e.g.,)-226.5(positive)-226.5(and)-226.5(negative)-226.5(reinforce-)]TJ T* [(ment,)-318.6(punishment,)-318.6(time-out,)-318.6(response)-318.6(cost,)-318.6(shaping,)-318.6(fading)-318.6(stimulus)-318.6(control;)-318.6(see)]TJ T* [(Bijou,)-247.7(1976;)-247.7(Gelfand)-247.7(&)-247.7(Hartmann,)-247.7(1975;)-247.7(Kazdin,)-247.7(1980;)-247.7(Sulzer)20(-Azarof)18(f)-247.7(&)-247.7(Mayer)40(,)]TJ T* [(1977\).)-214.6(Assessment)-269.6(emphasizes)-269.6(the)-269.6(individual)-269.6(application)-269.6(of)-269.6(these)-269.6(procedures)-269.6(and)]TJ T* [(a)-363.6(functional)-363.6(evaluation)-363.6(of)-363.6(their)-363.6(ef)18(fectiveness)-363.6(\(Bijou)-363.6(&)-363.6(Grimm,)-363.6(1975;)-363.6(Emery)-363.6(&)]TJ T* [(Marholin,)-324(1977\).)-324(Behavior)-324(analysis)-324(refers)-324(to)-324(the)-324(study)-324(of)-324(or)18(ganism-environment)]TJ T* [(interactions)-228.8(in)-228.8(terms)-228.8(of)-228.8(empirical)-228.8(concepts)-228.8(and)-228.8(laws)-228.8(for)-228.8(understanding,)-228.8(predicting,)]TJ T* [(and)-250.3(controlling)-250.3(or)18(ganism)-250.3(behavior)-250.3(and)-250.3(repeated)-250.3(measurement)-250.3(of)-250.3(well-dened)-250.3(and)]TJ T* [(clearly)-303.3(observable)-303.3(responses)-303.3(\(Bijou,)-303.3(1976;)-303.3(Bijou,)-303.3(Peterson,)-303.3(&)-248.3(Ault,)-303.3(1968;)-303.3(Bijou,)]TJ T* [(Peterson,)-250(Harris,)-195(Allen,)-250(&)-250(Johnson,)-250(1969\).)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 307.7711 Tm [(Neobehavioristic)-250(Mediational)-250(Stimulus-Response)-250(Model)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 288.344 Tm [(The)-288(noebehavioristic)-288(mediational)-288(stimulus-response)-288(\(S-R\))-288(model)-288(is)-288(derived)-288(from)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-328.9(work)-328.9(of)-328.9(such)-328.9(learning)-328.9(theorists)-328.9(as)-328.9(Pavlov)65(,)-328.9(Guthrie,)-328.9(Hull,)-328.9(Mower)40(,)-328.9(and)-328.9(Miller)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-273.9(Eysenck,)-273.9(1960,)-273.9(1964;)-273.9(Rachman,)-273.9(1963;)-255.9(W)80(olpe,)-273.9(1958\).)-255.9(These)-273.9(approaches)-273.9(are)]TJ T* [(characterized)-226.2(by)-226.2(the)-226.2(application)-226.2(of)-226.2(the)-226.2(principles)-226.2(of)-226.2(conditioning,)-226.2(especially)-226.2(clas-)]TJ T* [(sical)-184.4(conditioning)-184.4(and)-184.4(counter)20(-conditioning)-184.4(to)-184.4(the)-184.4(treatment)-184.4(of)-184.4(abnormal)-184.4(behavior)-37()]TJ T* [(\(Kazdin)-328.8(&)-310.8(W)40(ilson,)-328.8(1978,)-328.8(p.)-328.8(3\).)-273.8(Although)-328.8(intervening)-328.8(variables)-328.8(and)-328.8(hypothetical)]TJ T* [(constructs)-155.9(play)-155.9(a)-155.9(role)-155.9(in)-155.9(assessment)-155.9(and)-155.9(intervention,)-155.9(covert)-155.9(activities)-155.9(are)-155.9(most)-155.9(com-)]TJ T* [(monly)-327(dened)-327(in)-327(terms)-327(of)-327(a)-327(chain)-327(of)-327(S-R)-327(reactions,)-327(with)-327(cognitive)-327(formulations)]TJ T* (de-emphasized.)Tj 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(A)-355.6(number)-410.7(of)-410.7(treatment)-410.7(procedures)-410.7(such)-410.7(as)-410.7(counterconditioning)-410.7(and)-410.7(system-)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(atic)-253.6(desensitization)-253.6(have)-253.6(been)-253.6(used)-253.6(to)-253.6(treat)-253.6(anxiety)-253.6(reactions,)-253.6(phobic)-253.6(patterns,)-253.6(and)]TJ T* [(other)-234.1(strong)-234.1(emotional)-234.1(disorders)-234.1(in)-234.1(children)-234.1(\(Morris)-234.1(&)-234.1(Kratochwill,)-234.1(1983;)-234.1(Morris,)]TJ T* [(Kratochwill,)-356.7(Schoeneld,)-356.7(&)-301.7(Auster)40(,)-356.7(i)0(n)-356.7(press\).)-356.7(Systematic)-356.7(desensitization,)-356.7(based)]TJ T* [(originally)-536.7(on)-536.7(the)-536.7(principle)-536.7(of)-536.7(reciprocal)-536.7(inhibition)-536.7(\(W)80(olpe,)-536.7(1958\),)-536.7(has)-536.7(been)]TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(20)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(successfully)-287.3(used)-287.3(to)-287.3(treat)-287.3(a)-287.3(wide)-287.3(range)-287.3(of)-287.3(child)-287.3(and)-287.3(adult)-287.3(problem)-287.3(behaviors)-287.3(\(see)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(Morris)-204.3(&)-204.3(Kratochwill,)-204.3(1983;)-204.3(Morris)-204.3(et)-204.3(al.,)-204.3(in)-204.3(press\).)-149.3(Assessment)-204.3(in)-204.3(the)-204.3(mediational)]TJ T* [(S-R)-139.9(model)-140(relies)-140(on)-140(survey)-140(schedules)-140(\(e.g.,)-140(fear)-140(survey)-140(schedules\),)-140(self-support)-140(data,)]TJ T* [(and)-212.6(direct)-212.6(measures)-212.6(of)-212.6(client)-212.6(behavior)-212.6(\(as)-212.6(in)-212.6(the)-212.6(use)-212.6(of)-212.6(behavioral)-212.6(avoidance)-212.6(tests\).)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 637.8844 Tm [(Cognitiv)15(e-Behavior)-250(Therapy)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 618.4573 Tm 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T* [(therapy)65(,)-277.9(Beck)55(s)-277.9(cognitive)-277.9(therapy)65(,)-277.9(and)-277.9(Meichenbaum)55(s)-277.9(self-instructional)-277.9(training.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(reatment)-192.8(strategies)-192.8(are)-192.8(quite)-192.8(diverse)-192.8(and)-192.8(include)-192.8(such)-192.8(techniques)-192.8(as)-192.8(problem)-192.8(solv-)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(ing,)-285.5(stress)-285.5(inoculation,)-285.5(self-instructional)-285.5(training,)-285.5(coping)-285.5(skills)-285.5(training,)-285.5(language)]TJ T* [(behavior)-249(therapy)65(,)-249(thought)-249(stopping,)-249(and)-249(attribution)-249(therapy)65(.)-231(These)-249(techniques)-249(rep-)]TJ T* [(resent)-328.8(procedures)-328.8(not)-328.8(generally)-328.8(addressed)-328.8(by)-328.8(other)-328.8(behavior)-328.8(therapy)-328.8(approaches)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-250(applied)-250(behavior)-250(analysis\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Assessment)-179.3(in)-179.3(cognitive-behavior)-179.3(therapy)-179.3(tended)-179.3(to)-179.3(be)-179.3(quite)-179.3(broad-based,)-179.3(taking)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(into)-191.9(account)-191.9(many)-191.9(dif)18(ferent)-191.9(dimensions)-191.9(of)-191.9(behavior)55(.)-154.9(Y)100(et)-191.9(there)-191.9(was)-191.9(still)-191.9(an)-191.9(emphasis)]TJ T* [(on)-190.7(dening)-190.7(the)-190.7(nature)-190.7(of)-190.7(the)-190.7(tar)18(get)-190.7(problem,)-190.7(whether)-190.7(overt)-190.7(or)-190.7(covert.)-190.7(In)-190.7(some)-190.7(cases,)]TJ T* [(a)-402.4(more)-402.4(traditional)-402.4(functional)-402.4(analysis)-402.4(of)-402.4(behavior)40(,)-402.4(which)-402.4(emphasizes)-402.4(a)-402.4(careful)]TJ T* [(examination)-267.9(of)-267.9(environmental)-267.9(antecedents)-267.9(and)-267.9(consequents)-267.9(as)-267.9(related)-267.9(to)-267.9(a)-267.9(certain)]TJ T* [(response)-250(repertoire,)-250(was)-250(recommended)-250(\(e.g.,)-250(Meichenbaum,)-250(1977\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Some)-447.7(specic)-447.7(purposes)-447.7(for)-447.7(cognitive)-447.7(assessment)-447.7(were)-447.7(outlined)-447.7(by)-447.7(Kendall)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(\(1981a,)-250(pp.)-250(34\):)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 144.1494 349.897 Tm [(1.)-424.1(T)70(o)-146.9(study)-146.9(the)-146.9(relationships)-146.9(among)-146.9(covert)-146.9(phenomena)-146.9(and)-146.9(their)-146.9(relationship)-146.9(to)-146.9(patterns)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(of)-250(behavior)-250(and)-250(expressions)-250(of)-250(emotion.)]TJ -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(2.)-424.1(T)70(o)-222.7(study)-222.7(the)-222.7(role)-222.7(of)-222.7(covert)-222.7(processes)-222.7(in)-222.7(the)-222.7(development)-222.7(of)-222.7(distinct)-222.7(psychopatholo-)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(gies)-250(and)-250(the)-250(behavioral)-250(patterns)-250(associated)-250(with)-250(coping.)]TJ -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(3.)-424.1(T)70(o)-250(conrm)-250(the)-250(ef)18(fects)-250(of)-250(treatment.)]TJ T* [(4.)-424.1(T)70(o)-167.5(check)-167.5(studies)-167.5(where)-167.5(cognitive)-167.5(factors)-167.5(have)-167.5(either)-167.5(been)-167.5(manipulated)-167.5(or)-167.5(implicated)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(in)-250(the)-250(ef)18(fects)-250(of)-250(the)-250(manipulation.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 120.239 243.0141 Tm [(Social)-250(Learning)-250(Theory)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 223.5869 Tm [(Social)-248.6(learning)-248.6(theory)-248.6(is)-248.6(based)-248.6(on)-248.6(the)-248.6(original)-248.6(work)-248.6(of)-248.6(Bandura)-248.6(and)-248.6(his)-248.6(associates)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(\(e.g.,)-191.9(Bandura,)-191.9(1969,)-191.9(1971,)-191.9(1977b;)-191.9(Bandura)-191.9(&)-173.9(W)80(alters,)-191.9(1963\))-191.9(and)-191.9(has)-191.9(evolved)-191.9(con-)]TJ T* [(siderably)-247.9(over)-247.9(time.)-247.9(Bandura)-247.9(noted)-247.9(that)-247.9(in)-247.9(addition)-247.9(to)-247.9(outcome)-247.9(expectation,)-247.9(a)-247.9(per)20(-)]TJ T* [(son)55(s)-178.3(sense)-178.3(of)-178.3(his)-178.3(or)-178.3(her)-178.3(ability)-178.3(to)-178.3(perform)-178.3(a)-178.3(certain)-178.3(behavior)-178.3(mediates)-178.3(performance.)]TJ T* [(He)-195(referred)-195(to)-195(these)-195(latter)-195(expectations)-195(as)-195(ef)18(cacy)-195(expectations)-195(or)-195(self-ef)18(cacy)65(,)-195(and)]TJ T* [(suggested)-213.9(that)-213.9(they)-213.9(have)-213.9(important)-213.9(implications)-213.9(for)-213.9(treatment.)-213.9(Psychological)-213.9(treat-)]TJ T* [(ment)-233.3(and)-233.3(methods)-233.3(were)-233.3(hypothesized)-233.3(to)-233.3(produce)-233.3(changes)-233.3(in)-233.3(a)-233.3(child)55(s)-233.3(expectations)]TJ T* [(of)-324.3(self-ef)18(cacy)65(,)-324.3(a)0(s)-324.3(i)0(n)-324.3(the)-324.3(treatment)-324.3(of)-324.3(phobic)-324.3(behavior)55(.)-324.3(Self-ef)18(cacy)-324.3(was)-324.3(said)-324.3(to)]TJ T* [(determine)-328.9(the)-328.9(activation)-328.9(and)-328.9(maintenance)-328.9(of)-328.9(behavior)-328.9(strategies)-328.9(for)-328.9(coping)-328.9(with)]TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj > endobj 50 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(2)0(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(anxiety-eliciting)-172.8(situations.)-172.8(Self-ef)18(cacy)-172.8(expectations)-172.8(were)-172.8(also)-172.8(said)-172.8(to)-172.8(be)-172.8(modied)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(by)-188(dif)18(ferent)-188(sources)-188(of)-188(psychological)-188(inuence,)-188(including)-188(performance-based)-188(feed-)]TJ T* [(back)-216.4(\(e.g.,)-216.4(participant)-216.4(modeling\),)-216.4(vicarious)-216.4(information)-216.4(\(e.g.,)-216.4(symbolic)-216.4(modeling\),)]TJ T* [(and)-359.3(physiological)-359.3(changes)-359.3(\(e.g.,)-359.3(traditional)-359.3(verbal)-359.3(psychotherapy;)-359.3(cf.)-359.3(Kazdin)-359.3(&)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(W)40(ilson,)-223.6(1978\).)-223.6(Intervention)-223.6(procedures)-223.6(such)-223.6(as)-223.6(symbolic)-223.6(modeling)-223.6(\(e.g.,)-223.6(Bandura,)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(1971\),)-438.5(direct)-438.5(modeling)-438.5(\(Bandura,)-438.5(1977b;)-438.5(Rosenthal,)-438.5(1976\),)-438.5(and)-438.5(self-modeling)]TJ T* [(\(Brody)-314.2(&)-314.2(Brody)65(,)-314.2(1977\))-314.2(have)-314.2(been)-314.2(associated)-314.2(with)-314.2(the)-314.2(social)-314.2(learning)-314.2(theory)-314.2(ap-)]TJ T* [(proach.)-399(For)-399(example,)-399(modeling)-399(historically)-399(has)-399(been)-399(used)-399(to)-399(treat)-399(a)-399(variety)-399(of)]TJ T* [(children)55(s)-448.6(fears)-448.6(\(e.g.,)-448.6(animal)-448.6(fears,)-448.6(inanimate)-448.6(fears,)-448.6(dental)-448.6(and)-448.6(medical)-448.6(fears;)]TJ T* [(Morris)-369.4(&)-369.4(Kratochwill,)-369.4(1983;)-369.4(Morris)-369.4(et)-369.4(al.,)-369.4(in)-369.4(press\),)-369.4(socially)-369.4(maladjusted)-369.4(chil-)]TJ T* [(dren)-342.9(\(e.g.,)-342.9(social)-342.9(withdrawal,)-342.9(aggression\),)-342.9(distractibility)65(,)-342.9(and)-342.9(severe)-342.9(deciencies)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-325.2(autism,)-325.2(mental)-325.2(retardation\))-325.2(as)-325.2(well)-325.2(as)-325.2(a)-325.2(wide)-325.2(range)-325.2(of)-325.2(academic)-325.2(behaviors)]TJ T* [(\(cf.)-362.3(Zimmerman,)-362.3(1977\).)-362.3(In)-362.3(all)-362.3(these)-362.3(approaches,)-362.3(social)-362.3(learning)-362.3(theory)-362.3(stressed)]TJ T* [(that)-348.5(human)-348.5(psychological)-348.5(functioning)-348.5(involved)-348.5(a)-348.5(reciprocal)-348.5(interaction)-348.5(between)]TJ T* [(the)-201.5(individual)55(s)-201.5(behavior)-201.5(and)-201.5(the)-201.5(environment)-201.5(in)-201.5(that)-201.5(a)-201.5(client)-201.5(is)-201.5(considered)-201.5(both)-201.5(the)]TJ T* [(agent)-208.4(as)-208.4(well)-208.4(as)-208.4(the)-208.4(tar)18(get)-208.4(of)-208.4(environmental)-208.4(inuence,)-208.4(with)-208.4(assessment)-208.4(focusing)-208.4(on)]TJ T* [(both)-250(dimensions)-250(of)-250(behavior)55(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 467.0477 Tm [(Unifying)-250(Characteristics)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 447.6206 Tm [(Despite)-240.1(apparent)-240.1(diversity)-240.1(among)-240.1(the)-240.1(dif)18(ferent)-240.1(areas)-240.1(within)-240.1(behavior)-240.1(therapy)65(,)-240.1(sev-)]TJ T* [(eral)-212.9(dimensions)-212.9(set)-212.9(it)-212.9(apart)-212.9(from)-212.9(traditional)-212.9(forms)-212.9(of)-212.9(psychological)-212.9(assessment)-212.9(and)]TJ T* [(treatment,)-410.2(particularly)-410.2(the)-410.2(test-based)-410.2(psychometric)-410.2(models)-410.2(and)-410.2(psychodynamic)]TJ T* [(models)-388.3(\(Hartmann,)-388.3(Roper)40(,)-388.3(&)-388.3(Bradford,)-388.3(1979\).)