Hess's Paint Film Defects: Their Causes And Cure by H. R. HamburgHess's Paint Film Defects: Their Causes And Cure by H. R. Hamburg

Hess's Paint Film Defects: Their Causes And Cure

EditorH. R. Hamburg

Paperback | October 12, 2011

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Since publication of the first English edition this book has become the standard reference work on paint film defects throughout the world. The very considerable advances in coatings technology since the second English edition was published in 1965 have necessitated a revision of the book, a task which from the outset was recognized as formidable. The very wide field to be covered required specialist knowledge as well as wide experience, and we were fortunate in being able to enlist the services of a group of contributors who were well qualified for the task. Due to his advancing age Mr Manfred Hess, the originator of this work, felt unable to take an active part in the preparation of the new edition. He entrusted not only a large part of the necessarily extensive revision of the text, but also the editorial work, the planning and compilation of the index to us jointly. A variety of causes has prevented the main contributors to the second edition, Mr W.A. Edwards and Mr T .W. Wilkinson, from revising their sections. Nevertheless, much of what they and others have contributed to previous editions has enabled us to build on valuable foundations. Much new material has been added; the illustrations section has been expanded and enhanced by the addition of several colour plates. Mr S.T. Harris revised the sections concerned with industrial finishes and in particular powder coatings, and Dr T.A. Banfield contributed the sections on marine paints and compositions.
Title:Hess's Paint Film Defects: Their Causes And CureFormat:PaperbackDimensions:9.25 × 6.1 × 0.68 inPublished:October 12, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400957505

