Handbook of Heat Transfer by Warren Rohsenow

Handbook of Heat Transfer

byWarren Rohsenow, James Hartnett, Young Cho

Hardcover | May 22, 1998

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This wholly revised edition of a classic handbook reference, written by some of the most eminent practitioners in the field, is designed to be your all-in-one source book on heat transfer issues and problem-solving. It includes the latest advances in the field, as well as covering subjects from microscale heat transfer to thermophysical properties of new refrigerants. An invaluable guide to this most crucial factor in virtually every industrial and environmental process.

About The Author

Warren M. Rohsenow is a former professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Heat Transfer Laboratory at MIT. Dr. Rohsenow received the Max Jacob Memorial Award for his work in heat transfer. James P. Hartnett is director of the Energy Resource Center and was professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Illi...

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Title:Handbook of Heat TransferFormat:HardcoverDimensions:1344 pages, 9.5 × 7.5 × 2.2 inPublished:May 22, 1998Publisher:McGraw-Hill Education

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0070535558

ISBN - 13:9780070535558

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Extra Content

Table of Contents



Chapter 1-Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Combined Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Conservation Equations

The Equation of Continuity
The Equation of Motion (Momentum Equation)
The Energy Equation
The Conservation Equations for Species
Use of Conservation Equations to Set Up Problems

Dimensionless Groups and Similarity in Heat Transfer

Units and Conversion Factors



Chapter 2-Thermophysical Properties

Conversion Factors

Thermophysical Properties of Gases

Thermophysical Properties of Liquids

Thermophysical Properties of Solids

Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerants




Selected Additional Sources of Thermophysical Properties

Chapter 3-Conduction and Thermal Contact Resistance (Conductances)


Basic Equations, Definitions, and Relationships

Shape Factors
Shape Factors for Ellipsoids: Integral Form for Numerical Calculations
Shape Factors for Three-Dimensional Bodies in Unbounded Domains
Three-Dimensional Bodies with Layers: Langmuir Method
Shape Factors for Two-Dimensional Systems

Transient Conduction

Internal Transient Conduction
Lumped Capacitance Model
Heisler and Grober Charts--Single-Term Approximations
Multidimensional Systems
Transient One-Dimensional Conduction in Half-Spaces
External Transient Conduction from Long Cylinders
Transient External Conduction from Spheres
Instantaneous Thermal Resistance
Transient External Conduction from Isothermal Convex Bodies

Spreading (Constriction) Resistance

Definitions of Spreading Resistance
Spreading Resistance of Isoflux Arbitrary Areas on Half-Space
Circular Annular Contact Areas on Half-Space
Doubly Connected Isoflux Contact Areas on Half-Space
Effect of Contact Conductance on Spreading Resistance
Spreading Resistance in Flux Tubes and Channels
Effect of Flux Distribution on Circular Contact Area on Half-Space
Simple Correlation Equations of Spreading Resistance for Circular Contact Area
Accurate Correlation Equations for Various Combinations of Contact Area, Flux Tubes, and Boundary Condition
General Spreading Resistance Expression for Circular Annular Area on Circular Flux Tube
Spreading Resistance within Two-Dimensional Channels
Effect of Single and Multiple Layers (Coatings) on Spreading Resistance
Circular Contact Area on Single Layer (Coating) on Half-Space
Circular Contact Area on Multiple Layers on Circular Flux Tube
Transient Spreading Resistance
Transient Spreading Resistance of Isoflux Hyperellipse Contact Area on Half-Space
Transient Spreading Resistance of Isoflux regular Polygonal Contact Area on Half-Space
Transient Spreading Resistance Within Semi-Infinite Flux Tubes and Channels

Contact, Gap, and Joint Resistances and Contact Conductances

Point and Line Contact Models
Thermal Contact, Gap, and Joint Conductance Models
Gap Conductance Model and Integral




Chapter 4-Natural Convection



Equations of Motion and Their Simplification
Problem Classification
Heat Transfer Correlation Method

External Natural Convection

Flat Plates

Open Cavity Problems

Cooling Channels
Extended Surfaces

Natural Convection within Enclosures

Geometry and List of Parameters for Cavities Without Interior Solids
The Conduction Layer Model
Horizontal Rectangular Parallelepiped and Circular Cylinder Cavities
Heat Transfer in Vertical Rectangular Parallelepiped Cavites: zero-ninety degrees
Heat Transfer in Inclined Rectangular Cavities
Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Interior Solids at Prescribed Temperature