-388.3(Contemporary)-388.3(behavior)-388.3(therapy)]TJ T* [(consists)-250(of)-250(the)-250(following)-250(characteristics:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 142.8044 365.0594 Tm [(1.)-387.1(A)-515.5(strong)-570.8(commitment)-570.8(to)-570.8(empirical)-570.8(evaluation)-570.8(of)-570.8(treatment)-570.8(and)-570.8(intervention)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD (techniques;)Tj -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(2.)-387.1(A)-281.2(general)-336.3(belief)-336.3(that)-336.3(therapeutic)-336.3(experiences)-336.3(must)-336.3(provide)-336.3(opportunities)-336.3(to)-336.3(learn)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(adaptive)-250(or)-250(prosocial)-250(behavior;)]TJ -1.1921 -1.5789 TD [(3.)-442.1(Specication)-250(of)-250(treatment)-250(in)-250(operational)-250(and,)-250(hence,)-250(replicable)-250(terms,)-250(and)]TJ T* [(4.)-442.1(Evaluation)-280.1(of)-280.1(treatment)-280.1(ef)18(fects)-280.1(through)-280.1(multiple-response)-280.1(modalities,)-280.1(with)-280.1(partic-)]TJ 1.1921 -1.2632 TD [(ular)-250(emphasis)-250(on)-250(overt)-250(behavior)55(.)-250(\(Kazdin)-250(&)-250(Hersen,)-250(1980,)-250(p.)-250(287\))]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.8492 256.5311 Tm [(Behavior)-266.6(therapy)-266.6(has)-266.6(become)-266.6(very)-266.6(diverse)-266.6(over)-266.6(time)-266.6(and)-266.6(includes)-266.6(a)-266.6(number)-266.6(of)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(therapeutic)-211.8(strategies)-211.8(that)-211.8(were)-211.8(excluded)-211.8(from)-211.8(the)-211.8(eld)-211.8(during)-211.8(the)-211.8(early)-211.8(years)-211.8(\(e.g.,)]TJ T* [(rational-emotive)-208.1(therapy\).)-153.1(Although)-208.1(these)-208.1(characteristics)-208.1(are)-208.1(tied)-208.1(to)-208.1(the)-208.1(therapeutic)]TJ T* [(aspects)-211(of)-211(the)-211(behavioral)-211(approach,)-211(each)-211(can)-211(also)-211(be)-211(conceptually)-211(representative)-211(of)]TJ T* [(the)-250(behavioral)-250(approach)-250(to)-250(child)-250(treatment)-250(\(Ber)18(gan)-250(&)-250(Kratochwill,)-250(1990\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 171.6817 Tm [(HIST)18(ORICAL)-250(CONTEXT)-250(OF)-250(CHILD)-250(THERAPY)]TJ 0 -1.6167 TD [(The)-250(Early)-250(Y)111(ears)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.2913 132.927 Tm [(As)-415.5(we)-415.5(noted)-415.5(previously)65(,)-415.5(although)-415.5(the)-415.5(study)-415.5(of)-415.5(psychological)-415.5(problems)-415.5(among)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(adults)-336.2(can)-336.2(be)-336.2(traced)-336.2(back)-336.2(as)-336.2(far)-336.2(as)-336.2(the)-336.2(ancient)-336.2(Greeks)-336.2(\(if)-336.2(not)-336.2(further\),)-336.2(the)-336.2(study)]TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj > endobj 52 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(22)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(of)-239.9(child)-239.9(psychopathology)-239.9(represents)-239.9(a)-239.9(relatively)-239.9(recent)-239.9(phenomenon)-239.9(in)-239.9(the)-239.9(history)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(of)-268.5(psychological)-268.5(treatment.)-250.5(The)-268.5(most)-268.5(famous)-268.5(early)-268.5(example)-268.5(of)-268.5(such)-268.5(study)-268.5(is)-268.5(Jean)]TJ T* [(Itard)55(s)-257.1(examination)-257.1(of)-257.1(and)-257.1(attempt)-257.1(to)-257.1(educate)-257.1(the)-239.1(W)40(ild)-257.1(Boy)-257.1(of)-202.1(A)74(veyron)-257.1(beginning)]TJ T* [(in)-351.4(1799.)-351.4(However)40(,)-351.4(a)0(n)-351.4(increased)-351.4(focus)-351.4(on)-351.4(problems)-351.4(of)-351.4(childhood)-351.4(would)-351.4(have)-351.4(to)]TJ T* [(follow)-357.3(a)-357.3(greater)-357.3(focus)-357.3(on)-357.3(childhood)-357.3(as)-357.3(a)-357.3(distinct)-357.3(period)-357.3(in)-357.3(human)-357.3(development)]TJ T* [(and)-264(an)-264(increased)-264(interest)-264(in)-264(the)-264(nature)-264(of)-264(psychological)-264(problems)-264(in)-264(children.)-246(The)]TJ T* [(emer)18(gence)-230.6(of)-230.6(compulsory)-230.6(education)-230.6(marks)-230.6(an)-230.6(important)-230.6(milestone)-230.6(in)-230.6(the)-230.6(develop-)]TJ T* [(ment)-248.2(of)-248.2(such)-248.2(interest,)-248.2(in)-248.2(part)-248.2(due)-248.2(to)-248.2(the)-248.2(lar)18(ge)-248.2(number)-248.2(of)-248.2(children)-248.2(who)-248.2(struggled)-248.2(in)]TJ T* (school.)Tj 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-331.1(study)-331.1(of)-331.1(children)-331.1(in)-331.1(the)-331.1(United)-331.1(S)18(tates)-331.1(was)-331.1(lar)18(gely)-331.1(founded)-331.1(by)-331.1(G)120(.)-331.1(S)18(tanley)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(Hall,)-215.4(whose)-215.4(work)-215.4(spanned)-215.4(1883)-215.4(through)-215.4(1918)-215.4(\(Davidson)-215.4(&)-215.4(Benjamin,)-215.4(1987\).)-215.4(Hall)]TJ T* [(focused)-220.7(on)-220.7(problems)-220.7(with)-220.7(education,)-220.7(and)-220.7(although)-220.7(he)-220.7(was)-220.7(not)-220.7(primarily)-220.7(concerned)]TJ T* [(with)-191.1(psychopathology)65(,)-191.1(his)-191.1(work)-191.1(helped)-191.1(promote)-191.1(a)-191.1(better)-191.1(understanding)-191.1(of)-191.1(the)-191.1(prob-)]TJ T* [(lems)-250(of)-250(childhood.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Clif)18(ford)-189.3(Beers)-189.3(played)-189.3(an)-189.3(important)-189.3(role)-189.3(in)-189.3(reversing)-189.3(the)-189.3(attitude)-189.3(toward)-189.3(the)-189.3(treat-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(ment)-179.9(of)-180(the)-180(mentally)-180(ill)-180(generally)65(,)-180(and)-179.9(later)-180(this)-180(focus)-180(was)-180(applied)-180(to)-180(children.)-180(Beers)]TJ T* [(became)-199.9(clinically)-199.9(depressed)-199.9(and)-199.9(suicidal)-199.9(as)-199.9(a)-162.9(Y)100(ale)-199.9(University)-199.9(law)-199.9(student.)-144.9(After)-199.9(his)]TJ T* [(hospitalization,)-296.4(he)-296.4(wrote)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.2494 0 TD [(A)-296.4(Mind)-296.4(That)-296.4(F)105(ound)-296.4(Itself)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.5442 0 TD [(\(1908\),)-296.4(a)-296.4(book)-296.4(describing)-296.5(the)]TJ -20.7936 -1.1818 TD [(poor)-237.5(treatment)-237.5(he)-237.5(received)-237.5(while)-237.5(institutionalized.)-219.5(The)-237.5(success)-237.5(of)-237.5(the)-237.5(book)-237.5(helped)]TJ T* [(inform)-276.3(the)-276.3(public)-276.3(of)-276.3(the)-276.3(terrible)-276.3(conditions)-276.3(in)-276.3(state)-276.3(hospitals.)-276.3(Beers)-276.3(would)-276.3(form)-276.3(a)]TJ T* [(number)-333.3(of)-333.3(or)18(ganizations,)-333.3(including)-333.3(the)-333.3(Connecticut)-333.3(Society)-333.3(for)-333.3(Mental)-333.3(Hygiene)]TJ T* [(\(in)-294.8(1908\))-294.8(and)-294.8(the)-294.8(National)-294.8(Committee)-294.8(for)-294.8(Mental)-294.8(Hygiene)-294.8(\(in)-294.8(1909\),)-294.8(which)-294.8(pro-)]TJ T* [(moted)-172.6(better)-172.6(conditions)-172.6(in)-172.6(state)-172.6(hospitals,)-172.6(better)-172.6(treatment)-172.6(methods,)-172.6(and)-172.6(research)-172.6(on)]TJ T* [(the)-239.1(prevention)-239.1(and)-239.1(treatment)-239.1(of)-239.1(psychopathologies.)-221.1(This)-239.1(increased)-239.1(concern)-239.1(for)-239.1(the)]TJ T* [(treatment)-212(of)-212(persons)-212(with)-212(mental)-212(illness)-212(brought)-212(about)-212(mental)-212(hygiene)-212(programs)]TJ T* [(in)-250(schools)-250(\(Morris)-250(&)-250(Kratochwill,)-250(in)-250(press-b\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Lightner)-241.5(W)40(itmer)-259.5(is)-259.5(credited)-259.5(as)-259.5(the)-259.5(rst)-259.5(clinical)-259.5(psychologist,)-259.5(although)-259.5(he)-259.5(had)-259.5(a)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(strong)-248.9(interest)-248.9(in)-248.9(schools)-248.9(and)-248.9(has)-248.9(an)-193.9(AP)92(A)-193.9(Division)-248.9(16)-248.9(\(School)-248.9(Psychology\))-248.9(award)]TJ T* [(named)-336.8(after)-336.8(him.)-318.8(W)40(itmer)-336.8(established)-336.8(the)-336.8(rst)-336.8(psychological)-336.8(clinic)-336.8(in)-336.8(the)-336.8(United)]TJ T* [(S)18(tates,)-206.6(at)-206.6(the)-206.6(University)-206.6(of)-206.6(Pennsylvania,)-206.6(in)-206.6(1896.)-206.6(His)-206.6(rst)-206.6(client)-206.6(was)-206.6(a)-206.6(14-year)20(-old)]TJ T* [(boy)-301.1(who)-301.1(had)-301.1(dif)18(culty)-301.1(spelling)-301.1(\(Benjamin,)-301.1(2005\).)-301.1(In)-301.1(the)-301.1(rst)-301.1(year)-301.1(of)-301.1(the)-301.1(clinic)55(s)]TJ T* [(operation,)-250.8(W)40(itmer)-268.8(and)-268.8(his)-268.8(students)-268.8(saw)-268.8(a)-268.8(total)-268.8(of)-268.8(24)-268.8(children)-268.8(between)-268.8(the)-268.8(ages)-268.8(of)]TJ T* [(3)-229.3(and)-229.3(16)-229.3(years,)-229.3(who)-229.3(had)-229.3(such)-229.3(presenting)-229.3(problems)-229.3(as)-229.3(learning)-229.3(dif)18(culties,)-229.3(speech)]TJ T* [(problems,)-178.3(and)-178.3(possibly)-178.3(chorea,)-178.3(hydrocephalus,)-178.3(and)-178.3(hyperactivity)-178.3(\(P)111(.)-178.3(McReynolds,)]TJ T* [(1996,)-314.8(p.)-314.8(238\).)-296.8(W)40(itmer)-314.8(published)-314.8(the)-314.8(rst)-314.8(journal)-314.8(devoted)-314.8(to)-314.8(clinical)-314.8(psychology)65(,)]TJ T* (titled)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.236 0 TD [(The)-180(Psyc)15(holo)10(gical)-180(Clinic)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.9461 0 TD [(,)-180(i)0(n)-180(1907)-180(\(Routh,)-180(1996;)-162(W)40(itmer)40(,)-180(1907/1996\).)-162(The)-180(fo-)]TJ -12.1822 -1.1818 TD [(cus)-195.1(on)-195.1(children)-195.1(with)-195.1(problems)-195.1(in)-195.1(schools)-195.1(would)-195.1(eventually)-195.1(lead)-195.1(to)-195.1(the)-195.1(development)]TJ T* [(of)-250(a)-250(specialty)-250(of)-250(psychology)-250(that)-250(involved)-250(practice)-250(in)-250(schools.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(In)-156.5(1909,)-156.5(the)-156.5(Cook)-156.5(County)-156.5(Juvenile)-156.5(Psychopathic)-156.5(Institute)-156.5(in)-156.5(Chicago)-156.5(was)-156.5(formed)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(under)-376.5(the)-376.5(leadership)-376.5(of)-358.5(W)40(illiam)-376.5(Healy)65(.)-358.5(The)-376.5(institute)-376.5(staf)18(f)-376.5(worked)-376.5(directly)-376.5(with)]TJ T* [(juvenile)-280.9(of)18(fenders)-280.9(and)-280.9(stressed)-280.9(an)-280.9(interdisciplinary)-280.9(approach)-280.9(to)-280.9(studying)-280.9(juvenile)]TJ T* [(issues)-343.6(\(e.g.,)-343.6(psychiatrists,)-343.6(psychologists,)-343.6(and)-343.6(social)-343.6(workers)-343.6(worked)-343.6(together)-343.6(on)]TJ T* [(particular)-306.6(cases,)-306.6(taking)-306.6(into)-306.6(account)-306.6(multiple)-306.6(causes)-306.6(and)-306.6(perspectives\).)-251.6(Aided)-306.6(by)]TJ T* [(Beers)55(s)-232.5(National)-232.5(Committee)-232.5(for)-232.5(Mental)-232.5(Hygiene,)-232.5(numerous)-232.5(child)-232.5(guidance)-232.5(clinics)]TJ T* [(also)-216.9(developed)-216.9(across)-216.9(the)-216.9(country)-216.9(over)-216.9(the)-216.9(next)-216.9(several)-216.9(decades,)-216.9(and)-216.9(by)-216.9(1930)-216.9(there)]TJ T* [(were)-250(about)-250(500)-250(child)-250(guidance)-250(clinics)-250(in)-250(the)-250(United)-250(S)18(tates)-250(\(Kanner)40(,)-250(1948\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj > endobj 54 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(2)0(3)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.652 703.0657 Tm [(Through)-258.3(the)-258.3(introduction)-258.3(of)-258.3(dynamic)-258.3(psychiatry)-258.3(and)-258.3(psychoanalysis)-258.3(during)-258.3(the)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(early)-380(twentieth)-380(century)65(,)-380(specically)-380(the)-380(work)-380(of)-380(Sigmund)-380(Freud)-380(in)-362(V)60(ienna)-380(and)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Adolph)-272.1(Meyer)-272.1(in)-272.1(the)-272.1(United)-272.1(S)18(tates,)-272.1(the)-272.1(psychodynamic)-272.1(approach)-272.1(maintained)-272.1(that)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(the)-251.8(origins)-251.8(of)-251.8(behavior)-251.8(problems)-251.8(lay)-251.8(in)-251.8(the)-251.8(past)-251.8(experiences)-251.8(\(typically)65(,)-251.8(childhood\))]TJ T* [(of)-226.8(the)-226.8(person)-226.8(\(Kanner)40(,)-226.8(1948\),)-226.8(thereby)-226.8(turning)-226.8(attention)-226.8(to)-226.8(childhood.)-226.8(For)-226.8(example,)]TJ T* [(with)-226.2(adult)-226.2(patients,)-226.2(these)-226.2(experiences)-226.2(were)-226.2(explored)-226.2(retrospectively)-226.2(by)-226.2(the)-226.2(psychi-)]TJ T* [(atrist)-253.8(or)-253.8(psychoanalyst,)-253.8(who)-253.8(attempted)-253.8(to)-253.8(draw)-253.8(causal)-253.8(relationships)-253.8(between)-253.8(these)]TJ T* [(past)-296.6(experiences)-296.6(and)-296.6(the)-296.6(patients)-222.6(present)-296.6(behavior)55(.)