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# Handbook of Heat Transfer

## byWarren M. Rohsenow, James P. Hartnett, Young I. Cho

### Hardcover | May 22, 1998

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### about

This wholly revised edition of a classic handbook reference, written by some of the most eminent practitioners in the field, is designed to be your all-in-one source book on heat transfer issues and problem-solving. It includes the latest advances in the field, as well as covering subjects from microscale heat transfer to thermophysical properties of new refrigerants. An invaluable guide to this most crucial factor in virtually every industrial and environmental process.

### Details & Specs

Title:Handbook of Heat TransferFormat:HardcoverDimensions:1344 pages, 9.5 × 7.5 × 2.2 inPublished:May 22, 1998Publisher:McGraw-Hill Education

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0070535558

ISBN - 13:9780070535558

### Customer Reviews of Handbook of Heat Transfer

### Extra Content

Table of Contents

## Contributors

## Preface

### Chapter 1-Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer

#### Heat Transfer Mechanisms

##### Conduction

##### Radiation

##### Convection

##### Combined Heat Transfer Mechanisms

#### Conservation Equations

##### The Equation of Continuity

##### The Equation of Motion (Momentum Equation)

##### The Energy Equation

##### The Conservation Equations for Species

##### Use of Conservation Equations to Set Up Problems

#### Dimensionless Groups and Similarity in Heat Transfer

#### Units and Conversion Factors

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 2-Thermophysical Properties