Transient Natural Convection

External Transient Convection
Internal Transient Convection

Natural Convection with Internal Generation

Internal Problems

Convection in Porous Media

Properties and Dimensionless Groups
External Heat Transfer Correlations
Internal Heat Transfer Correlations

Mixed Convection

External Flows
Internal Flows




Chapter 5-Forced Convection, Internal Flow in Ducts


Scope of the Chapter
Characteristics of Laminar Flow in Ducts
Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in Ducts
Hydraulic Diameter
Fluid Flow Parameters
Heat Transfer Parameters
Thermal Boundary Conditions

Circular Ducts

Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
Transition Flow

Concentric Annular Ducts

Four Fundamental Thermal Boundary Conditions
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow

Parallel Plate Ducts

Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow

Rectangular Ducts

Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow

Triangular Ducts

Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow

Elliptical Ducts

Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow

Curved Ducts and Helicoidal Pipes

Fully Developed Laminar Flow
Developing Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow in Coils with Circular Cross Sections
Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Curved, Square, and Rectangular Ducts
Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Curved, Rectangular, and Square Ducts
Laminar Flow in Coiled Annular Ducts
Laminar Flow in Curved Ducts with Elliptic Cross Sections

Longitudinal Flow Between Cyclinders

Laminar Flow
Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

Internally Finned Tubes

Circular Ducts with Thin Longitudinal Fins
Square Ducts with Thin Longitudinal Fins
Rectangular Ducst with Longitudinal Fins from Opposite Walls
Circular Ducts with Longitudinal Triangular Fins
Circular Ducts with Twisted Tape
Semicircular Ducts with Internal Fins
Elliptical Ducts with Internal Longitudinal Fins

Other Singly Connected Ducts

Sine Ducts
Trapezoidal Ducts
Rhombic Ducts
Quadrilateral Ducts
Regular Polygonal Ducts
Circular Sector Ducts
Circular Segment Ducts
Annular Sector Ducts
Stadium-Shaped Ducts
Moon-Shaped Ducts
Corrugated Ducts
Parallel Plate Ducts with Spanwise Periodic Corrugations at One Wall
Cusped Ducts
Cardioid Ducts
Unusual Singly Connected Ducts

Other Doubly Connected Ducts

Confocal Elliptical Ducts
Regular Polygonal Ducts with Centered Circular Cores
Circular Ducts with Centered Regular Polygonal Cores
Isosceles Triangular Ducts with Inscribed Circular Cores
Elliptical Ducts with Centered Circular Cores

Concluding Remarks



Chapter 6-Forced Convection, External Flows


Definition of Terms

Two-Dimensional Laminar Boundary Layer

Two-Dimensional Boundary Layers

Transitional Boundary Layers

Complex Configurations



Chapter 7-Radiation


Radiation Intensity and Flux
Blackbody Radiation
Nonblack Surfaces and Materials

Radiative Exchange: Enclosures Containing a Nonparticipating Medium

Black Surfaces
Exchange Among Gray Diffuse Surfaces

Radiative Exchange with a Participating Medium

Fundamentals and Definitions
Solution Techniques for the RTE
Solutions to Benchmark Problems

Radiative Properties for Participating Media

Radiative Properties of Gases
Radiative Properties of Particulates
Radiative Properties of Porous Materials
Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Materials

Combined Modes with Radiation

The General Energy Equation
Interaction with Conduction and Convection
Interaction with Combustion and Turbulence

Closing Remarks

Appendix A: Radiative Property Tables

Appendix B: Radiation Configuration Factors



Chapter 8-Microscale Transport Phenomena


Time and Length Scales

Kinetic Theory

Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline and Amorphous Solids

Boltzmann Transport Theory

General Formulation
Fourier and Ohm's Laws
Hyperbolic Heat Equation
Mass, Momentum, and Energy Conservation--Hydrodynamic Equations
Equation of Radiative Transfer for Photons and Phonons

Nonequilibrium Energy Transfer

Joule Heating in High-Field Electronic Devices
Radiative Heating by Ultrashort Laser Pulses