-296.6(During)-296.6(the)-296.6(early)-296.6(years)-296.6(of)-296.6(the)]TJ T* [(dynamic)-200.4(psychiatry)-200.4(movement,)-200.4(children)-200.4(were)-200.4(usually)-200.4(not)-200.4(seen)-200.4(in)-200.4(treatment)-200.4(by)-200.4(psy-)]TJ T* [(chiatrists)-175.7(\(Kanner)40(,)-175.7(1948\).)-175.7(Nevertheless,)-175.7(the)-175.7(retrospective)-175.7(search)-175.7(for)-175.7(the)-175.7(relationship)]TJ T* [(between)-326.5(early)-326.5(childhood)-326.5(events)-326.5(and)-326.5(present)-326.5(functioning)-326.5(aroused)-326.5(suf)18(cient)-326.5(inter)20(-)]TJ T* [(est)-267.5(among)-267.5(professionals)-267.5(that)-267.5(some)-267.5(began)-267.5(to)-267.5(acquaint)-267.5(themselves)-267.5(specically)-267.5(with)]TJ T* [(the)-324.9(behavior)-324.9(problems)-324.9(of)-324.9(children)-324.9(as)-324.9(well)-324.9(as)-324.9(with)-324.9(the)-324.9(dynamics)-324.9(that)-324.9(contributed)]TJ T* [(to)-365.5(their)-365.5(dif)18(culties)-365.5(\(Morris)-365.5(&)-365.5(Kratochwill,)-365.5(in)-365.5(press-a\).)-347.5(This)-365.5(psychodynamic)-365.5(in-)]TJ T* [(terest)-324.9(in)-324.9(children)-324.9(was)-324.9(not)-324.9(formally)-324.9(realized)-324.9(in)-324.9(the)-324.9(literature)-324.9(until)-324.9(the)-324.9(publication)]TJ T* [(in)-345.2(1909)-345.2(of)-345.2(Freud)55(s)-345.2(\(1909/1963\))-345.2(detailed)-345.2(case)-345.2(of)-345.2(Little)-345.2(Hans.)-345.2(Interestingly)65(,)-345.2(al-)]TJ T* [(though)-296.9(Freud)-296.9(formulated)-296.9(his)-296.9(etiological)-296.9(theory)-296.9(of)-296.9(phobias)-296.9(on)-296.9(the)-296.9(basis)-296.9(of)-296.9(Hans)55(s)]TJ T* [(symptoms)-341.9(and)-341.9(experiences,)-341.9(he)-341.9(did)-341.9(not)-341.9(treat)-341.9(Hans)-341.9(directly;)-341.9(Hans)55(s)-341.9(father)-341.9(treated)]TJ T* [(him)-356.3(under)-356.3(Freud)55(s)-356.3(direction)-356.3(and)-356.3(supervision)-356.3(\(Morris)-356.3(&)-356.3(Kratochwill,)-356.3(1983\).)-301.3(Al-)]TJ T* [(though)-285(Hans)55(s)-285(problem)-285(was)-285(treated)-285(successfully)65(,)-284.9(i)0(t)-285(was)-285(not)-285(until)-285(at)-285(least)-285(15)-285(to)-285(20)]TJ T* [(years)-339(later)-339(that)-339(Freudian)-339(psychoanalytic)-339(child)-339(therapy)-339(came)-339(into)-339(existence.)-321(This)]TJ T* [(was)-400.4(lar)18(gely)-400.4(due)-400.4(to)-400.4(the)-400.4(contributions)-400.4(and)-400.4(adaptations)-400.4(of)-400.4(Freud)55(s)-400.4(work)-400.4(for)-400.4(chil-)]TJ T* [(dren)-365.2(by)-365.2(Melanie)-365.2(Klein,)-365.2(Freud)55(s)-365.2(student,)-365.2(and)-365.2(his)-365.2(daughter)40(,)-310.2(Anna)-365.2(Freud,)-365.2(and)-365.2(the)]TJ T* [(subsequent)-389.5(publication)-389.5(beginning)-389.5(in)-389.5(1945)-389.5(of)-334.5(Anna)-389.5(Freud)55(s)-389.5(multivolume)-389.5(edited)]TJ T* [(book)-348.2(series)-348.2(\(with)-348.2(Hans)-348.2(Hartmann)-348.2(and)-348.2(Ernst)-348.2(Kris\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.0878 0 TD [(The)-348.2(Psyc)15(hoanalytic)-348.2(Study)-348.2(of)]TJ -21.0878 -1.1818 TD [(the)-352.7(Child)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.7977 0 TD [(.)-334.7(The)-352.7(changes)-352.7(made)-352.7(by)-352.7(these)-352.7(women,)-352.7(as)-352.7(well)-352.7(as)-352.7(the)-352.7(earlier)-352.7(psychoan-)]TJ -3.7977 -1.1818 TD [(alytic)-367.5(therapy)-367.5(work)-367.5(with)-367.5(children)-367.5(rst)-367.5(initiated)-367.5(by)-367.5(Hermine)-367.5(Hug-Hellmuth)-367.5(\(the)]TJ T* [(third)-389(woman)-389(to)-389(join)-389(Freud)55(s)-371(V)60(ienna)-389(Psychoanalytic)-389(Society)-389(during)-389(the)-389(1900s\),)]TJ T* [(made)-362.3(Freud)55(s)-362.3(therapeutic)-362.3(approach)-362.3(very)-362.3(relevant)-362.3(to)-362.3(children)-362.3(and)-362.3(contributed)-362.3(to)]TJ T* [(its)-287.9(increasing)-287.9(popularity)-287.9(in)-287.9(the)-287.9(twentieth)-287.9(century)-287.9(and)-287.9(later)-287.9(inuence)-287.9(in)-287.9(the)-287.9(devel-)]TJ T* [(opment)-292.7(of)-292.7(many)-292.7(other)-292.7(forms)-292.7(of)-292.7(child)-292.7(and)-292.7(adolescent)-292.7(psychotherapy)-292.7(\(Benveniste,)]TJ T* (1998\).)Tj 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Some)-141.4(of)-141.4(the)-141.5(major)-141.4(methodological)-141.4(changes)-141.4(that)-141.4(were)-141.4(made)-141.5(for)-141.4(children)-141.5(in)-141.5(Freud)55(s)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(psychoanalysis)-364.6(were)-364.6(the)-364.6(substitution)-364.6(of)-364.6(play)-364.6(activities)-364.6(for)-364.6(the)-364.6(technique)-364.6(of)-364.6(free)]TJ T* [(association)-267(and)-267(the)-267(use)-267(of)-267(drawings)-267(and)-267(dreams)-267(to)-267(understand)-267(a)-267(child)55(s)-267(problems.)]TJ T* [(For)-291(example,)-290.9(through)-291(the)-291(use)-291(of)-290.9(the)-290.9(medium)-291(of)-291(play)65(,)-291(both)-291(Klein)-291(and)-236(Anna)-291(Freud)]TJ T* [(discovered)-403.8(that)-403.8(children)-403.8(were)-403.8(able)-403.8(to)-403.8(represent)-403.8(to)-403.8(the)-403.8(child)-403.8(analyst)-403.8(their)-403.8(inner)]TJ T* [(conicts)-202.1(and)-202.1(perceptions)-202.1(of)-202.1(important)-202.1(relationships)-202.1(in)-202.1(their)-202.1(lives,)-202.1(as)-202.1(well)-202.1(as)-202.1(portray)]TJ T* [(in)-287.9(their)-287.9(play)-287.9(their)-287.9(unique)-287.9(feelings)-287.9(about,)-287.9(perceptions)-287.9(of,)-287.9(and)-287.9(concerns)-287.9(about)-287.9(their)]TJ T* [(various)-407.9(pleasurable)-407.9(and)-407.9(traumatic)-407.9(experiences)-407.9(\(Morris,)-407.9(Li,)-407.9(Lizardi-Sanchez,)-407.9(&)]TJ T* [(Morris,)-250(2002;)-232(W)80(arshaw)65(,)-250(1997\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Morris)-157.5(and)-157.5(Kratochwill)-157.5(\(in)-157.5(press-b\))-157.5(identied)-157.5(some)-157.5(additional)-157.5(developments)-157.5(that)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(inuenced)-213(the)-213(focus)-213(of)-213(child)-213(therapy)65(.)-213(First,)-213(as)-213(we)-213(noted)-213(previously)65(,)-213(the)-213(intelligence)]TJ T* [(testing)-168.4(movement)-168.4(had)-168.4(a)-168.4(tremendous)-168.4(inuence)-168.4(on)-168.4(the)-168.4(study)-168.4(of)-168.4(children;)-168.4(in)-168.4(particular)40(,)]TJ T* [(it)-256.1(became)-256.1(possible)-256.1(to)-256.1(learn)-256.1(the)-256.1(extent)-256.1(to)-256.1(which)-256.1(a)-256.1(particular)-256.1(child)-256.1(dif)18(fered)-256.1(from)-256.1(the)]TJ T* [(norm)-286.2(in)-286.2(cognitive)-286.2(ability)65(.)-286.2(I)0(t)-286.2(also)-286.2(demonstrated)-286.2(clearly)-286.2(the)-286.2(diversity)-286.2(of)-286.2(children)-286.2(in)]TJ ET endstream endobj 55 0 obj > endobj 56 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(24)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(terms)-180.1(of)-180.1(their)-180.1(comprehension)-180.1(of)-180.1(classroom)-180.1(instruction)-180.1(\(Kanner)40(,)-180.1(1948\))-180.1(and)-180.1(spawned)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(a)-339.9(decade)-339.9(of)-339.9(debate)-339.9(on)-339.9(bias)-339.9(in)-339.9(testing)-339.9(and)-339.9(eventually)65(,)-339.9(i)0(n)-339.9(the)-339.9(twenty-rst)-339.9(century)65(,)]TJ T* [(federal)-264.9(regulations)-264.9(that)-264.9(would)-264.9(expand)-264.9(the)-264.9(focus)-264.9(of)-264.9(special)-264.9(services)-264.9(for)-264.9(children)-264.9(in)]TJ T* [(schools)-250(\(Kratochwill)-250(et)-250(al.,)-250(in)-250(press\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Second,)-228.6(the)-228.6(formation)-228.6(of)-228.6(professional)-228.6(associations)-228.6(contributed)-228.6(to)-228.6(the)-228.6(increasing)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(emphasis)-313.1(on)-313.1(the)-313.1(treatment)-313.1(of)-313.1(children.)-295.1(The)-313.1(rst)-313.1(professional)-313.1(association)-313.1(was)-313.1(the)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Association)-363.8(of)-363.8(Medical)-363.8(Of)18(cers)-363.8(of)-308.8(American)-363.8(Institutions)-363.8(for)-363.8(Idiots)-363.8(and)-363.8(Feeble-)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(minded)-312(Persons,)-312(founded)-312(in)-312(1876,)-312(which)-312(evolved)-312(into)-312(the)-312(present-day)-257(American)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Association)-210.3(on)-210.3(Mental)-210.3(Retardation.)-210.3(Its)-210.3(rst)-210.3(president)-210.3(was)-210.3(Edward)-210.3(Seguin.)-210.3(In)-210.3(1892,)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(another)-192.3(professional)-192.3(association)-192.3(was)-192.3(formed,)-192.3(the)-137.3(American)-192.3(Psychological)-137.3(Associa-)]TJ T* [(tion,)-207.2(in)-207.2(which)-189.2(W)40(itmer)-207.2(was)-207.2(a)-207.2(charter)-207.2(member)55(.)-207.2(G)120(.)-207.2(S)18(tanley)-207.2(Hall)-207.2(was)-207.2(the)-207.2(rst)-207.2(president)]TJ T* [(of)-299.4(AP)92(A,)-354.4(and)-354.4(James)-354.4(Cattell)-354.4(was)-354.4(one)-354.4(of)-354.4(the)-354.4(rst)-354.4(members)-354.4(of)-354.4(the)-354.4(Council)-354.4(\(Board)]TJ T* [(of)-343.2(Directors)-343.2(of)-288.2(AP)92(A\))-343.1(and)-343.2(the)-343.2(fourth)-343.2(president)-343.2(of)-288.2(AP)92(A.)-343.2(In)-343.2(1922,)-343.2(the)-343.2(Council)-343.2(for)]TJ T* [(Exceptional)-356.5(Children)-356.5(was)-356.5(formed;)-356.5(it)-356.5(consisted)-356.5(primarily)-356.5(of)-356.5(educators)-356.5(and)-356.5(other)]TJ T* [(professionals,)-361.3(although)-361.3(parents)-361.3(were)-361.3(members)-361.3(too.)-343.3(The)-361.3(fourth)-361.3(early)-361.3(association)]TJ T* [(was)-318.8(the)-263.8(American)-318.8(Orthopsychiatric)-263.8(Association,)-318.8(founded)-318.8(in)-318.8(1924)-318.8(and)-318.8(consisting)]TJ T* [(primarily)-195.4(of)-195.4(psychiatrists,)-195.4(applied)-195.4(psychologists,)-195.4(and)-195.4(social)-195.4(workers,)-195.4(although)-195.4(edu-)]TJ T* [(cators)-225.4(as)-225.4(well)-225.4(as)-225.4(other)-225.4(professionals)-225.4(and)-225.4(parents)-225.4(were)-225.4(also)-225.4(members.)-225.4(Each)-225.4(of)-225.4(these)]TJ T* [(groups)-290.1(encouraged)-290.1(the)-290.1(formulation)-290.1(and)-290.1(conduct)-290.1(of)-290.1(research)-290.1(with)-290.1(children)-290.1(having)]TJ T* [(behavior)-331.8(and)-331.8(learning)-331.8(disorders,)-331.8(as)-331.8(well)-331.8(as)-331.8(the)-331.8(sharing)-331.9(of)-331.8(information)-331.8(regarding)]TJ T* [(ef)18(fective)-250(psychological)-250(and/or)-250(educational)-250(interventions.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(Third,)-291.4(a)-291.4(treatment)-291.4(approach)-291.4(emer)18(ged)-291.4(that)-291.4(was)-291.4(initially)-291.4(much)-291.4(less)-291.4(popular)-291.4(than)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(psychoanalytic)-371.7(child)-371.7(therapy)65(.)-353.7(This)-371.7(approach)-371.7(was)-371.7(behaviorism)-371.7(and)-371.7(later)-371.7(became)]TJ T* [(known)-209.3(as)-209.3(the)-209.3(behavior)-209.3(modication)-209.3(or)-209.3(behavior)-209.3(therapy)-209.3(movement)-209.3(\(Kazdin,)-209.3(1978;)]TJ T* [(Morris,)-328.1(1985\).)-273.1(As)-328.1(we)-328.1(noted)-328.1(earlier)40(,)-328.1(behavior)-328.1(modication)-328.1(emer)18(ged)-328.1(lar)18(gely)-328.1(from)]TJ T* [(the)-359.3(experimental)-359.3(psychology)-359.3(laboratory)-359.3(rather)-359.3(than)-359.3(from)-359.3(direct)-359.3(interaction)-359.3(with)]TJ T* [(patients)-334.3(and)-334.3(was)-334.3(based)-334.3(on)-334.3(theories)-334.3(concerning)-334.3(how)-334.3(people)-334.3(and)-334.3(animals)-334.3(learn)-334.3(to)]TJ T* [(behave)-312(through)-312(S-R)-312(learning)-312(and)-312(conditioning)-312(rather)-312(than)-312(through)-312(the)-312(conscious)]TJ T* [(or)-305.2(unconscious)-305.2(thinking)-305.2(found)-305.2(in)-305.2(psychoanalytic)-305.2(writings.)-287.2(The)-305.2(two)-305.2(most)-305.2(famous)]TJ T* [(behaviorists)-194(associated)-194(with)-194(this)-194(movement)-194(are)-194(John)-194(B.)-176(W)80(atson)-194(\(1913,)-194(1919\),)-194(often)]TJ T* [(referred)-376.7(to)-376.7(as)-376.7(the)-376.7(father)-376.7(of)-376.7(behaviorism,)-376.7(and)-376.7(B.)-376.7(F)80(.)-376.7(Skinner)-376.7(\(1938,)-376.7(1953\),)-376.7(the)]TJ T* [(behavioral)-308.6(researcher)-308.6(and)-308.6(theorist)-308.6(who)-308.6(extended)-290.6(W)80(atson)55(s)-308.6(behaviorist)-308.6(views)-308.6(and)]TJ T* [(developed)-254(a)-254(learning)-254(paradigm)-254(that)-254(Skinner)-254(referred)-254(to)-254(as)-254(operant)-254(conditioning.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-192(behavior)-192(modication)-192(and)-192(behavior)-192(therapy)-192(procedures)-192(that)-192(were)-192(derived)-192(from)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(various)-207.4(learning)-207.4(theories)-207.4(were)-207.4(lar)18(gely)-207.4(conned)-207.4(for)-207.4(many)-207.4(years)-207.4(to)-207.4(research)-207.4(settings.)]TJ T* [(In)-217.3(fact,)-217.3(it)-217.3(was)-217.3(not)-217.3(until)-217.3(the)-217.3(mid-1960s)-217.3(to)-217.3(the)-217.3(late)-217.3(1970s)-217.3(that)-217.3(these)-217.3(procedures)-217.3(began)]TJ T* [(being)-225.7(applied)-225.7(on)-225.7(a)-225.7(regular)-225.7(basis)-225.7(in)-225.7(children)55(s)-225.7(residential)-225.7(treatment)-225.7(settings,)-225.7(regular)]TJ T* [(and)-328.1(special)-328.1(education)-328.1(classrooms,)-328.1(and)-328.1(outpatient)-328.1(mental)-328.1(health)-328.1(settings)-328.1(\(Morris,)]TJ T* [(1985;)-250(Morris)-250(et)-250(al.,)-250(2002\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Developments)-398.5(in)-398.5(behavior)-398.5(modication)-398.5(set)-398.5(the)-398.5(stage)-398.5(for)-398.5(the)-398.5(evidence-based)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(practice)-298.6(movement,)-298.6(when)-298.6(many)-298.6(of)-298.6(the)-298.6(procedures)-298.6(were)-298.6(implemented)-298.6(in)-298.6(research)]TJ T* [(that)-254.2(of)18(fered)-254.2(strong)-254.2(support)-254.2(for)-254.2(ef)18(fective)-254.2(outcomes,)-254.2(rst)-254.2(with)-254.2(adults)-254.2(and)-254.2(eventually)]TJ T* [(with)-235.7(children.)