Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Paperback | December 29, 2015

byGerd Gigerenzer, Ralph Hertwig, Thorsten Pachur

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How do people make decisions when time is limited, information unreliable, and the future uncertain? Based on the work of Nobel laureate Herbert Simon and with the help of colleagues around the world, the Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) Group at the Max Planck Institute for HumanDevelopment in Berlin has developed a research program on simple heuristics, also known as fast and frugal heuristics. In the social sciences, heuristics have been believed to be generally inferior to complex methods for inference, or even irrational. Although this may be true in "small worlds"where everything is known for certain, we show that in the actual world in which we live, full of uncertainties and surprises, heuristics are indispensable and often more accurate than complex methods. Contrary to a deeply entrenched belief, complex problems do not necessitate complex computations.Less can be more. Simple heuristics exploit the information structure of the environment, and thus embody ecological rather than logical rationality. Simon (1999) applauded this new program as a "revolution in cognitive science, striking a great blow for sanity in the approach to human rationality."By providing a fresh look at how the mind works as well as the nature of rationality, the simple heuristics program has stimulated a large body of research, led to fascinating applications in diverse fields from law to medicine to business to sports, and instigated controversial debates inpsychology, philosophy, and economics. In a single volume, the present reader compiles key articles that have been published in journals across many disciplines. These articles present theory, real-world applications, and a sample of the large number of existing experimental studies that provideevidence for people's adaptive use of heuristics.

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How do people make decisions when time is limited, information unreliable, and the future uncertain? Based on the work of Nobel laureate Herbert Simon and with the help of colleagues around the world, the Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) Group at the Max Planck Institute for HumanDevelopment in Berlin has developed a research prog...

Gerd Gigerenzer is Director of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, and former Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago. He won the AAAS Prize for the best article in the behavioral sciences and the Association of American Publishers Prize for the best b...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:872 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.68 inPublished:December 29, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019049462X