Chapter 9-Heat Transfer in Porous Media


Single-Phase Flow

Conduction Heat Transfer
Convection Heat Transfer
Radiation Heat Transfer
Two-Medium Treatment

Two-Phase Flow

Momentum Equations for Liquid-Gas Glow
Local Volume Averaging of Energy Equation
Effective Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Dispersion

Phase Change

Condensation at Vertical Impermeable Bounding Surfaces
Evaporation at Vertical Impermeable Bounding Surfaces
Evaporation at Horizontal Impermeable Bounding Surfaces
Evaporation at Thin Porous-Layer-Coated Surfaces
Melting and Solidification




Chapter 10-Nonnewtonian Fluids


Classification of Onnewtonian Fluids
Material Functions of Nonnewtonian Fluids
Rheological Property Measurements
Thermophysical Properties of Nonnewtonian Fluids
Governing Equations of Nonnewtonian Fluids
Use of Reynolds and Prandtl Numbers
Use of the Weissenberg Number

Laminar Nonnewtonian Flow in a Circular Tube

Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor
Fully Developed Heat Transfer
Laminar Heat Transfer in the Thermal Enrance Region

Laminar Nonnewtonian Flow in a Rectangular Duct

Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor
Fully Developed Heat Transfer-Purely Viscous Fluids
Heat Transfer in the Thermal Entrance Region-Purely Viscous Fluids
Laminar Heat Transfer to Viscoelastic Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

Turbulent Flow of Purely Viscous Fluis in Circular Tubes

Fully Established Friction Factor
Heat Transfer

Turbulent Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids in Circular Tubes

Friction Factor and Velocity Distribution
Heat Transfer
Solvent Effects
Failure of the Reynolds-Colburn Analogy

Turbulent Flow of Purely Viscous Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

Friction Factor
Heat Transfer

Turbulent Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids in Rectangular Ducts

Friction Factor
Heat Transfer

Anomalous Behavior of Aqueous Polyacrylic Acid Solutions

Flow over Surfaces; Free Convection; Boiling

Flow over Surfaces
Free Convection
Suspensions and Surfactants
Flow of Food Products
Electrorheological Flows



Chapter 11-Techniques to Enhance Heat Transfer


General Background
Classification of Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques
Performance Evaluation Criteria

Treated and Structured Surfaces


Rough Surfaces

Single-Phase Flow

Extended Surfaces

Single-Phase Flow

Displaced Enhancement Devices

Single-Phase Flow
Flow Boiling

Swirl-Flow Devices

Single-Phase Flow

Surface-Tension Devices

Additives for Liquids

Solid Particles in Single-Phase Flow
Gas Bubbles in Single-Phase Flow
Liquid Additives for Boiling

Additives for Gases

Solid Particles in Single-Phase Flow
Liquid drops in Single-Phase Flow

Mechanical Aids

Surface Scraping
Rotating Surfaces

Surface Vibration

Single-Phase Flow

Fluid Vibration

Single-Phase Flow

Electric and Magnetic Fields



Compound Enhancement

Prospects for the Future



Chapter 12-Heat Pipes


Fundamental Operating Principles

Capillary Limitation
Other Limitations

Design and Manufacturing Considerations

Working Fluid
Wicking Structures
Materials Compatibility
Heat Pipe Sizes and Shapes
Reliability and Life Tests

Heat Pipe Thermal Resistance

Types of Heat Pipes

Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes
Micro-Heat Pipes



Chapter 13-Heat Transfer in Packed and Fluidized Beds



Packed Beds
Fluidized Beds

Heat Transfer in Packed Beds

Particle-to-Fluid Heat Transfer
Effective Thermal Conductivity
Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer
Relative Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds

Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds
Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds

Concluding Remarks



Chapter 14-Condensation


Modes of Condensation
Condensation Curve
Thermal Resistance

Film Condensation on a Verical Plate

Approximate Analysis
Boundary Layer Analysis

Film Condensation on Horizontal Smooth Tubes

Single Tube
Tube Bundles

Film Condensation on HOrizontal Finned Tubes

Single Tube

Other Body Shapes

Inclined Circular Tubes
Inclined Upward-Facing Plates
Horizontal Upward-Facing Plates and Disks
Bottom of a Container
Horizontal and Inclined Downward-Facing Plates and Disks
General Axisymmetric Bodies
Horizontal and Inclined Elliptical Cylinders
Vertically Oriented Helical Coils