-235.7(Behaviorism)-235.7(also)-235.7(set)-235.7(the)-235.7(stage)-235.7(for)-235.7(prevention)-235.7(models)-235.7(in)-235.7(educational)]TJ T* [(settings)-386.8(with)-386.8(particular)-386.8(emphasis)-386.8(on)-386.8(such)-386.8(models)-386.8(as)-386.8(positive)-386.8(behavior)-386.8(support,)]TJ T* [(a)-335(movement)-335(with)-335(its)-335(roots)-335(in)-335(applied)-335(behavior)-335(analysis)-335(\(Crone)-335(&)-335(Horner)40(,)-335(2003;)]TJ T* [(Crone,)-250(Horner)40(,)-250(&)-250(Hawken,)-250(2004\).)]TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj > endobj 58 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(2)0(5)]TJ 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 702.3752 Tm [(DEVELOPMENT)-242.7(OF)-242.7(THE)-242.7(EVIDENCE-B)30(ASED)-242.7(INTER)55(VENTION)]TJ 0 -1.0833 TD [(AND)-250(PRA)55(CTICE)-250(MO)50(VEMENT)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.2913 670.0963 Tm [(As)-260.9(has)-260.9(been)-260.9(evident)-260.9(in)-260.9(the)-260.9(previous)-260.9(sections)-260.9(of)-260.9(this)-260.9(chapter)40(,)-260.9(a)-260.9(number)-260.9(of)-260.9(dif)18(ferent)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(events)-337.2(shaped)-337.2(the)-337.2(future)-337.2(of)-337.2(psychological)-337.2(assessment)-337.2(and)-337.2(treatment)-337.2(of)-337.2(children.)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(As)-229.6(the)-229.6(need)-229.6(for)-229.6(services)-229.6(for)-229.6(children)-229.6(and)-229.6(families)-229.6(increased,)-229.6(attention)-229.6(turned)-229.6(to)-229.6(the)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(training)-290.6(of)-290.6(professionals)-290.6(in)-290.6(psychology)65(.)-290.6(B)0(y)-290.6(the)-290.6(1940s,)-290.6(considerable)-290.6(attention)-290.6(had)]TJ T* [(been)-216(given)-216(to)-216(the)-216(need)-216(for)-216(a)-216(training)-216(model)-216(in)-216(clinical)-216(psychology)65(.)-216(U)0(p)-216(t)0(o)-216(this)-216(point,)]TJ T* [(a)-262.5(great)-262.5(variety)-262.5(of)-262.5(training)-262.5(curricula)-262.5(existed)-262.5(in)-262.5(training)-262.5(programs,)-262.5(and)-262.5(training)-262.5(was)]TJ T* [(often)-303.3(rushed)-303.3(and)-303.3(inadequate.)-303.3(Some)-303.3(programs)-303.3(produced)-303.3(statistically)-303.3(sophisticated)]TJ T* [(therapists,)-147.8(and)-147.8(others)-147.8(focused)-147.8(on)-147.8(more)-147.8(service-oriented)-147.8(practice)-147.8(\(Hayes)-147.8(et)-147.8(al.,)-147.8(1999\).)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-339.6(issue)-339.6(had)-339.6(been)-339.6(present)-339.6(at)-339.6(least)-339.6(since)-339.6(1918,)-339.6(when)-339.6(Leta)-339.6(Hollingworth)-339.6(ar)18(gued)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(that)-308.4(a)-308.4(training)-308.4(model)-308.4(was)-308.4(critical)-308.4(in)-308.4(the)-308.4(development)-308.4(of)-308.4(clinical)-308.4(psychology)-308.4(as)-308.4(a)]TJ T* [(profession)-199.3(\(Benjamin,)-199.3(2005\).)-199.3(However)40(,)-199.3(there)-199.3(was)-199.3(little)-199.3(resolution)-199.3(until)-199.3(1949,)-199.3(when)]TJ T* [(73)-302.8(professionals)-302.8(met)-302.8(in)-302.8(Boulder)40(,)-302.8(Colorado,)-302.8(for)-302.8(15)-302.8(days)-302.8(to)-302.8(discuss)-302.8(the)-302.8(training)-302.8(of)]TJ T* [(clinical)-197.5(psychologists.)-179.5(The)-197.5(result)-197.5(became)-197.5(known)-197.5(as)-197.5(the)-197.5(scientist-practitioner)-197.5(model)]TJ T* [(\(or)-303.5(the)-303.5(Boulder)-303.5(model\))-303.5(and)-303.5(would)-303.5(profoundly)-303.5(inuence)-303.5(professional)-303.5(psychology)]TJ T* [(in)-250(subsequent)-250(years)-250(and,)-250(eventually)65(,)-250(the)-250(evidence-based)-250(practice)-250(movement.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 450.2368 Tm [(T)74(raining)-250(Psychologists:)-250(Adv)10(ent)-250(of)-250(the)-250(Evidence-Based)]TJ 0 -1.0833 TD [(Practice)-250(F)25(ocus)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.6968 417.8583 Tm [(The)-254.5(events)-254.5(leading)-254.5(up)-254.5(to)-254.5(the)-254.5(Boulder)-254.5(Conference)-254.5(were)-254.5(perhaps)-254.5(as)-254.5(rooted)-254.5(in)-254.5(social)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(trends)-180.4(as)-180.4(they)-180.4(were)-180.4(in)-180.4(professional)-180.4(trends.)-180.4(By)-180.4(the)-180.4(1940s,)-180.4(there)-180.4(was)-180.4(growing)-180.4(concern)]TJ T* [(for)-253.5(mental)-253.5(health)-253.5(in)-253.5(the)-253.5(United)-253.5(S)18(tates.)-235.5(The)-253.5(year)-253.5(1944)-253.5(saw)-253.5(written)-253.5(instruments)-253.5(and)]TJ T* [(assessments)-350.4(used)-350.4(on)-350.4(close)-350.4(to)-350.4(20)-350.4(million)-350.4(persons)-350.4(\(Reisman,)-350.4(1976\).)-332.4(W)80(orld)-332.4(W)80(a)0(r)-350.4(I)]TJ T* [(produced)-179(an)-179(abundance)-179(of)-179(psychological)-179(casualties)-179(for)-179(whom)-179(too)-179(few)-179(professionals)]TJ T* [(could)-315.3(provide)-315.3(adequate)-315.3(care.)-315.3(In)-315.3(the)-315.3(wake)-315.3(of)-297.3(W)80(orld)-297.3(W)80(a)0(r)-315.3(II,)-315.3(as)-315.3(professionals)-315.3(took)]TJ T* [(steps)-344.9(to)-344.9(improve)-344.9(the)-344.9(quality)-344.9(of)-344.9(their)-344.9(care,)-344.9(the)-326.9(V)111(eterans)-289.9(Administration)-344.9(of)18(cially)]TJ T* [(declared)-273.4(clinical)-273.4(psychology)-273.4(a)-273.4(health)-273.4(care)-273.4(profession.)-255.4(The)-273.4(next)-273.4(major)-273.4(step)-273.4(was)-273.4(to)]TJ T* [(improve)-291.1(and)-291.1(homogenize)-291.1(the)-291.1(training)-291.1(of)-291.1(clinical)-291.1(psychologists.)-291.1(Pressure)-291.1(to)-291.1(do)-291.1(so)]TJ T* [(began)-250(to)-250(come)-250(from)-250(a)-250(variety)-250(of)-250(sources.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(In)-233.4(1941,)-233.4(the)-178.4(American)-178.4(Association)-233.4(for)-178.4(Applied)-233.4(Psychology)-233.4(\(AAAP\))-233.4(endorsed)-233.4(a)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(day-long)-253.7(conference)-253.7(for)-253.7(the)-253.7(development)-253.7(of)-253.7(a)-253.7(committee)-253.7(for)-253.7(improved)-253.7(training)-253.7(of)]TJ T* [(clinical)-310.1(psychologists.)-292.1(The)-310.1(subsequent)-310.1(report,)-310.1(lar)18(gely)-310.1(focused)-310.1(on)-310.1(training)-310.1(for)-310.1(the)]TJ T* [(treatment)-288(of)-288(psychopathology)65(,)-288(supported)-288(a)-288(4-year)-288(PhD)-288(program)-288(in)-288(psychology:)-288(a)]TJ T* [(year)-292.4(for)-292.4(systematic)-292.4(foundation)-292.4(in)-292.4(psychology)65(,)-292.4(a)-292.4(year)-292.4(for)-292.4(psychometric)-292.4(and)-292.4(thera-)]TJ T* [(peutic)-210.4(principles)-210.4(and)-210.4(practice,)-210.4(a)-210.4(year)-210.4(for)-210.4(internship,)-210.4(and)-210.4(a)-210.4(nal)-210.4(year)-210.4(for)-210.4(dissertation)]TJ T* [(\(Shakow)65(,)-241.6(1942\).)-241.6(Reactions)-241.6(were)-241.6(lar)18(gely)-241.6(positive,)-241.6(and)-241.6(the)-186.6(AAAP)-204.6(formed)-241.6(the)-241.6(Com-)]TJ T* [(mittee)-295.7(on)-277.7(T)35(raining)-295.7(in)-295.7(Clinical)-295.7(Psychology)-295.7(\(CTCP\).)-277.7(The)-295.7(integration)-295.7(of)-295.7(the)-240.7(AAAP)]TJ T* [(with)-263.2(the)-208.2(AP)92(A)-208.2(i)0(n)-263.2(1944)-263.2(prevented)-263.2(prompt)-263.2(action,)-263.2(but)-263.2(the)-263.2(seeds)-263.2(were)-263.2(planted)-263.2(for)-263.2(the)]TJ T* [(or)18(ganization)-250(of)-250(professional)-250(training.)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(W)40(ith)-364.4(concern)-364.4(for)-364.4(the)-364.4(welfare)-364.4(of)-364.4(returning)-364.4(soldiers,)-364.4(an)-364.4(increasing)-364.4(shortage)-364.4(of)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(psychologists)-278.6(in)-278.6(the)-278.6(public,)-278.6(and)-278.6(concern)-278.6(over)-278.6(the)-278.6(quality)-278.6(of)-278.6(professional)-278.6(training,)]TJ T* [(the)-195.5(V)129(A)-158.4(and)-213.5(the)-213.5(U.S.)-213.5(Public)-213.5(Health)-213.5(Service)-213.5(\(USPHS\))-213.4(began)-213.5(to)-213.5(commit)-213.5(funds)-213.5(for)-213.5(the)]TJ T* [(training)-290.6(of)-290.6(clinical)-290.6(psychologists.)-290.6(In)-290.6(1947,)-290.6(the)-272.6(V)129(A)-235.6(and)-290.6(USPHS)-290.6(requested)-290.6(that)-290.6(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj > endobj 60 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(26)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.6363 703.0657 Tm [(AP)92(A)-181.4(assist)-236.4(in)-236.4(determining)-236.4(ways)-236.4(to)-236.4(train)-236.4(greater)-236.4(numbers)-236.4(of)-236.4(professional)-236.4(psycholo-)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(gists)-255.3(\(Baker)-255.3(&)-255.3(Benjamin,)-255.3(2000\).)-237.3(The)-200.3(AP)92(A)-200.3(turned)-255.3(to)-255.3(the)-255.3(CTCP)-218.3(with)-255.3(four)-255.3(requests:)]TJ T* [(recommend)-257.3(a)-257.3(clinical)-257.3(psychology)-257.3(training)-257.3(program,)-257.3(develop)-257.3(standards)-257.3(for)-257.3(institu-)]TJ T* [(tions)-200.3(training)-200.3(clinical)-200.3(psychologists,)-200.3(visit)-200.3(and)-200.3(study)-200.3(these)-200.3(institutions,)-200.3(and)-200.3(maintain)]TJ T* [(contact)-361.1(with)-361.1(other)-361.1(or)18(ganizations)-361.1(invested)-361.1(in)-361.1(these)-361.1(problems)-361.1(\(e.g.,)-361.1(the)-306.1(American)]TJ T* [(Orthopsychiatric)-221.3(Association,)-276.3(the)-276.3(National)-276.3(Committee)-276.3(for)-276.3(Mental)-276.3(Hygiene;)-221.3(AP)92(A,)]TJ T* [(1947\).)-239.1(The)-257.1(chair)-257.1(of)-257.1(the)-257.1(CTCP)111(,)-257.1(David)-257.1(Shakow)65(,)-257.1(sent)-257.1(committee)-257.1(members)-257.1(a)-257.1(copy)-257.1(of)]TJ T* [(a)-233(report)-233(titled)-233(Graduate)-233(Internship)-215(T)35(raining)-233(in)-233(Psychology)-233(\(Shakow)-233(et)-233(al.,)-233(1945\))]TJ T* [(and)-346.1(asked)-346.1(that)-346.1(it)-346.1(be)-346.1(critiqued.)-328.1(The)-346.1(Shakow)-346.1(Report,)-346.1(as)-346.1(it)-346.1(would)-346.1(become)-346.1(known,)]TJ T* [(garnered)-250.9(signicant)-250.9(support)-250.9(as)-250.9(the)-250.9(most)-250.9(comprehensive)-250.9(set)-250.9(of)-250.9(clinical)-250.9(psychology)]TJ T* [(training)-250(recommendations)-250(to)-250(date.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(In)-208.1(1948)-208.1(and)-208.1(1949,)-208.1(the)-208.1(CTCP)-171.1(visited)-208.1(a)-208.1(number)-208.1(of)-208.1(training)-208.1(programs)-208.1(and)-208.1(awarded)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(accreditation)-250.6(to)-250.6(43)-250.6(of)-250.6(them)-250.6(\(AP)92(A,)-250.6(1949\).)-195.6(Although)-250.6(the)-250.6(committee)-250.6(was)-250.6(lar)18(gely)-250.6(im-)]TJ T* [(pressed)-378.9(with)-378.9(the)-378.9(ef)18(forts)-378.9(put)-378.9(forth)-378.9(by)-378.9(these)-378.9(programs,)-378.9(signicant)-378.9(concerns)-378.9(were)]TJ T* [(raised.)-368.3(First,)-368.3(it)-368.3(was)-368.3(contended)-368.3(that)-368.3(the)-368.3(focus)-368.3(of)-368.3(training)-368.3(was)-368.3(too)-368.3(narrow)65(.)-350.3(There)]TJ T* [(was)-264.9(certainly)-264.9(a)-264.9(social)-264.9(need)-264.9(for)-264.9(emphasis)-264.9(on)-264.9(psychiatric)-264.9(hospitals)-264.9(and)-264.9(the)-264.9(severely)]TJ T* [(disturbed)-271.9(patients,)-271.9(but)-271.9(the)-271.9(committee)-271.9(ar)18(gued)-271.9(that)-271.9(clinical)-271.9(psychologists)-271.9(should)-271.9(be)]TJ T* [(trained)-389.7(to)-389.7(deal)-389.7(with)-389.7(other)-389.7(social)-389.7(issues.)-389.7(Second,)-389.7(many)-389.7(programs)-389.7(taught)-389.7(a)-389.7(vari-)]TJ T* [(ety)-264.8(of)-264.8(clinical)-264.8(techniques,)-264.8(placing)-264.8(limited)-264.8(emphasis)-264.8(on)-264.8(research)-264.8(methodology)-264.8(and)]TJ T* [(theoryan)-299(issue)-299(that)-299(would)-299(become)-299(central)-299(to)-299(the)-299(Boulder)-299(Conference)-299(later)-299(that)]TJ T* [(year)-250(\(Baker)-250(&)-250(Benjamin,)-250(2000\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(When)-212.4(the)-212.4(Boulder)-212.4(Conference)-212.4(began,)-212.4(the)-212.4(adaptation)-212.4(of)-212.4(the)-212.4(scientist-practitioner)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(model)-195.9(was)-195.9(not)-195.9(entirely)-195.9(agreed)-195.9(on.)-177.9(There)-195.9(was)-195.9(great)-195.9(concern)-195.9(that)-195.9(it)-195.9(would)-195.9(be)-195.9(dif)18(cult)]TJ T* [(to)-337.9(train)-337.9(all)-337.9(graduate)-337.9(students)-337.9(in)-337.9(both)-337.9(research)-337.9(and)-337.9(practice.)-319.9(The)-337.9(role)-337.9(of)-337.9(research)]TJ T* [(in)-251.1(training)-251.1(likely)-251.1(was)-251.1(the)-251.1(most)-251.1(dif)18(cult)-251.1(topic)-251.1(covered)-251.1(in)-251.1(the)-251.1(conference.)