ISBN - 13:9780190494629

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Table of Contents

IntroductionList of ContributorsAppetizer1. Gerd Gigerenzer, and Henry Brighton: Homo heuristicus: Why Biased Minds Make Better InferencesPart I: TheoryOpening the adaptive toolbox2. Gerd Gigerenzer, and Daniel G. Goldstein: Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality3. Daniel Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer: Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic4. Lael J. Schooler and R. Hertwig: How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference5. John M.C. Hutchinson and Gerd Gigerenzer: Simple Heuristics and Rules of Thumb: Where Psychologists and Behavioral Biologists Might Meet6. Laura Martignon, Oliver Vitouch, Masinori Takezawa, and Malcolm R. Forster: Naive and Yet Enlightened: From Natural Frequencies to Fast and Frugal Decision Trees7. Eduard Brandst,tter, Gerd Gigerenzer, and Ralph Hertwig: The Priority Heuristic: Making Choices without Trade-Offs8. Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos and Gerd Gigerenzer: One-Reason Decision making: Modeling Violations of Expected Utility Theory9. Daniel Read and Yael Grushka-Cockayne: The Similarity Heuristic10. Ulrich Hoffrage, Ralph Hertwig, and Gerd Gigerenzer: Hindsight Bias: A By-Product of Knowledge Updating?How are heuristics selected?11. JUrg Rieskamp and Philipp E. Otto: SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select StrategiesPart II: TestsWhen do heuristics work?12. Laura Martignon and Ulrich Hoffrage: Fast, Frugal, and Fit: Simple Heuristics for Paired Comparison13. Robin M. Hogarth and Natalia Karelaia: Heuristic and Linear Lodels of Judgment: Matching Rules and Environments14. Laura Martignon, Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulo, and Jan K. Woike: Categorization with Limited Resources: A Family of Simple Heuristics15. Timothy J. Pleskac: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Recognition Heuristic16. Rachel McCloy, C. Philip Beaman, and T. Smith: The Relative Success of Recognition-Based Iinference in Multichoice DecisionsWhen do people rely on one good reason?17. Arndt Broder: The Quest for Take-the-Best18. Ben R. Newell, Nicola J. Weston, and David R. Shanks: Empirical Tests of a Fast and Frugal Heuristic: Not Everyone "Takes-the-Best"19. F. Bryan Bergert and Robert M. Nosofsky: A Response-Time Approach to Comparing Generalized Rational and Take-the-Best Models of Decision Making20. Arndt Broder and Wolfgang Gaissmaier: Sequential Processing of Cues in Memory-Based Multi-Attribute Decisions21. Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Masanori Takezawa, and Gerd Gigerenzer: Does Imitation Benefit Cue-OrderLlearning?22. Rui Mata, Lael J. Schooler, and Jorg Rieskamp: The Aging Decision Maker: Cognitive Aging and the Adaptive Selection of Decision StrategiesWhen do people rely on name recognition?23. Thorsten Pachur and Ralph Hertwig: On the Psychology of the Recognition Heuristic: Retrieval Primacy as a Key Determinant of its Use24. Thorsten Pachur, Arndt Broder, and Julian N. Marewski: The Recognition Heuristic in Memory-Based Inference: Is Recognition a Non-Compensatory Cue?25. Kirsten G. Volz, Lael J. Schooler, Ricarda I. Schubotz, Markus Raab, Gerd Gigerenzer, and D. Yves von Cramon: Why You Think Milan is Larger than Modena: Neural Correlates of the Recognition Heuristic26. Ralph Hertwig, Stefan M. Herzog, Lael J. Schooler, and Torsten Reimer: Fluency Heuristic: A Model of How the Mind Exploits a By-Product of Information Retrieval27. Torsten Reimer and Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos: The Use of Recognition in Group Decision MakingPart III: Heuristics in the WildCrime28. Mandeep K. Dhami: Psychological Models of Professional Decision Making29. Brent Snook, Paul J. Taylor, and Craig Bennel: Geographic Profiling: The Fast, Frugal, and Accurate Way30. Rocio Garcia-Retamero and Mandeep K. Dhami: Take-the-Best in Expert-Novice Decision Strategies for Residential BurglarySports31. Benjamin Scheibehenne and Arndt Broder: Predicting Wimbledon Tennis Results 2005 by Player Name Recognition32. W.M. Bennis and Torsten Pachur: Heuristics in Sports That Help Ws Win33. Dennis M. Shaffer, Scott M. Krauchunas, Marianna Eddy, and Michael K. McBeath: How Dogs Navigate to Catch FrisbeesInvestment34. Victor DeMiguel, Lorenzo Garlappi, and Raman Uppal: Optimal versus Naive Diversification: How Inefficient in the 1/N Portfolio Strategy?35. Ralph Hertwig, Jennifer Nerissa Davis, and Frank J. Sulloway: Parental Investment: How an Equity Motive Can Produce Inequality36. Markus Wbben and Florian v. Wangenheim: Instant Customer Base analysis: Managerial Heuristics Often "Get It Right"Everyday things37. Daniel Pichert and Konstantinois V. Katsikopoulos: Green Defaults: Information Presentation and Pro-Environmental Behavior38. Alejandro Lopez-Rousseau and Timothy Ketelaar: "IfEL": Satisficing Algorithms for Mapping Conditional Statements onto Social Domains39. Michael D. Lee, Natasha Loughlin, and Ingrid B. Lundberg: Applying One-Reason Decision Making: The Prioritisation of Literature Searches40. Peter M. Todd, Francesco C. Billari, and Jorge Simuo: Aggregate Age-at-Marriage Patterns from Individual Mate-Search HeuristicsReferencesName indexSubject index

Editorial Reviews

"Over the last two decades, Gerd Gigerenzer and his colleagues have pioneered a fundamentally new approach to human decision-making. This research framework-the simple heuristics program-recasts classic questions in ways that open up vital new avenues of research and understanding. Thisfascinating and authoritative volume brings together for the first time a comprehensive set of articles that explore the theoretical foundations of this revolutionary approach, as well as tests of its psychological reality and practical importance in everyday decision-making." --John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, Center for Evolutionary Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara