The Handbook analyses the status of the Muslims in India by looking at the discussion initiated by the 2006 report of the Prime Minister's High Level Committee on the Status of Muslims in India, headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar. The Sachar Committee Report used large-scale empirical data toanalyze the socio-economic conditions of the Indian Muslims, thus highlighting the heterogeneity within the community. This volume takes the debate initiated by the Report further, bringing together the most recent empirical work on equity-related concerns with a focus on human developmentparameters, in a comprehensive and thematic manner. The first section examines the socio-historical context of Muslims in India, thus setting the tone for analysis of their demographic and educational conditions in a comparative perspective. The second and third sections analyse the socio-economic conditions of the Muslims by exploring the variousdimensions of the labour and employment market. The final section considers the policy options that are available to improve the condition of the Indian Muslims.