Consdensation with Rotation

Zero Gravity

In-Tube Condensation

Flow Regimes
Vertical Tubes
Horizontal Tubes
Pressure Losses
Condenser Modeling
Noncircular Passages

Direct Contract Condensation

Condensation on Drops (Spray Condensers)
Condensation on Jets and Sheets
Condensation on Films
Condensation on Vapor Bubbles

Condensation of Mixtures

Equilibrium Methods
Nonequilibrium Methods



Chapter 15-Boiling


General Considerations
Manifestations of Boiling Heat Transfer
Structure of this Chapter

Phase Equilibrium

Single-Component Systems
Multicomponent Systems

Nucleation and Bubble Growth

Equilibrium of a Bubble
Homogenous Nucleation
Heterogeneous Nucleation
Bubble Growth
Bubble Release Diameter and Frequency

Pool Boiling

Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Before the Critical Heat Flux Limit
The Critical Heat Flux Limit in Pool Boiling
Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Pool Boiling

Cross Flow Boiling

Heat Transfer Before the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Cross Flow Boiling
Critical Heat Flux in Cross Flow Boiling
Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Cross Flow Boiling

Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

Heat Transfer Below the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels
Critical Heat Flux in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels
Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux Limit in Forced Convective Boiling in Channels

Thin Film Heat Transfer

Evaporating Liquid Films: Laminar Flow
Evaporating Liquid Films: Turbulent Flow
Evaporating Liquid Films: Multicomponent Mixtures
Evaporating Liquid Films with Nucleate Boiling
Heat Transfer to a Nonevaporating (Subcooled) Falling Liquid Film
Film Breakdown

Rewettng of Hot Surfaces



Chapter 16-Measurement of Temperature and Heat Transfer


Temperature Measurement

Basic Concepts and Definitions
Standards and Temperature Scales
Local Temperature Measurement
Calibration of Thermometers and Assurance of Measurements

Heat Flux Measurement

Basic Principles
Thermal Resistance Gauges

Measurement by Analogy

Sublimation Technique
Electrochemical Technique



List of Abbreviations


Chapter 17-Heat Exchangers


Classification of Heat Exchangers

Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
Newer Designs of Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
Compact Heat Exchangers

Exchanger Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Analysis

Heat Transfer Analysis
The e-NTU, P-NTU, and MTD Methods
Fin Efficiency and Extended Surface Efficiency
Extensions of the Basic Recuperator Thermal Design Theory
e-NTU, and lambda-pi Methods for Regeneration
Single-Phase Pressure Drop Analysis

Single-Phase Surface Basic Heat Transfer and Flow Friction Characteristics

Experimental Methods
Analytical Solutions
Experimental Correlations
Influence of Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties
Influence of Superimposed Free Convection

Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Correlations

Flow Patterns
Two-Phase Pressure Drop Correlations
Heat Transfer Correlations for Condensation
Heat Transfer Correlations for Boiling

Thermal Design for Single-Phase Heat Exchangers

Exchanger Design Methodolgy
Extended Surface Heat Exchangers
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

Thermal Design for Two-Phase Heat Exchangers


Flow-Induced Vibration

Tube Vibration
Acoustic Vibrations
Design Guidlines for Vibration Mitigation

Flow Maldistribution

Geometry-Induced Flow Maldistribution
Flow Maldistribution Induced by Operating Conditions
Mitigation of Flow Maldistribution

Fouling and Corrosion


Concluding Remarks



Chapter 18-Heat Transfer in Materials Processing


Heat Transfer Fundamentals Relevant to Materials Processing

Conduction Heat Transfer
Conduction Heat Transfer in Beam-Irradiated Materials
Conduction Heat Transfer with Thermomechanical Effects
Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer
Two-Phase Convective Heat Transfer
Radiation Heat Transfer

System-Level Thermal Phenomena

Heating of a Load Inside Industrial Furnaces
Processing of Several Advanced Materials

Concluding Remarks




From Our Editors

The third edition of the Handbook of Heat Transfer is a comprehensive reference source covering all aspects of heat transfer problem-solving in engineering. It provides full information on topics such as heat transfer principals, thermophysical properties of new refrigerants, techniques to augment heat transfer, heat pipes, heat exchanges, heat transfer in porous media and non-Newtonian fluids.