#### Conversion Factors

#### Thermophysical Properties of Gases

#### Thermophysical Properties of Liquids

#### Thermophysical Properties of Solids

#### Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerants

#### Acknowledgements

#### Nomenclature

#### References

#### Selected Additional Sources of Thermophysical Properties

### Chapter 3-Conduction and Thermal Contact Resistance (Conductances)

#### Introduction

#### Basic Equations, Definitions, and Relationships

##### Shape Factors

##### Shape Factors for Ellipsoids: Integral Form for Numerical Calculations

##### Shape Factors for Three-Dimensional Bodies in Unbounded Domains

##### Three-Dimensional Bodies with Layers: Langmuir Method

##### Shape Factors for Two-Dimensional Systems

#### Transient Conduction

##### Introduction

##### Internal Transient Conduction

##### Lumped Capacitance Model

##### Heisler and Grober Charts--Single-Term Approximations

##### Multidimensional Systems

##### Transient One-Dimensional Conduction in Half-Spaces

##### External Transient Conduction from Long Cylinders

##### Transient External Conduction from Spheres

##### Instantaneous Thermal Resistance

##### Transient External Conduction from Isothermal Convex Bodies

#### Spreading (Constriction) Resistance

##### Introduction

##### Definitions of Spreading Resistance

##### Spreading Resistance of Isoflux Arbitrary Areas on Half-Space

##### Circular Annular Contact Areas on Half-Space

##### Doubly Connected Isoflux Contact Areas on Half-Space

##### Effect of Contact Conductance on Spreading Resistance

##### Spreading Resistance in Flux Tubes and Channels

##### Effect of Flux Distribution on Circular Contact Area on Half-Space

##### Simple Correlation Equations of Spreading Resistance for Circular Contact Area

##### Accurate Correlation Equations for Various Combinations of Contact Area, Flux Tubes, and Boundary Condition

##### General Spreading Resistance Expression for Circular Annular Area on Circular Flux Tube

##### Spreading Resistance within Two-Dimensional Channels

##### Effect of Single and Multiple Layers (Coatings) on Spreading Resistance

##### Circular Contact Area on Single Layer (Coating) on Half-Space

##### Circular Contact Area on Multiple Layers on Circular Flux Tube

##### Transient Spreading Resistance

##### Transient Spreading Resistance of Isoflux Hyperellipse Contact Area on Half-Space

##### Transient Spreading Resistance of Isoflux regular Polygonal Contact Area on Half-Space

##### Transient Spreading Resistance Within Semi-Infinite Flux Tubes and Channels

#### Contact, Gap, and Joint Resistances and Contact Conductances

##### Point and Line Contact Models

##### Thermal Contact, Gap, and Joint Conductance Models

##### Gap Conductance Model and Integral

#### Acknowledgments

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 4-Natural Convection

#### Introduction

#### Basics

##### Equations of Motion and Their Simplification

##### Problem Classification

##### Heat Transfer Correlation Method

#### External Natural Convection

##### Flat Plates

##### Cylinders

#### Open Cavity Problems

##### Cooling Channels

##### Extended Surfaces

#### Natural Convection within Enclosures

##### Introduction

##### Geometry and List of Parameters for Cavities Without Interior Solids

##### The Conduction Layer Model

##### Horizontal Rectangular Parallelepiped and Circular Cylinder Cavities

##### Heat Transfer in Vertical Rectangular Parallelepiped Cavites: zero-ninety degrees

##### Heat Transfer in Inclined Rectangular Cavities

##### Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Interior Solids at Prescribed Temperature

#### Transient Natural Convection

##### External Transient Convection

##### Internal Transient Convection

#### Natural Convection with Internal Generation

##### Internal Problems

#### Convection in Porous Media

##### Properties and Dimensionless Groups

##### External Heat Transfer Correlations

##### Internal Heat Transfer Correlations

#### Mixed Convection

##### External Flows

##### Internal Flows

#### Acknowledgments

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 5-Forced Convection, Internal Flow in Ducts

#### Introduction

##### Scope of the Chapter

##### Characteristics of Laminar Flow in Ducts

##### Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in Ducts

##### Hydraulic Diameter

##### Fluid Flow Parameters

##### Heat Transfer Parameters

##### Thermal Boundary Conditions

#### Circular Ducts

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

##### Transition Flow

#### Concentric Annular Ducts

##### Four Fundamental Thermal Boundary Conditions

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

#### Parallel Plate Ducts

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

#### Rectangular Ducts

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

#### Triangular Ducts

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

#### Elliptical Ducts

##### Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow

#### Curved Ducts and Helicoidal Pipes

##### Fully Developed Laminar Flow

##### Developing Laminar Flow

##### Turbulent Flow in Coils with Circular Cross Sections

##### Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Curved, Square, and Rectangular Ducts

##### Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Curved, Rectangular, and Square Ducts

##### Laminar Flow in Coiled Annular Ducts

##### Laminar Flow in Curved Ducts with Elliptic Cross Sections

#### Longitudinal Flow Between Cyclinders

##### Laminar Flow

##### Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

#### Internally Finned Tubes

##### Circular Ducts with Thin Longitudinal Fins

##### Square Ducts with Thin Longitudinal Fins

##### Rectangular Ducst with Longitudinal Fins from Opposite Walls

##### Circular Ducts with Longitudinal Triangular Fins

##### Circular Ducts with Twisted Tape

##### Semicircular Ducts with Internal Fins

##### Elliptical Ducts with Internal Longitudinal Fins

#### Other Singly Connected Ducts

##### Sine Ducts

##### Trapezoidal Ducts

##### Rhombic Ducts

##### Quadrilateral Ducts

##### Regular Polygonal Ducts

##### Circular Sector Ducts

##### Circular Segment Ducts

##### Annular Sector Ducts

##### Stadium-Shaped Ducts

##### Moon-Shaped Ducts

##### Corrugated Ducts

##### Parallel Plate Ducts with Spanwise Periodic Corrugations at One Wall

##### Cusped Ducts

##### Cardioid Ducts

##### Unusual Singly Connected Ducts

#### Other Doubly Connected Ducts

##### Confocal Elliptical Ducts

##### Regular Polygonal Ducts with Centered Circular Cores

##### Circular Ducts with Centered Regular Polygonal Cores

##### Isosceles Triangular Ducts with Inscribed Circular Cores

##### Elliptical Ducts with Centered Circular Cores

#### Concluding Remarks

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 6-Forced Convection, External Flows