-251.1(However)40(,)]TJ T* [(by)-336.9(the)-336.9(end)-336.9(of)-336.9(the)-336.9(conference,)-336.9(agreement)-336.9(was)-336.9(reached)-336.9(among)-336.9(the)-336.9(lar)18(ge)-336.9(majority)65(.)]TJ T* [(In)-373.3(the)-373.3(most)-373.3(comprehensive)-373.3(report)-373.3(of)-373.3(the)-373.3(conference,)-373.3(titled)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 24.5488 0 TD [(T)55(r)15(aining)-373.3(in)-373.3(Clinical)]TJ -24.5488 -1.1818 TD [(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.0451 0 TD [(V)60(ictor)-283(Raimy)-283(\(1950,)-283(p.)-283(23\))-283(reported,)-283(The)-283(original)-283(chasm)-283(seemed)-283(to)]TJ -5.0451 -1.1818 TD [(have)-280.9(lar)18(gely)-280.9(disappeared)-280.9(and)-280.9(recognition)-280.9(of)-280.9(the)-280.9(importance)-280.9(of)-280.9(including)-280.9(research)]TJ T* [(training)-230.8(in)-230.8(the)-230.8(preparation)-230.8(of)-230.8(all)-230.8(clinical)-230.8(psychologists)-230.8(was)-230.8(generally)-230.8(accepted.)-230.8(In)]TJ T* [(fact,)-251(the)-251(decision)-251(to)-251(recommend)-251(training)-251(in)-251(research)-251(and)-251(practice)-251(did)-251(not)-251(require)-251(a)]TJ T* [(compromise,)-250(but)-250(instead)-250(was)-250(nearly)-250(a)-250(unanimous)-250(consensus.)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Recommendation)-332.9(for)-332.9(preparation)-332.9(in)-332.9(both)-332.9(areas)-332.9(rested)-332.9(on)-332.9(ve)-332.9(major)-332.9(consider)20(-)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(ations.)-339.3(First,)-339.3(although)-339.3(most)-339.3(students)-339.3(would)-339.3(focus)-339.3(their)-339.3(career)-339.3(on)-339.3(either)-339.3(research)]TJ T* [(or)-319.2(practice)-319.2(\(not)-319.2(both\),)-319.2(all)-319.2(students)-319.2(should)-319.2(be)-319.2(trained)-319.2(in)-319.2(both)-319.2(to)-319.2(encourage)-319.2(cross)]TJ T* [(fertilization)-269.5(and)-269.5(breadth)-269.5(of)-269.5(approach)-269.5(\(Raimy)65(,)-269.5(1950,)-269.5(p.)-269.5(81\))-269.5(within)-269.5(the)-269.5(profession.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(That)-201.1(is,)-201.1(dual)-201.1(training)-201.1(would)-201.1(benet)-201.1(both)-201.1(foci)-201.1(through)-201.1(collaboration;)-201.1(in)-201.1(addition,)-201.1(the)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(study)-200(of)-200(research)-200(and)-200(practice)-200(would)-200(deter)-200(programs)-126(tendencies)-200(to)-200(produce)-200(narrow)]TJ T* [(thought)-217.8(processes)-217.8(and)-217.8(subsequent)-217.8(actions.)-217.8(Second,)-217.8(the)-217.8(extreme)-217.8(lack)-217.8(of)-217.8(dependable)]TJ T* [(knowledge)-210.3(in)-210.3(the)-210.3(eld)-210.3(demanded)-210.3(\(and)-210.3(still)-210.3(demands\))-210.3(a)-210.3(need)-210.3(for)-210.3(research)-210.3(in)-210.3(clinical)]TJ T* [(psychology)65(.)-268.1(A)0(s)-323.1(Raimy)-323.1(reports,)-323.1(Participants)-323.1(at)-323.1(the)-323.1(conference)-323.1(displayed)-323.1(consid-)]TJ T* [(erable)-273.2(humility)-273.2(with)-273.2(respect)-273.2(to)-273.2(present)-273.2(techniques)-273.2(\(p.)-273.2(80\).)-255.2(Third,)-273.2(it)-273.2(was)-273.2(believed)]TJ T* [(that)-222.9(students)-222.9(of)-222.9(clinical)-222.9(psychology)-222.9(should)-222.9(be)-222.9(capable)-222.9(of)-222.9(carrying)-222.9(out)-222.9(both)-222.9(roles)-222.9(of)]TJ T* [(clinician)-207.4(and)-207.4(researcher)55(.)-189.4(The)-207.4(number)-207.4(of)-207.4(applicants)-207.4(greatly)-207.4(surpassed)-207.4(the)-207.4(number)-207.4(of)]TJ T* [(available)-294.5(positions)-294.5(in)-294.5(training)-294.5(programs;)-294.5(therefore,)-294.5(participants)-294.5(in)-294.5(the)-294.5(conference)]TJ T* [(concluded)-218.3(that)-218.3(applicants)-218.3(should)-218.3(be)-218.3(considered)-218.3(for)-218.3(acceptance)-218.3(only)-218.3(if)-218.3(they)-218.3(showed)]TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj > endobj 62 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(2)0(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(promise)-259.4(in)-259.4(both)-259.4(areas)-259.4(of)-259.4(study)65(.)-259.4(Fourth,)-259.4(it)-259.4(was)-259.4(noted)-259.4(that)-259.4(researchers)-259.4(would)-259.4(have)-259.4(a)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(better)-273.8(knowledge)-273.8(of)-273.8(important)-273.8(research)-273.8(topics)-273.8(if)-273.8(they)-273.8(were)-273.8(directly)-273.8(involved)-273.8(with)]TJ T* [(the)-278.8(clinical)-278.8(process.)-278.8(Fifth,)-278.8(services)-278.8(provided)-278.8(by)-278.8(clinical)-278.8(practice)-278.8(could)-278.8(provide)-278.8(-)]TJ T* [(nancial)-175(support)-175(for)-175(research)-175(causes.)-157(This)-175(has)-175(become)-175(even)-175(truer)-175(in)-175(the)-175(current)-175(age)-175(of)]TJ T* [(managed)-280.6(care.)-280.6(Increasingly)65(,)-280.6(health)-280.6(care)-280.6(systems)-280.6(rely)-280.6(on)-280.6(evidence-based)-280.6(practices)]TJ T* [(for)-250(success)-250(in)-250(the)-250(marketplace)-250(\(Hayes)-250(et)-250(al.,)-250(1999\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-310.2(following)-310.2(summarizes)-310.2(the)-310.2(roles)-310.2(of)-310.2(clinical)-310.2(psychologists)-310.2(as)-310.2(concluded)-310.2(by)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(participants)-250(at)-250(the)-250(Boulder)-250(Conference:)]TJ 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 130.6788 588.2229 Tm [(The)-233.6(basic)-233.6(needs)-233.6(of)-233.6(society)-233.6(for)-233.6(the)-233.6(services)-233.6(of)-233.6(clinical)-233.6(psychology)-233.6(are)-233.6(of)-233.6(two)-233.6(major)-233.6(kinds:)]TJ 1.2812 -2.6604 TD [(a.)-442.1(Professional)-250(services)-250(to:)]TJ 1.0835 -1.5025 TD [(\(1\))-676.1(Individuals)-363(through)-363(corrective)-363(and)-363(remedial)-363(work)-363(as)-363(well)-363(as)-363(diagnostic)-363(and)]TJ 1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(therapeutic)-250(practices)]TJ -1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(\(2\))-676.1(Groups)-201.5(and)-201.5(social)-201.5(institutions)-201.5(needing)-201.5(positive)-201.5(mental)-201.5(hygiene)-201.5(programs)-201.5(in)-201.5(the)]TJ 1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(interest)-250(of)-250(better)-250(community)-250(health)]TJ -1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(\(3\))-676.1(S)18(tudents)-397.8(in)-397.8(training,)-397.8(members)-397.8(of)-397.8(other)-397.8(professions,)-397.8(and)-397.8(the)-397.8(public)-397.8(through)]TJ 1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(systematic)-250(education)-250(and)-250(the)-250(general)-250(dissemination)-250(of)-250(information)]TJ -2.9816 -1.5789 TD [(b.)-442.1(Research)-250(contributions)-250(designed)-250(to:)]TJ 1.1395 -1.5025 TD [(\(1\))-676.1(Develop)-250(better)-250(understanding)-250(of)-250(human)-250(behavior)]TJ 0 -1.2632 TD [(\(2\))-676.1(Improve)-250(the)-250(accuracy)-250(and)-250(reliability)-250(of)-250(diagnostic)-250(procedures)]TJ T* [(\(3\))-676.1(Develop)-250(more)-250(ef)18(cient)-250(methods)-250(of)-250(treatment)]TJ T* [(\(4\))-676.1(Develop)-206.8(methods)-206.8(of)-206.8(promoting)-206.8(mental)-206.8(hygiene)-206.8(and)-206.8(preventing)-206.8(maladjustment.)]TJ 1.8421 -1.2632 TD [(\(Raimy)65(,)-250(1950,)-250(pp.)-250(2021\))]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.652 385.8882 Tm [(Though)-183.9(the)-183.9(decision)-183.9(to)-183.9(endorse)-183.9(the)-183.9(scientist-practitioner)-183.9(model)-183.9(was)-183.9(clear)40(,)-183.9(partic-)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(ipants)-219.6(recognized)-219.6(that)-219.6(there)-219.6(would)-219.6(be)-219.6(great)-219.6(dif)18(culties)-219.6(involved)-219.6(in)-219.6(combining)-219.6(both)]TJ T* [(roles.)-213.2(In)-213.2(this)-213.2(respect,)-213.2(participants)-213.2(in)-213.2(the)-213.2(Boulder)-213.2(Conference)-213.2(clearly)-213.2(anticipated)-213.2(the)]TJ T* [(scientist-practitioner)-257.1(gap.)-202.1(A)-202.1(major)-257.1(criticism)-257.2(of)-257.1(the)-257.1(scientist-practitioner)-257.1(model)-257.1(de-)]TJ T* [(veloped)-233.2(at)-233.2(the)-233.2(Boulder)-233.2(Conference)-233.2(is)-233.2(its)-233.2(demonstrated)-233.2(failure)-233.2(to)-233.2(involve)-233.2(clinicians)]TJ T* [(in)-282.7(research.)-264.7(The)-282.7(model)-282.7(has)-282.7(been)-282.7(much)-282.7(more)-282.7(universally)-282.7(adopted)-282.7(in)-282.7(research)-282.7(than)]TJ T* [(in)-233.4(practice.)-215.4(The)-233.4(average)-233.4(PhD)-233.3(psychologist)-233.4(has)-233.4(published)-233.4(very)-233.4(few)65(,)-233.4(i)0(f)-233.4(any)65(,)-233.4(research)]TJ T* (articles.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.894 268.9168 Tm [(Recent)-250(De)15(v)10(elopments)-250(in)-250(the)-250(Evidence-Based)-250(Inter)10(v)10(ention)]TJ 0 -1.0833 TD [(and)-250(Practice)-250(Mo)10(v)10(ement)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 236.5383 Tm [(Despite)-199.3(great)-199.3(momentum)-199.3(in)-199.3(research)-199.3(in)-199.3(professional)-199.3(psychology)65(,)-199.3(the)-199.3(evidence)-199.3(base)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(for)-255.5(treatment)-255.5(of)-255.5(a)-255.5(variety)-255.5(of)-255.5(childhood)-255.5(disorders)-255.5(and)-255.5(problems)-255.5(lagged)-255.5(behind)-255.5(out-)]TJ T* [(come)-324.2(research)-324.2(with)-324.2(adults.)-324.2(Nevertheless,)-324.2(as)-324.2(attention)-324.2(turned)-324.2(to)-324.2(mental)-324.2(health)-324.2(is-)]TJ T* [(sues)-346.8(in)-346.8(children,)-346.8(psychologists)-346.8(began)-346.8(to)-346.8(review)-346.8(the)-346.8(literature)-346.8(on)-346.8(prevention)-346.8(and)]TJ T* [(intervention)-279.5(\(therapy\))-279.5(outcome)-279.5(research.)-261.5(T)70(o)-279.5(perform)-279.5(this)-279.5(task)-279.5(they)-279.5(needed)-279.5(guide-)]TJ T* [(lines)-377.2(to)-377.2(review)-377.2(the)-377.2(growing)-377.2(literature)-377.2(on)-377.2(prevention)-377.2(and)-377.2(intervention.)-377.2(Over)-377.2(the)]TJ T* [(past)-291.9(decade)-291.9(criteria)-291.9(have)-291.9(been)-291.9(produced)-291.9(for)-291.9(developing)-291.9(evidence-based)-291.9(interven-)]TJ T* [(tions)-282(and)-282(guidelines)-282(for)-282(how)-282(such)-282(interventions)-282(should)-282(be)-282(evaluated)-282(\(see)-282(Barlow)65(,)]TJ T* [(2004;)-212.4(Kratochwill)-212.4(&)-212.4(S)18(toiber)40(,)-212.4(2002\).)-194.4(W)40(ith)-212.4(pressure)-212.4(mounting)-212.4(from)-212.4(managed)-212.4(health)]TJ T* [(care,)-222.6(governmental)-222.6(agencies,)-222.6(and)-222.6(professional)-222.6(or)18(ganizations,)-222.6(a)-222.6(major)-222.6(task)-222.6(force)-222.6(on)]TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj > endobj 64 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 120.239 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(28)-1000(General)-250(Issues)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 120.239 703.0657 Tm [(evidence-based)-352.2(interventions)-352.2(was)-352.2(formed)-352.2(by)-352.2(the)-297.2(AP)92(A)-279.1(T)70(ask)-352.2(Force)-352.2(on)-352.2(Promotion)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(and)-203.7(Dissemination)-203.7(of)-203.7(Psychological)-203.7(Procedures)-203.7(\(1995\).)-185.7(The)-203.7(report)-203.7(stimulated)-203.7(con-)]TJ T* [(siderable)-244.4(debate.)-226.4(The)-244.4(major)-244.4(controversial)-244.4(themes)-244.4(were)-244.4(identied:)-244.4(\(a\))-226.4(The)-244.4(focus)-244.4(of)]TJ T* [(research)-251.2(studies)-251.2(identied)-251.2(as)-251.2(evidence-based)-251.2(in)-251.2(the)-251.2(adult)-251.2(literature)-251.2(were)-251.2(identied)]TJ T* [(as)-359.7(behaviorally)-359.7(oriented;)-359.7(\(b\))-359.7(the)-359.7(criteria)-359.7(used)-359.7(were)-359.7(judged)-359.7(as)-359.7(potentially)-359.7(biased)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-210.6(methodological)-210.6(and)-210.6(statistical)-210.6(decision)-210.6(rules)-210.6(in)-210.6(the)-210.6(literature)-210.6(reviews\);)-210.6(\(c\))-210.6(the)]TJ T* [(use)-266.6(of)-266.6(intervention)-266.6(manuals)-266.6(to)-266.6(standardize)-266.6(interventions)-266.6(was)-266.6(deemed)-266.6(problematic)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-346.7(manuals)-346.7(remove)-346.7(exibility)-346.7(and)-346.7(adaptation)-346.7(to)-346.7(individual)-346.7(or)-346.7(group)-346.7(needs)-346.7(in)]TJ T* [(psychotherapy\);)-287.1(and)-287.1(\(d\))-287.1(the)-287.1(generalizability)-287.1(of)-287.1(ndings)-287.1(was)-287.1(deemed)-287.1(limited)-287.1(\(i.e.,)]TJ T* [(whether)-250(and)-250(how)-250(research)-250(studies)-250(can)-250(be)-250(generalized)-250(to)-250(actual)-250(clinical)-250(practice\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Early)-191.3(in)-191.3(the)-191.3(evidence-based)-191.3(intervention)-191.3(movement)-191.3(school)-191.3(psychology)-191.3(explored)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(evidence-based)-200.3(interventions)-200.3(and)-200.3(their)-200.3(implications)-200.3(for)-200.3(the)-200.3(eld.)-200.3(Division)-200.3(16)-200.3(of)-200.3(the)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(AP)92(A,)-204.9(the)-204.9(Society)-204.9(for)-204.9(the)-204.9(S)18(tudy)-204.9(of)-204.9(School)-204.9(Psychology)65(,)-204.9(and)-204.9(the)-204.9(National)-149.9(Association)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(of)-256.3(School)-256.3(Psychologists)-256.3(supported)-256.3(the)-256.3(development)-256.3(of)-256.3(a)-238.3(T)70(ask)-256.3(Force)-256.3(on)-256.3(Evidence-)]TJ T* [(Based)-344.4(Interventions)-344.4(in)-344.4(Schools)-344.4(\(now)-344.4(co-chaired)-344.4(by)-326.4(Thomas)-344.4(R.)