ISBN - 13:9789400957503

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Table of Contents

1 Faults which develop during storage.- 1.1 Cloudiness and sedimentation in varnishes and boiled oils.- 1.2 Thickening, possibly caused by separation, in oleoresinous and synthetic varnishes.- 1.3 Changes of consistency.- 1.4 Separation, sedimentation, precipitation, clouding of liquid driers.- 1.5 Changes of consistency of bitumen and pitch varnishes.- 1.6 The fall of viscosity during storage of cellulose lacquers.- 1.7 Skinning of varnishes, paints, fillers and putties.- 1.8 Settling, changes of viscosity, colour and finish of solvent-based paints.- 1.9 Storage problems of water-based paints.- 1.10 Darkening and other changes of varnishes, paints and thinners.- 1.11 Seediness, bittiness, pigment flocculation.- 2 Difficulties arising during application.- 2.1 Faulty handling of containers.- 2.2 Damage to paint rollers.- 2.3 Damage to brushes.- 2.4 Spraying techniques and spraygun problems.- 2.5 Electrostatic spraying difficulties.- 2.6 Dry spray and cobwebbing.- 2.7 Formation of spraying mist, and exhaust faults.- 2.8 Dipping, flowcoating and curtain coating.- 2.9 Electrocoating and fluidized bed coating.- 2.10 Coil-coating.- 2.11 Foaming of coatings.- 2.12 Sticking together of enamelled parts in a tumbling machine.- 3 Difficulties mainly due to faults in the liquid paints.- 3.1 Excessively thin consistency (as received).- 3.2 Faults due to excessive addition of thinners or additives.- 3.3 Curtaining, running and sagging on vertical surfaces; pulling away from sharp edges and corners; bad flow.- 3.4 Formation of drops on dipping of well-bodied coatings.- 3.5 Difficulties of application due to cold winter temperatures.- 3.6 Brushmarks, bad brushability, wet edge time.- 3.7 Bad flow of varnishes, lacquers and powder coatings. Effect of surface irregularities.- 3.8 Pinholing, pockmarking, cratering, cracked blisters.- 3.9 Cissing and beading.- 4 Faults related to drying and curing.- 4.1 Excessive drying periods - air drying.- 4.2 Excessive stoving or heat conversion times.- 4.3 Tackiness, softness, insufficient hardening of oxidizable air drying paints.- 4.4 Loss of gloss, dulling, matting, differences in gloss of stoved coatings.- 4.5 Flooding and flotation; mottling; silking; striations.- 4.6 Wrinkling, rivelling, webbing, frosting and gas checking of oil-base paints, synthetic resin and bituminous enamels.- 4.7 Sandy, dirty and bitty films, seeding.- 4.8 Lifting of paint films.- 4.9 Bleeding of dyes and pigments contained in coloured coatings.- 4.10 Yellowing and discoloration of coatings during convection stoving or at elevated temperatures.- 4.11 Blooming of stoving enamels (mainly blacks) in gas ovens.- 4.12 Failures in connection with the peculiarities of drying by infra-red radiation.- 4.13 Comparison of the various artificial drying methods.- 4.14 Damage caused by the stoving of coated pure aluminium, aluminium alloy and magnesium alloy.- 5 Defects apparent shortly after application.- 5.1 Formation of blisters and blowholes in filler coats on porous substrates.- 5.2 Blistering, sometimes followed by destruction and lifting.- 5.3 Lack of opacity or hiding or obliterating power.- 5.4 Lack of filling power (or film build).- 5.5 Patchiness in the form of lighter or duller areas in films on newly finished or refinished motor cars, etc..- 5.6 Spotted, cloudy and/or greyish wood lacquer films.- 5.7 Blushing, milkiness and dulling, especially of clear lacquer.- 5.8 Differences of shade in paints by comparison with a standard.- 5.9 Iridescence, rainbow effects, on films of transparent lacquers.- 5.10 Various degrees of gloss and appearance of black enamels.- 5.11 Difficulties on rubbing down of fillers and undercoatings.- 5.12 Difficult polishing of films, smearing on polishing.- 5.13 Difficulties encountered in the forming of coated sheets.- 5.14 Faults in vacuum evaporated metal-lacquer-film systems.- 5.15 Faults characteristic of metallic, hammer and polychromatic paints.- 5.16 Defects developed on wrinkle (ripple, rivel or crinkle) finishes.- 5.17 Some lacquer defects occurring on plastic articles.- 5.18 Loss of gloss and matting of air-drying finishes.- 5.19 Difficulties in coating plastics, or wood impregnated or bonded with plastic.- 5.20 Various difficulties connected with the varnishing of paper, fibreboard or metal.- 5.21 Sweating out, patchiness and dulling of various lacquers, due to oil, wax etc..- 6 Defects related mainly to poor adhesion.- 6.1 Brittleness, poor adhesion, flaking, peeling etc., in solvent-type paints.- 6.2 Unsatisfactory adhesion, brittleness, flaking off etc. on coated metals.- 6.3 Insufficient adhesion to zinc, zinc alloys and galvanized sheets.- 6.4 Insufficient adhesion to smooth, frequently polished metal surfaces.- 6.5 Poor adhesion of stoving finishes on brass surfaces.- 6.6 Bad adhesion to lead or leaded surfaces.- 6.7 Delayed loss of adhesion of paint films over some metals.- 7 Defects of coatings developing in service.- 7.1 Pigment volume concentration (PVC) in relation to film properties.- 7.2 The porosity of surface coatings.- 7.3 Some general reasons for the premature destruction of paint films applied to building structures.- 7.4 Swelling and poor resistance of paint and varnish films exposed to water and moist atmospheres.- 7.5 Blooming, hazing and bronzing of paints and varnishes.- 7.6 Chalking and erosion.- 7.7 Breakdown of water-based and solvent-based paints on new or damp brickwork, concrete, cement-rendered surfaces, asbestos cement, lime plaster.- 7.8 Failures of paint systems on calcium sulphate plasters.- 7.9 Corrosion of painted iron and steel.- 7.10 Lack of effectiveness of chemical pretreatment of steel.- 7.11 Corrosion and efflorescence followed by blistering and lifting of paint and lacquer films on magnesium and aluminium alloys as well as on refined aluminium.- 7.12 Flaking and peeling of air-drying coatings on wood.- 7.13 Flaking and peeling involving water-based coatings.- 7.14 Cracking; alligatoring; checking; embrittlement.- 7.15 Cracking and flaking of lacquer films.- 7.16 Pronounced cracking, alligatoring or checking, staining or formation of brown weathered-out layers of bituminous or tar paints.- 7.17 Colour changes - fading, yellowing and darkening.- 7.18 Mildew (fungi, moulds), algae and moss growth, bacterial and termite activity on paint films.- 7.19 Decay or rotting of wood beneath paint films.- 7.20 Coloured stains on paintwork (as distinct from mould growth).- 7.21 Staining through all kinds of paint films.- 7.22 Tarnishing and other blemishes of metals coated with transparent lacquers.- 7.23 Susceptibility to heat and pressure. Film hardness generally.- 7.24 Faults developing in paints exposed to heat, e.g. on radiators or fires.- 7.25 Lack of solvent and lubricating oil resistance.- 7.26 Faulty resistance to acids and alkalis.- 7.27 Paint failures on photographic equipment.- 7.28 Influence on the taste of food of stoving canning lacquers.- 7.29 Defects caused by faulty application of electrical insulating varnishes.- 7.30 Defects on windings and electrical apparatus due to softening of wire enamel.- 7.31 Defects of impregnations with varnish which develop during service.- 7.32 Defects in oil immersed windings.- 7.33 Open circuits in high speed armatures.- 7.34 Various defects in connection with coating of aircraft.- 7.35 (A) Premature decay of coatings, especially on vehicles.- 7.35 (B) Motor car finishing and refinishing.- 7.36 Paints for railway rolling stock.- 7.37 (A) Ship's hulls (steel) and underwater structures: preparation and protection against corrosion.- 7.37 (B) Ship's hulls and underwater structures: protection against fouling.- 7.38 Ship's holds and superstructures.- 7.39 Destruction of the hulls of wooden ships, harbour constructions and marine piling by marine borers.- 7.40 Paints for steel bridges.- 7.41 Flame retardant paints.- 7.42 Failures due to inadequate specifications.- 7.43 Cost of painting and excessive consumption of material.- 7.44 Practical rules for prevention of fires and explosions in painting shops.- 8 Hazards to the paint user.- 8.1 Toxic hazards.- 8.2 Hazards of fire and explosion.- 8.3 Protective equipment.- 8.4 First aid.- 8.5 Spillages and pollution.- 8.6 References.- Author Index.