#### Introduction

#### Definition of Terms

#### Two-Dimensional Laminar Boundary Layer

#### Two-Dimensional Boundary Layers

#### Transitional Boundary Layers

#### Complex Configurations

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 7-Radiation

#### Introduction

##### Radiation Intensity and Flux

##### Blackbody Radiation

##### Nonblack Surfaces and Materials

#### Radiative Exchange: Enclosures Containing a Nonparticipating Medium

##### Black Surfaces

##### Exchange Among Gray Diffuse Surfaces

#### Radiative Exchange with a Participating Medium

##### Fundamentals and Definitions

##### Solution Techniques for the RTE

##### Solutions to Benchmark Problems

#### Radiative Properties for Participating Media

##### Radiative Properties of Gases

##### Radiative Properties of Particulates

##### Radiative Properties of Porous Materials

##### Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Materials

#### Combined Modes with Radiation

##### The General Energy Equation

##### Interaction with Conduction and Convection

##### Interaction with Combustion and Turbulence

#### Closing Remarks

#### Appendix A: Radiative Property Tables

#### Appendix B: Radiation Configuration Factors

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 8-Microscale Transport Phenomena

#### Introduction

#### Time and Length Scales

#### Kinetic Theory

##### Formulation

##### Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline and Amorphous Solids

#### Boltzmann Transport Theory

##### General Formulation

##### Fourier and Ohm's Laws

##### Hyperbolic Heat Equation

##### Mass, Momentum, and Energy Conservation--Hydrodynamic Equations

##### Equation of Radiative Transfer for Photons and Phonons

#### Nonequilibrium Energy Transfer

##### Joule Heating in High-Field Electronic Devices

##### Radiative Heating by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

#### Summary

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 9-Heat Transfer in Porous Media

#### Introduction

#### Single-Phase Flow

##### Conduction Heat Transfer

##### Convection Heat Transfer

##### Radiation Heat Transfer

##### Two-Medium Treatment

#### Two-Phase Flow

##### Momentum Equations for Liquid-Gas Glow

##### Local Volume Averaging of Energy Equation

##### Effective Thermal Conductivity

##### Thermal Dispersion

#### Phase Change

##### Condensation at Vertical Impermeable Bounding Surfaces

##### Evaporation at Vertical Impermeable Bounding Surfaces

##### Evaporation at Horizontal Impermeable Bounding Surfaces

##### Evaporation at Thin Porous-Layer-Coated Surfaces

##### Melting and Solidification

#### Nomenclature

#### Glossary

#### References

### Chapter 10-Nonnewtonian Fluids

#### Introduction

##### Overview

##### Classification of Onnewtonian Fluids

##### Material Functions of Nonnewtonian Fluids

##### Rheological Property Measurements

##### Thermophysical Properties of Nonnewtonian Fluids

##### Governing Equations of Nonnewtonian Fluids

##### Use of Reynolds and Prandtl Numbers

##### Use of the Weissenberg Number

#### Laminar Nonnewtonian Flow in a Circular Tube

##### Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor

##### Fully Developed Heat Transfer

##### Laminar Heat Transfer in the Thermal Enrance Region

#### Laminar Nonnewtonian Flow in a Rectangular Duct

##### Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor

##### Fully Developed Heat Transfer-Purely Viscous Fluids

##### Heat Transfer in the Thermal Entrance Region-Purely Viscous Fluids

##### Laminar Heat Transfer to Viscoelastic Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

#### Turbulent Flow of Purely Viscous Fluis in Circular Tubes

##### Fully Established Friction Factor

##### Heat Transfer

#### Turbulent Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids in Circular Tubes

##### Friction Factor and Velocity Distribution

##### Heat Transfer

##### Degradation

##### Solvent Effects

##### Failure of the Reynolds-Colburn Analogy

#### Turbulent Flow of Purely Viscous Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

##### Friction Factor

##### Heat Transfer

#### Turbulent Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

##### Friction Factor

##### Heat Transfer

#### Anomalous Behavior of Aqueous Polyacrylic Acid Solutions

#### Flow over Surfaces; Free Convection; Boiling

##### Flow over Surfaces

##### Free Convection

##### Boiling

##### Suspensions and Surfactants

##### Flow of Food Products

##### Electrorheological Flows

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 11-Techniques to Enhance Heat Transfer