-344.4(Kratochwill)-344.4(and)]TJ T* [(Kimberly)-250(Hoagwood\).)]TJ 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(The)-316.8(initial)-316.8(purpose)-316.8(of)-316.8(the)-316.8(School)-316.8(Psychology)-298.8(T)70(ask)-316.8(Force)-316.8(was)-316.8(to)-316.8(examine)-316.8(and)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(disseminate)-315.9(the)-315.9(knowledge)-315.9(based)-315.9(on)-315.9(what)-315.9(prevention)-315.9(and)-315.9(intervention)-315.9(programs)]TJ T* [(or)-267.8(approaches)-267.8(for)-267.8(children,)-267.8(youth,)-267.8(and)-267.8(families)-267.8(demonstrate)-267.8(empirical)-267.8(support)-267.8(for)]TJ T* [(application)-253.4(in)-253.4(the)-253.4(school)-253.4(and)-253.4(community)-253.4(and)-253.4(to)-253.4(facilitate)-253.4(strong)-253.4(research)-253.4(method-)]TJ T* [(ologies,)-225.8(technologies,)-225.8(and)-225.8(innovations.)-207.8(The)-207.8(T)70(ask)-225.8(Force)-225.8(worked)-225.8(cooperatively)-225.8(with)]TJ T* [(the)-195(AP)92(A)111()55(s)-250(Division)-250(of)-250(Clinical)-250(Child)-250(and)-195(Adolescent)-250(Psychology)-250(\(Division)-250(53\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(Another)-236.5(major)-236.5(direction)-236.5(taken)-236.5(in)-236.5(the)-236.5(evidence-based)-236.5(practice)-236.5(movement)-236.5(has)-236.5(in-)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(volved)-236.2(the)-236.2(development)-236.2(of)-236.2(practice)-236.2(guidelines)-236.2(\(White)-236.2(&)-236.2(Kratochwill,)-236.2(2005\).)-218.2(V)111(ari-)]TJ T* [(ous)-248.6(practice)-248.6(guidelines)-248.6(have)-248.6(been)-248.6(constructed)-248.6(by)-248.6(a)-248.6(variety)-248.6(of)-248.6(professional)-248.6(groups:)]TJ T* [(the)-190.9(Agency)-245.9(for)-245.9(Health)-245.9(Care)-245.9(Policy)-245.9(and)-245.9(Research)-245.9(\(AHCPR\),)-245.9(the)-190.9(American)-245.9(Psychi-)]TJ T* [(atric)-294.1(Association,)-349.1(the)-349.1(National)-349.1(Institutes)-349.1(of)-349.1(Health,)-349.1(and)-349.1(the)-349.1(Division)-349.1(of)-349.1(Clinical)]TJ T* [(Psychology)-295.9(\(Division)-295.9(12\))-295.9(of)-295.9(the)-240.9(AP)92(A.)-277.9(The)-240.9(AHCPR)-295.9(has)-295.9(developed)-295.9(guidelines)-295.9(for)]TJ T* [(treating)-311.2(and)-311.2(diagnosing)-311.2(depression)-311.2(in)-311.2(primary)-311.2(care.)-293.2(The)-311.2(guidelines)-311.2(are)-311.2(primarily)]TJ T* [(aimed)-336.8(at)-336.8(physicians)-336.8(and)-336.8(the)-336.8(general)-336.8(public.)-336.8(Practice)-336.8(guidelines)-336.8(of)-336.8(the)-281.8(American)]TJ -0.055 -1.1818 TD [(Academy)-313.9(of)-313.9(Child)-313.9(and)-258.9(Adolescent)-313.9(Psychiatry)-313.9(have)-313.9(been)-313.9(evolving)-313.9(for)-313.9(some)-313.9(time)]TJ 0.055 -1.1818 TD [(and)-339.3(provide)-339.3(a)-339.3(variety)-339.3(of)-339.3(foci)-339.3(for)-339.3(child)-339.3(intervention,)-339.3(including)-339.3(anxiety)-339.3(disorders,)]TJ T* [(conduct)-281.5(disorders,)-281.5(and)-226.5(Attention-Decit/Hyperactivity)-281.5(Disorder)55(.)-263.5(The)-281.5(Division)-281.5(12)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)70(ask)-253.9(Force)-253.9(\(Chambless)-253.9(&)-253.9(Ollendick,)-253.9(2001\))-253.9(provided)-253.9(a)-253.9(preliminary)-253.9(set)-253.9(of)-253.9(practice)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(guidelines)-328.4(based)-328.4(on)-328.4(their)-328.4(review)-328.4(of)-328.4(empirically)-328.4(validated)-328.4(psychosocial)-328.4(interven-)]TJ T* [(tions,)-314.9(resulting)-314.9(in)-314.9(a)-314.9(proposed)-314.9(three-category)-314.9(system)-314.9(of)-314.9(ef)18(cacy:)-314.9(well-established)]TJ T* [(interventions,)-337.9(probably)-337.9(ef)18(cacious)-337.9(interventions,)-337.9(and)-337.9(experimental)-337.9(interventions)]TJ T* [(\(those)-250(not)-250(yet)-250(established)-250(as)-250(at)-250(least)-250(probably)-250(ef)18(cacious\).)]TJ 1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Over)-258.9(the)-258.9(past)-258.9(decade)-258.9(the)-258.9(Committee)-258.9(on)-258.9(Science)-258.9(and)-258.9(Practice)-258.9(of)-258.9(the)-258.9(Society)-258.9(for)]TJ -1.0909 -1.1818 TD [(Clinical)-170.7(Psychology)-170.7(of)-115.7(AP)92(A)-115.6(Division)-170.7(12)-170.7(developed)-170.7(a)-170.7(procedural)-170.7(and)-170.7(coding)-170.7(manual)]TJ T* [(for)-245.1(identication)-245.1(of)-245.1(benecial)-245.1(interventions)-245.1(\(W)80(eisz)-245.1(&)-245.1(Hawley)65(,)-245.1(1998\).)-227.1(The)-245.1(manual)]TJ T* [(provided)-212.9(guidelines)-212.9(for)-212.9(identication,)-212.9(review)65(,)-212.9(and)-212.9(coding)-212.9(of)-212.9(studies)-212.9(of)-212.9(psychologi-)]TJ T* [(cal)-170.8(interventions)-170.8(for)-170.8(behavioral,)-170.8(emotional,)-170.8(and)-170.8(adjustment)-170.8(problems)-170.8(and)-170.8(disorders.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(The)-325.8(manual)-325.8(was)-325.8(designed)-325.8(to)-325.8(\(a\))-325.8(identify)-325.8(intervention)-325.8(outcome)-325.8(studies)-325.8(related)-325.8(to)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(the)-285.5(ef)18(fects)-285.5(of)-285.5(psychological)-285.5(interventions;)-285.5(\(b\))-285.5(code)-285.5(studies)-285.5(according)-285.5(to)-285.5(the)-285.5(com-)]TJ T* [(mittee)55(s)-223.5(criteria)-223.5(and)-223.5(provide)-223.5(related)-223.5(information)-223.5(on)-223.5(characteristics)-223.5(of)-223.5(interventions)]TJ ET endstream endobj 65 0 obj > endobj 66 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(e)0(s)-1000.3(2)0(9)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.894 703.0657 Tm [(in)-271.6(the)-271.6(studies)-271.6(that)-271.6(evaluate)-271.6(ef)18(cacy;)-271.6(and)-271.6(\(c\))-271.6(make)-271.6(a)-271.6(determination)-271.6(on)-271.6(whether)-271.6(the)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD [(intervention)-327.9(is)-327.9(benecial.)-309.9(The)-327.9(procedural)-327.9(and)-327.9(coding)-327.9(manual)-327.9(extended)-327.9(the)-327.9(work)]TJ T* [(of)-346.9(the)-346.9(Division)-346.9(12)-328.9(T)70(ask)-346.9(Force)-346.9(and)-346.9(the)-346.9(ef)18(forts)-346.9(of)-346.9(the)-346.9(Division)-346.9(53)-328.9(T)70(ask)-346.9(Force)-346.9(by)]TJ T* [(clarifying)-223.5(what)-223.5(was)-223.5(meant)-223.5(by)-223.5(empirically)-223.5(supported)-223.5(interventions)-223.5(and)-223.5(expanded)]TJ T* [(on)-250(a)-250(variety)-250(of)-250(published)-250(literature)-250(and)-250(the)-250(work)-250(of)-250(various)-250(committee)-250(members.)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(As)-311.6(various)-311.6(professional)-311.6(groups)-311.6(and)-311.6(researchers)-311.6(began)-311.6(to)-311.6(review)-311.6(the)-311.6(literature,)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(narrative)-240(reviews)-240(and)-240(the)-240(application)-240(of)-240(meta-analysis)-240(to)-240(child)-240(psychotherapy)-240(out-)]TJ T* [(come)-177.9(contributed)-177.9(to)-177.9(an)-177.9(evolving)-177.9(positive)-177.9(landscape)-177.9(for)-177.9(ef)18(fective)-177.9(interventions)-177.9(\(e.g.,)]TJ T* [(Lonigan,)-289.3(Elbert,)-289.3(&)-289.3(Johnson,)-289.3(1998;)-289.3(Casey)-289.3(&)-289.3(Berman,)-289.3(1985;)-289.3(Kazdin,)-289.3(Bass,)-234.3(A)92(yres,)]TJ T* [(&)-296(Rodgers,)-296(1990;)-296(Kazdin)-296(&)-278(W)80(eisz,)-296(2003;)-278(W)80(eisz,)-278(W)80(eiss,)-241(Alicke,)-296(&)-296(Klotz,)-296(1987\).)]TJ T* [(Specically)65(,)-379.7(between)-379.7(1952)-379.7(and)-379.7(1993,)-379.7(more)-379.7(than)-379.7(300)-379.7(research)-379.7(investigations)-379.7(of)]TJ T* [(psychotherapy)-354.6(involving)-354.6(children)-354.6(between)-354.6(the)-354.6(ages)-354.6(of)-354.6(2)-354.6(and)-354.6(18)-354.6(years)-354.6(indicated)]TJ T* [(that)-238.3(the)-238.3(intervention)-238.3(groups)-238.3(scored)-238.3(higher)-238.3(on)-238.3(various)-238.3(outcome)-238.3(measures)-238.3(than)-238.3(76%)]TJ T* [(to)-391.9(81%)-391.9(of)-391.9(children)-391.9(in)-391.9(control)-391.9(groups)-391.9(\(Casey)-391.9(&)-391.9(Berman,)-391.9(1985;)-391.9(Kazdin,)-391.9(2002\).)]TJ T* [(Hoagwood)-258.9(and)-258.9(Erwin)-258.9(\(1997\))-258.9(conducted)-258.9(a)-258.9(10-year)-258.9(research)-258.9(review)-258.9(and)-258.9(found)-258.9(that)]TJ T* [(three)-360.2(types)-360.2(of)-360.2(interventions)-360.2(have)-360.2(empirical)-360.2(support:)-360.2(cognitive-behavior)-360.2(therapy)65(,)]TJ T* [(social)-178.6(skills)-178.6(training,)-178.6(and)-178.6(teacher)-178.6(consultation.)-178.6(Modest)-178.6(support)-178.6(for)-178.6(interventions)-178.6(de-)]TJ T* [(livered)-230.5(within)-230.5(school-based)-230.5(consultation)-230.5(occurred)-230.5(through)-230.5(traditional)-230.5(literature)-230.5(re-)]TJ T* [(views)-189.3(\(Kratochwill,)-189.3(Sheridan,)-189.3(&)-171.3(V)111(an)-189.3(Someren,)-189.3(1988;)-189.3(Mannino)-189.3(&)-189.3(Shore,)-189.3(1975\))-189.3(and)]TJ T* [(meta-analysis)-264.5(\(Medway)-264.5(&)-264.5(Updyke,)-264.5(1985;)-264.5(Sibley)65(,)-264.5(1986\).)-264.5(Summaries)-264.5(of)-264.5(evidence-)]TJ T* [(based)-385.1(treatments)-385.1(with)-385.1(children)-385.1(and)-385.1(adolescents)-385.1(can)-385.1(be)-385.1(found)-385.1(on)-385.1(a)-385.1(Division)-385.1(53)]TJ T* [(website)-250(\(www)65(.ef)18(fectivechildtherapy)65(.or)18(g\).)]TJ 1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(As)-170.3(the)-170.3(cost)-170.3(of)-170.3(treatment)-170.3(of)-170.3(adult)-170.3(and)-170.3(childhood)-170.3(disorders)-170.3(became)-170.3(clear)40(,)-170.3(psycholo-)]TJ -1.0359 -1.1818 TD [(gists)-219.7(became)-219.7(vocal)-219.7(about)-219.7(the)-219.7(importance)-219.7(and)-219.7(ef)18(fectiveness)-219.7(of)-219.7(prevention)-219.7(programs)]TJ T* [(\(e.g.,)-170.4(Biglan,)-170.4(Mrazek,)-170.4(Carnine,)-170.4(&)-170.4(Flay)65(,)-170.4(2003;)-170.4(Coie)-170.4(et)-170.4(al.,)-170.4(1993;)-170.4(Kratochwill,)-115.4(Albers,)]TJ T* [(&)-217(Shernof)18(f,)-217(2004;)-217(Nation)-217(et)-217(al.,)-217(2003;)-199(T)70(olan)-217(&)-217(Dodge,)-217(2005;)-199(W)80(eissber)18(g,)-217(Kumpfer)40(,)]TJ T* [(&)-235.6(Seligman,)-235.6(2003;)-217.6(W)80(eisz,)-235.6(Sandler)40(,)-235.6(Durlak,)-235.6(&)-180.6(Anton,)-235.6(2005\).)-235.6(Meta-analysis)-235.6(of)-235.6(pre-)]TJ T* [(vention)-255.1(programs)-255.1(has)-255.1(also)-255.1(demonstrated)-255.1(positive)-255.1(outcomes)-255.1(\(e.g.,)-255.1(Durlak)-255.1(&)-237.1(W)80(ells,)]TJ T* [(1997;)-368.9(W)80(eisz,)-386.9(Jensen-Doss,)-386.9(&)-386.9(Hawley)65(,)-386.9(2006\).)-368.9(T)70(o)-386.9(assist)-386.9(psychologists)-386.9(in)-386.9(imple-)]TJ T* [(menting)-325.7(ef)18(fective)-325.7(prevention)-325.7(programs,)-325.7(a)-325.7(website)-325.7(jointly)-325.7(sponsored)-325.7(by)-270.7(AP)92(A)-270.7(and)]TJ T* [(the)-395.5(Society)-395.5(for)-395.5(Prevention)-395.5(Research)-395.5(presents)-395.5(information)-395.5(on)-395.5(over)-395.5(100)-395.5(reviews)]TJ T* [(of)-400.8(prevention)-400.8(research)-400.8(on)-400.8(a)-400.8(variety)-400.8(of)-400.8(topics)-400.8(\(www)65(.oslc.or)18(g/spr/apa/summaries)]TJ T* (.html\).)Tj 1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(T)35(remendous)-325.6(advances)-325.6(have)-325.6(been)-325.6(made)-325.6(in)-325.6(the)-325.6(evidence-based)-325.6(practice)-325.6(area)-325.6(of)]TJ -1.0729 -1.1818 TD [(child)-290.1(prevention)-290.1(and)-290.1(treatment.)-290.1(In)-290.1(recent)-290.1(years,)-290.1(several)-290.1(textbooks)-290.1(that)-290.1(emphasize)]TJ T* [(evidence-based)-223.6(prevention)-223.6(and)-223.6(intervention)-223.6(for)-223.6(child)-223.6(and)-223.6(adolescent)-223.6(problems)-223.6(and)]TJ T* [(disorders)-213.7(have)-213.7(appeared)-213.7(\(see)-195.7(T)70(able)-213.7(1.1\).)-195.7(The)-213.7(future)-213.7(looks)-213.7(very)-213.7(positive)-213.7(with)-213.7(regard)]TJ T* [(to)-338.4(improving)-338.4(the)-338.4(quality)-338.4(of)-338.4(life)-338.4(of)-338.4(children)-338.4(and)-338.4(families)-338.4(who)-338.4(experience)-338.4(a)-338.4(wide)]TJ T* [(range)-272.9(of)-272.9(academic)-272.9(and)-272.9(mental)-272.9(health)-272.9(concerns.)-254.9(T)70(o)-272.9(advance)-272.9(practice)-272.9(in)-272.9(the)-272.9(eld,)-272.9(a)]TJ T* [(number)-219.1(of)-219.1(issues)-219.1(have)-219.1(surfaced)-219.1(that)-219.1(have)-219.1(an)-219.1(important)-219.1(bearing)-219.1(on)-219.1(the)-219.1(future)-219.1(of)-219.1(this)]TJ T* [(movement)-289(\(see)-289(Kratochwill)-289(et)-289(al.,)-289(in)-289(press\).)-234(Although)-289(it)-289(is)-289(not)-289(possible)-289(to)-289(review)]TJ T* [(these)-195.1(issues)-195.1(in)-195.1(great)-195.1(detail)-195.1(here,)-195.1(a)-195.1(sampling)-195.1(will)-195.1(convey)-195.1(the)-195.1(complexity)-195.1(of)-195.1(the)-195.1(tasks.)]TJ -0.018 -1.1818 TD [(T)70(o)-294.3(begin)-294.3(with,)-294.3(major)-294.3(concerns)-294.3(surround)-294.3(the)-294.3(research)-294.3(methods)-294.3(of)-294.3(establishing)-294.3(the)]TJ 0.018 -1.1818 TD [(evidence)-234.7(base)-234.7(in)-234.7(this)-234.7(area,)-234.7(with)-234.7(calls)-234.7(for)-234.7(expanding)-234.7(the)-234.7(methodologies)-234.7(of)-234.7(quantita-)]TJ T* [(tive)-271.9(research)-271.9(and)-271.9(even)-271.9(the)-271.9(framework)-271.9(for)-271.9(empiricism)-271.9(of)-271.9(the)-271.9(movement)-271.9(\(see)-271.9(Slife,)]TJ T* [(Bradford,)-155(W)40(iggins,)-173(&)-173(Graham,)-173(2005\).)-173(Concerns)-173(have)-173(also)-173(been)-173(expressed)-173(about)-173(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 67 0 obj > endobj 68 0 obj > /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState > >> endobj 69 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.1506 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 120.239 698.8782 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw 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478.894 666.31 l S BT /F2 1 Tf 9.4645 0 0 9.4645 120.0686 655.5002 Tm [(T)35(reatment)-250(research)-250(methods)-9889.3(E)-2607.9(E)-2579.9(C)-2579.9(E)-2607.9(E)-2424.9(E)]TJ 0.018 -1.1579 TD [(Developmental)-250(issues)-12028.3(NC)-1829.9(NC)-2190.9(C)-2579.9(E)-2607.9(E)-2424.9(E)]TJ T* [(Ethical)-250(issues)-15305.3(NC)-1829.9(NC)-1829.9(NC)-2218.9(E)-2218.9(N)0(C)-2035.9(E)]TJ -0.055 -1.1579 TD [(Assessment)-16110.3(NC)-2218.9(E)-2607.9(E)-2218.9(NC)-2218.9(E)-2424.9(E)]TJ 0.055 -1.1579 TD [(Diversity)-17055.3(NC)-1829.9(NC)-2218.9(E)-2607.9(E)-2607.9(E)-2396.9(C)]TJ T* [(Future)-250(directions)]TJ 21.1663 0 TD 2.6079 Tc [(EEEEE)211(C)]TJ -21.1663 -1.1579 TD 0 Tc [(Clinical)-250(disorders)-250(or)-250(topics)-26272.7(E)]TJ -0.055 -1.1579 TD [(Adherence)-250(to)-250(medical)-250(regimens)-15023.5(1)-8918.2(E)]TJ T* [(Anxiety)-250(disorders)]TJ 21.2768 0 TD 2.7189 Tc [(21124)183(1)]TJ -21.2768 -1.1579 TD 0 Tc 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[(T)55(r)37(eatments)-178(that)-178(work)-178(with)-178(c)15(hildr)37(en:)-178(Empirically)-178(supported)]TJ -17.848 -1.177 Td [(str)15(ate)40(gies)-250(for)-250(mana)10(ging)-250(c)15(hildhood)-250(pr)45(oblems)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 17.653 0 Td [(.)-232(W)80(ashington,)-250(DC:)-195(American)-250(Psychological)-195(Association.)]TJ -19.065 -1.412 Td [(Ciminero,)-180(A.)-235(R.)-235(Calhoun,)-235(K.)-235(S.,)-235(&)-180(Adams,)-235(H.)-235(E.)-235(\(Eds.\).)-235(\(1977\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 25.57 0 Td [(Handbook)-235(of)-235(behavior)15(al)-235(assessment)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 14.411 0 Td [(.)-235(New)]TJ -38.606 -1.176 Td [(Y)100(ork:)-232(W)40(iley)65(.)]TJ -1.375 -1.412 Td [(Coie,)-325(J.)-325(D.,)-307(W)80(att,)-325(N.)-325(F)80(.,)-307(W)80(est,)-325(S.)-325(G)120(.,)-325(Hawkins,)-325(J.)-325(D.,)-270(Asarnow)65(,)-325(J.)-325(R.,)-325(Markman,)-325(H.)-325(J.,)-325(et)-325(al.)-325(\(1993\).)-307(The)]TJ 1.412 -1.177 Td [(science)-306(of)-306(prevention:)-251(A)-251(conceptual)-306(framework)-306(and)-306(some)-306(directions)-306(for)-306(a)-306(national)-306(research)-306(program.)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 0 -1.177 TD [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(48)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.724 0 Td [(\(10\),)-250(1013\2261022.)]TJ -12.136 -1.412 Td [(Cooley)65(,)-224(W)92(.)-242(R.,)-242(&)-242(Lohnes,)-242(P)111(.)-242(R.)-242(\(1976\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 15.763 0 Td [(Evaluation)-242(r)37(esear)37(c)15(h)-242(in)-242(education:)-242(Theory)55(,)-242(principles)-242(and)-242(pr)15(actice)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 26.34 0 Td (.)Tj -40.692 -1.177 Td [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Irving.)]TJ -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Crone,)-275(D.)-275(H.,)-275(&)-275(Horner)40(,)-275(R.)-275(H.)-275(\(2003\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 15.718 0 Td [(Building)-275(positive)-275(behavior)-275(support)-275(systems)-275(in)-275(sc)15(hools:)-275(Functional)]TJ -14.306 -1.177 Td [(behavior)15(al)-250(assessment)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 9.012 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -10.424 -1.412 Td [(Crone,)-295(D.)-295(H.,)-295(Horner)40(,)-295(R.)-295(H.,)-295(&)-295(Hawken,)-295(L.)-295(S.)-295(\(2004\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 22.256 0 Td [(Responding)-295(to)-295(behavior)-295(pr)45(oblems)-295(in)-295(sc)15(hools:)-295(The)]TJ -20.844 -1.177 Td [(behavior)-250(education)-250(pr)45(o)10(gr)15(am)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 11.429 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -12.841 -1.412 Td [(Darwin,)-162(C.)-162(\(1859\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 7.568 0 Td [(On)-162(the)-162(origin)-162(of)-162(the)-162(species)-162(by)-162(means)-162(of)-162(natur)15(al)-162(selection,)-162(or)111(,)-162(the)-162(pr)37(eservation)-162(of)-162(favour)37(ed)]TJ -6.157 -1.177 Td [(r)15(aces)-250(in)-250(the)-250(strug)10(gle)-250(for)-250(life)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 11.114 0 Td [(.)-250(London:)-250(J.)-250(Murray)65(.)]TJ -12.526 -1.412 Td [(Davidson,)-231(E.)-231(S.,)-231(&)-231(Benjamin,)-231(L.)-213(T)74(.)-231(\(1987\).)-176(A)-176(history)-231(of)-231(the)-231(child)-231(study)-231(movement)-231(in)-176(America.)-231(In)-231(J.)-231(Glover)]TJ 1.412 -1.176 Td [(&)-198(R.)-198(Ronning)-198(\(Eds.\),)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 8.599 0 Td [(Historical)-198(foundations)-198(of)-198(educational)-198(psyc)15(holo)10(gy)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 19.744 0 Td [(\(pp.)-198(41\22660\).)-198(New)-161(Y)100(ork:)-198(Plenum)]TJ -28.343 -1.176 Td (Press.)Tj -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Day)65(,)-197(W)92(.)-215(F)80(.)-215(\(1976\).)-215(Contemporary)-215(behaviorism)-215(and)-215(the)-215(concept)-215(of)-215(intention.)-215(In)-215(M.)-215(R.)-215(Jones)-215(\(Ed.\),)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 38.536 0 Td [(Nebr)15(aska)]TJ -37.124 -1.176 Td [(symposium)-250(on)-250(motivation)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.472 0 Td [(\(V)129(ol.)-250(23,)-250(pp.)-250(65\226131\).)-250(Lincoln:)-250(University)-250(of)-250(Nebraska)-250(Press.)]TJ -11.884 -1.412 Td 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[(.)-250(Boston:)-195(Allyn)-250(&)-250(Bacon.)]TJ -22.086 -1.412 Td [(Dunn,)-189(L.)-189(M.,)-189(&)-189(Kirk,)-189(S.)-134(A.)-189(\(1963\).)-189(Impressions)-189(of)-189(Soviet)-189(psycho-educational)-189(service)-189(and)-189(research)-189(in)-189(mental)]TJ 1.412 -1.176 Td (retardation.)Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 4.832 0 Td [(Exceptional)-250(Childr)37(en,)-250(35)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.046 0 Td [(,)-250(5\22622.)]TJ -16.29 -1.412 Td [(Durlak,)-254(J.)-199(A.,)-254(&)-236(W)80(ells,)-199(A.)-254(M.)-254(\(1997\).)-254(Primary)-254(prevention)-254(mental)-254(health)-254(programs)-254(for)-254(children)-254(and)-254(adoles-)]TJ 1.412 -1.176 Td [(cents:)-195(A)-195(meta-analytic)-250(review)65(.)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 12.294 0 Td [(American)-250(J)25(ournal)-250(of)-250(Community)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-250(25)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 19.393 0 Td [(,)-250(1)37(14\226152.)]TJ -33.099 -1.412 Td [(Edwards,)-223(A.)-278(J.)-278(\(1971\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 9.333 0 Td [(Individual)-278(mental)-278(testing:)-278(Pt.)-278(I.)-278(History)-278(and)-278(theories)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 21.224 0 Td [(.)-278(Scranton,)-278(P)92(A:)-278(Intext)-278(Educa-)]TJ -29.146 -1.176 Td (tional.)Tj -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Eibl-Eibesfeldt,)-250(I.)-250(\(1971\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 10.554 0 Td [(Lo)10(ve)-250(and)-250(hate)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 5.656 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Holt,)-250(Rinehart)-250(and)-232(W)40(inston.)]TJ -16.21 -1.412 Td [(Ekman,)-250(P)111(.)-250(\(Ed.\).)-250(\(1973\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 9.971 0 Td [(Darwin)-250(and)-250(facial)-250(e)20(xpr)37(ession)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 11.804 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Academic)-250(Press.)]TJ -21.775 -1.412 Td [(Ekman,)-220(P)111(.,)-220(Friesen,)-202(W)92(.,)-220(&)-220(Ellsworth,)-220(P)111(.)-220(\(1972\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 18.849 0 Td [(Emotion)-220(in)-220(the)-220(human)-220(face:)-220(Guidelines)-220(for)-220(r)37(esear)37(c)15(h)-220(and)-220(an)]TJ -17.437 -1.176 Td [(inte)40(gr)15(ation)-250(of)-250(\336ndings)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 8.835 0 Td [(.)-250(Oxford:)-250(Per)18(gamon)-250(Press.)]TJ -10.247 -1.412 Td [(Ellis,)-195(A.)-250(\(1962\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 6.667 0 Td [(Reason)-250(and)-250(emotion)-250(in)-250(psyc)15(hother)15(apy)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 15.246 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(L)55(yle)-250(S)18(tuart.)]TJ -21.913 -1.412 Td [(Emery)65(,)-383(R.)-383(E.,)-383(&)-383(Marholin,)-383(D.)-383(\(1977\).)-328(An)-383(applied)-383(behavior)-383(analysis)-383(of)-383(delinquency:)-365(The)-383(relevancy)-383(of)]TJ 1.412 -1.176 Td [(relevant)-250(behavior)55(.)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 7.415 0 Td [(American)-250(Psyc)15(holo)10(gist,)-250(32)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.724 0 Td [(,)-250(860\226873.)]TJ -19.551 -1.412 Td [(Eysenck,)-250(H.)-250(J.)-250(\(1960\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 9.165 0 Td [(Behavior)-250(ther)15(apy)-250(and)-250(the)-250(neur)45(oses)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 13.938 0 Td [(.)-250(Oxford:)-250(Per)18(gamon)-250(Press.)]TJ -23.103 -1.412 Td [(Eysenck,)-250(H.)-250(J.)-250(\(Ed.\).)-250(\(1964\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 11.692 0 Td [(Experiments)-250(in)-250(behavior)-250(ther)15(apy)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 329.0294 163.811 Tm [(.)-250(Oxford:)-250(Per)18(gamon)-250(Press.)]TJ -24.815 -1.412 Td [(Ferster)40(,)-250(C.,)-250(&)-250(Skinner)40(,)-250(B.)-250(F)80(.)-250(\(1957\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 14.562 0 Td [(Sc)15(hedules)-250(of)-250(r)37(einfor)37(cement)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.798 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-195(Appleton-Century-Crofts.)]TJ -25.36 -1.412 Td [(Fonagy)65(,)-201(P)111(.,)-183(T)70(ar)18(get,)-201(M.,)-201(Cottrell,)-201(D.,)-201(Phillips,)-201(J.,)-201(&)-201(Kurtz,)-201(Z.)-201(\(2002\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 26.492 0 Td [(What)-201(works)-201(for)-201(whom?)-201(A)-201(critical)-201(r)37(e)15(vie)15(w)]TJ -25.08 -1.177 Td [(of)-250(tr)37(eatments)-250(for)-250(c)15(hildr)37(en)-250(and)-250(adolescents)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 16.827 0 Td [(.)-250(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 122 0 obj > stream xUQn0+GJ,VRRm''({of3*c?9Q,i  F"h # ?(eFB1a[ g)?-oAsd3Iqnf?pm?Q0WMN}OrjVc+f@!)gN D9@9?TLgLq@eV>;:}EQU]39u?.M.|rTa2js7u{?~?=3&t!YALQ:;0 uB ??uqQValA endstream endobj 123 0 obj > stream 0 G 1 i 0.1 w 10 M 0 j 0 J []0 d /GS0 gs 46.944 793.701 m 46.944 817.611 l 5.151 775.818 m 29.061 775.818 l 568.976 775.818 m 592.887 775.818 l 550.844 793.701 m 550.844 817.611 l 5.051 55.917 m 28.961 55.917 l 46.944 14.024 m 46.944 37.935 l 550.844 14.024 m 550.844 37.935 l 568.827 55.917 m 592.737 55.917 l S 0 g BT /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 372.5708 729.1539 Tm [(Historical)-250(P)20(erspecti)10(v)10(es)-1000(35)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 118.894 703.786 Tm [(Kazdin,)-542(A.)-597(E.,)-597(Bass,)-597(D.,)-542(A)92(yers,)-579(W)92(.)-542(A.,)-597(&)-597(Rodgers,)-542(A.)-597(\(1990\).)-597(Empirical)-597(and)-597(clinical)-597(focus)-597(of)]TJ 1.412 -1.177 Td [(child)-441(and)-441(adolescent)-441(psychotherapy)-441(research.)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 19.286 0 Td [(J)25(ournal)-441(of)-441(Consulting)-441(and)-441(Clinical)-441(Psyc)15(holo)10(gy)55(,)-441(58)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 21.406 0 Td (,)Tj -40.692 -1.177 Td (729\226740.)Tj -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Kazdin,)-300(A.)-355(E.,)-355(&)-355(Hersen,)-355(M.)-355(\(1980\).)-337(The)-355(current)-355(status)-355(of)-355(behavior)-355(therapy)65(.)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 31.866 0 Td [(Behavior)-355(Modi\336cation,)-355(4)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 10.238 0 Td (,)Tj -40.692 -1.176 Td (283\226302.)Tj -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Kazdin,)-174(A.)-229(E.)-229(&)-211(W)80(eisz,)-229(J.)-229(R.)-229(\(Eds.\).)-229(\(2003\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 17.544 0 Td [(Evidence-based)-229(psyc)15(hother)15(apies)-229(for)-229(c)15(hildr)37(en)-229(and)-229(adolescents)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 24.559 0 Td (.)Tj -40.692 -1.176 Td [(New)-213(Y)100(ork:)-250(Guilford)-250(Press.)]TJ -1.412 -1.412 Td [(Kazdin,)-303(A.)-358(E.,)-358(&)-340(W)40(ilson,)-358(G)120(.)-340(T)74(.)-358(\(1978\).)]TJ /T1_2 1 Tf 16.426 0 Td 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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Contributors xi

