Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction

Other | November 1, 2002

byInouye, Masayori, Masayori Inouye

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Living cells are constantly sensing environmental changes, and their abilities to sense these changes and adapt to them are essential for their survival. In bacteria, histidine kinases are the major sensors for these environmental stresses, enabling cells to adapt to new growth conditions.

Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review on the structure and function of histidine kinases. It also provides extensive information on the physiological roles of histidine kinases in bacteria and eukaryotes.

An an essential reference for cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists interested in signal transduction. Experimental biologists and pharmacologists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms will also find it a valuable research tool.

Key Features
* The first comprehensive book on the roles of histidine kinases in cells
* 23 in-depth chapters written by leading experts in the field
* Describes the most recent advances in the field of signal transduction

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From the Publisher

Living cells are constantly sensing environmental changes, and their abilities to sense these changes and adapt to them are essential for their survival. In bacteria, histidine kinases are the major sensors for these environmental stresses, enabling cells to adapt to new growth conditions.Written by leading experts in the field, this b...

Format:OtherDimensions:520 pages, 1 × 1 × 1 inPublished:November 1, 2002Publisher:Academic PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0080534015

ISBN - 13:9780080534015

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Table of Contents

Preface


Contributors


1 Histidine Kinases: Introductory Remarks


Introduction


Basic Structure of Histidine Kinases (HKs)


Uniqueness of HKs


Difference between HKs and Ser/Thr/Tyr Kinases


Signal Transduction Mechanism


Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model and Rheostat Model


Concluding Remarks


References


2 The Histidine Kinase Family: Structures of Essential Building Blocks


Introduction


Kinase/Phosphatase Core Domain


Phosphotransfer Domain


Considerations on Domain Interactions


Concluding Remarks


References


3 Regulation of Porins in Escherichia coli by the Osmosensing Histidine Kinase


Introduction


Domain A Is the Catalytic Domain


Domain B Is the Catalysis-Assisting and ATP-Binding Domain


Monomeric Histidine Kinase: Topological Arrangement between Domain A and Domain B


Role of DNA in EnvZ Function


Stoichiometric Complex Formation between EnvZ and OmpR


Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model versus Rheostat Model


Mechanism of Osmoregulation


Concluding Remarks


References


4 Structure and Function of CheA, the Histidine Kinase Central to Bacterial Chemotaxis


Introduction


Modular Structure of CheA


A Superfamily of Histidine Kinases and ATPases


Nucleotide Binding by CheA P4 and the GHL ATPases


ATP Hydrolysis and Conformation of P4


HPt Domain P1 and Phosphoryl Transfer


P2 Domain and Response Regulator Coupling


A Separate Dimerization Domain


Receptor Coupling by the P5 Regulatory Domain


Is Flexibility between Domains Important for Signaling?


Controlling Protein-Protein Interactions with ATP


Prospects for the Design of Antibiotics Directed at CheA


What Is Next?


References


5 Transmembrane Signaling and the Regulation of Histidine Kinase Activity


Introduction


Membrane Receptor Kinases


Type I Histidine Kinase Receptors


Receptors with Several Membrane-Spanning Segments


Transmembrane Signaling in Bacterial Chemotaxis


Conclusions


References


6 Structure-Function Relationships: Chemotaxis and Ethylene Receptors


Introduction


Chemotaxis and Chemoreceptors


The Ethylene Receptor


Chemoreceptors and Membrane-Bound Histidine Proteins Kinases


References


7 New Insights into the Mechanism of the Kinase and Phosphatase Activities of Escherichia coli NRH (NtrB) and Their Regulation by the PII Protein


Introduction


Mechanism of NRII Autophosphorylation and Regulation of This Activity by PII


Regulation of the Transphosphorylation Activity of NRII by PII


Evidence for Conformational Alteration of NRII by PII Binding


Mapping the Interaction of PII with NRII


Mapping the Activities of NRII


Explaining the Activities of Mutant Forms of NRII


References


8 Role of the Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domain (HPt) in the Muhistep Phosphorelay through the Anaerobic Hybrid Sensor, ArcB


Introduction


HPt Domain


Structure and Function of Common HPt Domains


Multistep ArcBâArcA Phosphorelay System in Escherichia coli Anaerobiosis


Advantage of Multistep Phosphorelay


Multisignaling Circuitry of the ArcBâArcA Phosphorelay


Phospho-HPt Phosphatase Is Involved in the ArcBâArcA Signaling Circuitry


Physiological Role of SixA-Phosphatase in Response to Anaerobic Respiratory Conditions


Cross-Phosphorelay Occurs on OmpR through EnvZ Osmosensor and ArcB Anaerosensor


Atypical HPt Factor Is Involved in the Multistep RcsCâYojNâRcsB Phosphorelay


HPt Domains in Higher Plants


Concluding Remarks


References


9 Genome-Wide Analysis of Escherichia coli Histidine Kinases


Introduction


Histidine Kinase Genes in the E. coli Genome


Versatility of E. coli Histidine Kinases


Deletion Analysis of Every Histidine Kinase Gene in the E. coli Genome


DNA Microarray Analysis of Histidine Kinases for Gene Regulations


References


10 Signal Transmission and Specificity in the Sporulation Phosphorelay of Bacillus subtilis


Introduction


Structural Characterization of Phosphorelay Components


Interactions of the Response Regulator with the Phosphotransferase Domain


Conclusion


References


11 Histidine Kinases: Extended Relationship with GHL ATPases


Introduction


Diverse Functions Supported by a Conserved ATP-Binding Site


Features of the ATP-Binding Site


Mechanistic Implications


Closing Remarks


References


12 Response Regulator Proteins and Their Interactions with Histidine Protein Kinases


Introduction


Regulatory Domains


Effector Domains


Regulation of Response Regulatory Phosphorylation


Interactions of Response Regulators with Histidine Kinases and Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domains


Perspectives


References


13 Cyanophytochromes, Bacteriophytochromes, and Plant Phytochromes: Light-Regulated Kinases Related to Bacterial Two-Component Regulators


Introduction to Phytochromes (Phys)


Phys as Proteins Kinases?


Discovery of Cyanophytochromes (CphPs) and Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs)


Photochemical Properties of CphPs and BphPs


Histidine Kinase Domains and Kinase Activity for CphPs and BphPs


Biological Functions of Prokaryotic Phys


Do Higher Plant Phys Function as Two-Component Histidine Kinases?


Functions of the Kinase Activity of Phys


BphP, CphP, and Phy Evolution


Conclusions


References


14 Histidine Kinases in the Cyanobacterial Circadian System


Introduction


Cyanobacterial Circadian Rhythms


Molecular Genetics of Cyanobacterial Circadian System: Kai Genes


SasA, a KaiC-Binding Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Amplifier


CikA, a Bacteriophytochrome Family Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Photic Input Factor


Perspectives: Toward Further Understanding of His-to-Asp Signaling


Pathways in the Circadian Network in Cyanobacteria


References


15 Two-Component Control of Quorum Sensing in Gram-Negative Bacteria


Introduction


Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi


Quorum Sensing in Myxococcus xanthus


Conclusions


References


16 Intercellular Communication in Gram-Positive Bacteria Depends on Peptide Pheromones and Their Histidine Kinase Receptors


Introduction


Intercellular Communication by Unmodified Peptides


Intercellular Communication by Modified Peptides


Bacteria Speak Different Languages


Peptide Pheromones Depend on Histidine Kinase Receptors


The HPK10 Subfamily of Histidine Kinases


References


17 Initiation of Bacterial Killing by Two-Component Sensing of a "Death Peptide": Development of Antibiotic Tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae


Introduction


Cell Death and Signal Transduction


Summary and Perspectives


References


18 Role of Multiple Sensor Kinases in Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus


Introduction


Temporal and Spatial Control of Cell Cycle Events


Levels of Developmental Regulation


Control of Differentiation by Cell Cycle Checkpoints


Two-Component Signal Transduction and Cell Cycle Regulation


Summary and Perspectives


References


19 The Slnl-Ypdl-Sskl Multistep Phosphorelay System That Regulates an Osmosensing MAP Kinase Cascade in Yeast


Introduction


The Common Downstream Pathway


The SLN 1 Branch


The SHO 1 Branch


Concluding Remarks


References


20 Histidine Kinases of Dictyostelium


Introduction


Eukaryotic Histidine Kinases


Dictyostelium Histidine Kinases


Phenotypic Analyses


Double Mutants


Structure and Function of DhkA


The Late Adenylyl Cyclase ACR


Summary and Perspectives


References


21 Ethylene Perception in Arabidopsis by the ETR1 Receptor Family: Evaluating a Possible Role for Two-Component Signaling in Plant Ethylene Responses


Introduction


ETR1 Family Gene Structure and Biochemistry


Ethylene Sensor Domain


GAF-like Domain


Histidine Kinase-Coupled Receptor


Receiver Domain


Kinase Activity in the Cytosolic Portion of ETR1


Mutational Analysis of the Ethylene Pathway


TwomComponent Signaling through MAPk Kinases in Saccharomyces cerevesiae and Arabidopsis


References


22 Pathogenicity and Histidine Kinases: Approaches Toward the Development of a New Generation of Antibiotics


Introduction


Are Histidine Kinases Good Antibacterial Targets?


Alternatives to High Throughput Screens: Possibilities for Structure-Based Screening for Identification Histidine of Kinase Inhibitors


References


23 Molecular Evolution of Histidine Kinases


Introduction


Domains of Histidine Kinases


Evolution of Histidine Kinases


Conclusion


References


Index