#### Introduction

##### General Background

##### Classification of Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques

##### Performance Evaluation Criteria

#### Treated and Structured Surfaces

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Rough Surfaces

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Extended Surfaces

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Displaced Enhancement Devices

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Flow Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Swirl-Flow Devices

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Surface-Tension Devices

#### Additives for Liquids

##### Solid Particles in Single-Phase Flow

##### Gas Bubbles in Single-Phase Flow

##### Liquid Additives for Boiling

#### Additives for Gases

##### Solid Particles in Single-Phase Flow

##### Liquid drops in Single-Phase Flow

#### Mechanical Aids

##### Stirring

##### Surface Scraping

##### Rotating Surfaces

#### Surface Vibration

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Fluid Vibration

##### Single-Phase Flow

##### Boiling

##### Condensing

#### Electric and Magnetic Fields

#### Injection

#### Suction

#### Compound Enhancement

#### Prospects for the Future

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 12-Heat Pipes

#### Introduction

#### Fundamental Operating Principles

##### Capillary Limitation

##### Other Limitations

#### Design and Manufacturing Considerations

##### Working Fluid

##### Wicking Structures

##### Materials Compatibility

##### Heat Pipe Sizes and Shapes

##### Reliability and Life Tests

#### Heat Pipe Thermal Resistance

#### Types of Heat Pipes

##### Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes

##### Micro-Heat Pipes

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 13-Heat Transfer in Packed and Fluidized Beds

#### Introduction

#### Hydrodynamics

##### Packed Beds

##### Fluidized Beds

#### Heat Transfer in Packed Beds

##### Particle-to-Fluid Heat Transfer

##### Effective Thermal Conductivity

##### Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer

##### Relative Heat Transfer

#### Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds

##### Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds

##### Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds

#### Concluding Remarks

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 14-Condensation

#### Introduction

##### Modes of Condensation

##### Condensation Curve

##### Thermal Resistance

#### Film Condensation on a Verical Plate

##### Approximate Analysis

##### Boundary Layer Analysis

#### Film Condensation on Horizontal Smooth Tubes

##### Single Tube

##### Tube Bundles

#### Film Condensation on HOrizontal Finned Tubes

##### Single Tube

#### Other Body Shapes

##### Inclined Circular Tubes

##### Inclined Upward-Facing Plates

##### Horizontal Upward-Facing Plates and Disks

##### Bottom of a Container

##### Horizontal and Inclined Downward-Facing Plates and Disks

##### General Axisymmetric Bodies

##### Horizontal and Inclined Elliptical Cylinders

##### Vertically Oriented Helical Coils

#### Consdensation with Rotation

#### Zero Gravity

#### In-Tube Condensation

##### Flow Regimes

##### Vertical Tubes

##### Horizontal Tubes

##### Pressure Losses

##### Condenser Modeling

##### Noncircular Passages

#### Direct Contract Condensation

##### Condensation on Drops (Spray Condensers)

##### Condensation on Jets and Sheets

##### Condensation on Films

##### Condensation on Vapor Bubbles

#### Condensation of Mixtures

##### Equilibrium Methods

##### Nonequilibrium Methods

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 15-Boiling

#### Introduction

##### General Considerations

##### Manifestations of Boiling Heat Transfer

##### Structure of this Chapter

#### Phase Equilibrium

##### Single-Component Systems

##### Multicomponent Systems

#### Nucleation and Bubble Growth

##### Equilibrium of a Bubble

##### Homogenous Nucleation

##### Heterogeneous Nucleation

##### Bubble Growth

##### Bubble Release Diameter and Frequency

#### Pool Boiling

##### Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Before the Critical Heat Flux Limit