PART I General Issues

1 Historical Perspectives 3
Thomas R. Kratochwill, Richard J. Morris, and Joseph Robinson

2 Clinical Training 39
Debora J. Bell and Aaron M. Luebbe

3 Professional Practice 74
Daniel B. Chorney and Tracy L. Morris

4 Ethical and Legal Issues 94
David Mark Mantell

5 Professional Roles 138
James H. Johnson, David M. Janicke, and Steven K. Reader

PART II Theoretical Models

6 Psychodynamic 173
Sandra W. Russ

7 Family Systems 192
James P. McHale and Matthew J. Sullivan

8 Applied Behavior Analysis 227
Amy R. Murrell, Cicely Taravella LaBorde, Audra L. Crutchfield, and Jessica Madrigal-Bauguss

9 Cognitive-Behavioral Theory 263
Stephen D. A. Hupp, David Reitman, and Jeremy D. Jewell

PART III Research Contributions

10 Statistical Considerations: Moderators and Mediators 291
Barbara Jandasek, Grayson N. Holmbeck, and Brigid M. Rose

11 Single-Case Research Designs 322
Kurt A. Freeman and Eric J. Mash

12 Personality in Childhood and Adolescence 351
Randall T. Salekin and Courey A. Averett

13 Treatment Research 386
Mark D. Rapport, Michael J.Kofler, Jennifer Bolden, and Dustin E. Sarver

PART IV Diagnosis and Evaluation

14 Assessment, Diagnosis, Nosology, and Taxonomy of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 429
Thomas M. Achenbach

15 Diagnostic Interviewing 458
Amie Grills-Taquechel and Thomas H. Ollendick

16 Intellectual Assessment 480
Lloyd A. Taylor, Cara B. Reeves, and Erin Jeffords

17 Pediatric Neuropsychological Evaluation 497
Leslie D. Berkelhammer

18 Assessment of Psychopathology 520
Stefan E. Schulenberg, Jessica T. Kaster, Carrie Nassif, and Erika K. Johnson-Jimenez

19 Behavioral Assessment 551
Christopher A. Kearney, L. Caitlin Cook, Adrianna Wechsler, Courtney M. Haight, and Stephanie Stowman

PART V Treatment

20 Play Therapy 577
Sue C. Bratton, Dee Ray, and Garry Landreth

21 Behavior Modification 626
Raymond G. Miltenberger

22 Parent Training 653
Mark W. Roberts

23 Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment 694
Lisa W. Coyne, Angela M. Burke, and Jennifer B. Freeman

24 Primary Care Behavioral Pediatrics 728
Patrick C. Friman

25 Peer Intervention 759
Michelle S. Rivera and Douglas W. Nangle

PART VI Special Issues

26 Cultural Issues 789
Laura Johnson and Christina Tucker

27 Divorce and Custody 833
Shannon M. Greene, Kate Sullivan, and Edward R. Anderson

28 Child Maltreatment 856
Christine Wekerle, Harriet L. MacMillan, Eman Leung, and Ellen Jamieson

29 Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Developmental Disabilities 904
Jennifer M. Gillis and Raymond G. Romanczyk

30 Parental Psychopathology and Its Relation to Child Psychopathology 937
Sherryl H. Goodman and Sarah R. Brand

31 Problems in Infancy 966
Tiffany Field

32 Psychopharmacology as Practiced by Psychologists 1012
Alan Poling, Kristal Ehrhardt, and Matthew Porritt

Author Index 1039

Subject Index 1081