##### The Critical Heat Flux Limit in Pool Boiling

##### Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Pool Boiling

#### Cross Flow Boiling

##### Heat Transfer Before the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Cross Flow Boiling

##### Critical Heat Flux in Cross Flow Boiling

##### Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Cross Flow Boiling

#### Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

##### Heat Transfer Below the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

##### Critical Heat Flux in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

##### Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

#### Thin Film Heat Transfer

##### Evaporating Liquid Films: Laminar Flow

##### Evaporating Liquid Films: Turbulent Flow

##### Evaporating Liquid Films: Multicomponent Mixtures

##### Evaporating Liquid Films with Nucleate Boiling

##### Heat Transfer to a Nonevaporating (Subcooled) Falling Liquid Film

##### Film Breakdown

#### Rewettng of Hot Surfaces

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 16-Measurement of Temperature and Heat Transfer

#### Introduction

#### Temperature Measurement

##### Basic Concepts and Definitions

##### Standards and Temperature Scales

##### Sensors

##### Local Temperature Measurement

##### Calibration of Thermometers and Assurance of Measurements

#### Heat Flux Measurement

##### Basic Principles

##### Methods

##### Thermal Resistance Gauges

#### Measurement by Analogy

##### Introduction

##### Sublimation Technique

##### Electrochemical Technique

#### Acknowledgments

#### Nomenclature

#### List of Abbreviations

#### References

### Chapter 17-Heat Exchangers

#### Introduction

#### Classification of Heat Exchangers

##### Shell-and-Tube Exchangers

##### Newer Designs of Shell-and-Tube Exchangers

##### Compact Heat Exchangers

#### Exchanger Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Analysis

##### Heat Transfer Analysis

##### The e-NTU, P-NTU, and MTD Methods

##### Fin Efficiency and Extended Surface Efficiency

##### Extensions of the Basic Recuperator Thermal Design Theory

##### e-NTU, and lambda-pi Methods for Regeneration

##### Single-Phase Pressure Drop Analysis

#### Single-Phase Surface Basic Heat Transfer and Flow Friction Characteristics

##### Experimental Methods

##### Analytical Solutions

##### Experimental Correlations

##### Influence of Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties

##### Influence of Superimposed Free Convection

#### Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Correlations

##### Flow Patterns

##### Two-Phase Pressure Drop Correlations

##### Heat Transfer Correlations for Condensation

##### Heat Transfer Correlations for Boiling

#### Thermal Design for Single-Phase Heat Exchangers

##### Exchanger Design Methodolgy

##### Extended Surface Heat Exchangers

##### Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

#### Thermal Design for Two-Phase Heat Exchangers

##### Condensers

##### Vaporizers

#### Flow-Induced Vibration

##### Tube Vibration

##### Acoustic Vibrations

##### Design Guidlines for Vibration Mitigation

#### Flow Maldistribution

##### Geometry-Induced Flow Maldistribution

##### Flow Maldistribution Induced by Operating Conditions

##### Mitigation of Flow Maldistribution

#### Fouling and Corrosion

##### Fouling

##### Corrosion

#### Concluding Remarks

#### Nomenclature

#### References

### Chapter 18-Heat Transfer in Materials Processing

#### Introduction

#### Heat Transfer Fundamentals Relevant to Materials Processing

##### Conduction Heat Transfer

##### Conduction Heat Transfer in Beam-Irradiated Materials

##### Conduction Heat Transfer with Thermomechanical Effects

##### Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer

##### Two-Phase Convective Heat Transfer

##### Radiation Heat Transfer

#### System-Level Thermal Phenomena

##### Heating of a Load Inside Industrial Furnaces

##### Quenching

##### Processing of Several Advanced Materials

#### Concluding Remarks

#### Nomenclature

#### References

## Index

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