Histophysiology of the Circulating Platelet by Laurenz J. WurzingerHistophysiology of the Circulating Platelet by Laurenz J. Wurzinger

Histophysiology of the Circulating Platelet

byLaurenz J. Wurzinger

Paperback | June 29, 1990

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1. 1 Platelets in Hemostasis and Thrombosis: A Brief Overview For more than 100 years the dominant role of blood platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis has been well documented. Seven years before their identification as a distinct class of blood corpuscles by Bizzozero (1882), Zahn (1875), using intravital microscopic observations, described the growth of an arterial thrombus as the result of "continued apposition of colorless blood corpuscles along the direction of blood flow. " A hallmark still valid today was set by Eberth and Schimmel busch (1888), who clearly divided the formation of the hemostatic plug into the result of the "conglutination of preformed blood corpuscles," followed by the "plasmatic coagulation as the formation of fibrin from substances dissolved in blood," as two distinct processes taking place in the described order. In spite of technical shortcomings, by approaching the limits of the light microscopic techniques of their time, Eberth and Schimmel busch discovered a change in the morphology of the platelets, paralleled by a presumptive change in their functional state, which was a prerequisite for the formation of a platelet plug. Their meticulous description implicitly anticipated the modern terminology of the "smooth disk" as the resting form of the circulating platelet and the activated "spiny sphere" as a result of a change in shape following stimulation.
Title:Histophysiology of the Circulating PlateletFormat:PaperbackDimensions:103 pagesPublished:June 29, 1990Publisher:Springer Berlin HeidelbergLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540522581

ISBN - 13:9783540522584

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Platelets in Hemostasis and Thrombosis: A Brief Overview.- 1.2 Platelets and Atherosclerosis.- 1.3 Platelets as a Part of the Unspecific Defense System.- 2 Methods.- 2.1 Isolation of Blood Platelets.- 2.1.1 Blood Donors.- 2.1.2 Blood Withdrawal.- 2.1.3 Anticoagulation.- 2.1.4 Isolation of Platelets.- 2.2 Rheological Experiments.- 2.3 Platelet Parameters Evaluated After Shear Exposure.- 2.3.1 Platelet Count.- 2.3.2 Assay of Cytological Marker Substances.- 2.3.2.1 Lactic Dehydrogenase.- 2.3.2.2 ß-Thromboglobulin.- 2.3.3 Platelet Function Tests.- 2.3.3.1 Adenosine Diphosphate-Induced Platelet Aggregation.- 2.3.3.2 Platelet Factor 3 Availability.- 2.4 Ultrastructural and Cytochemical Techniques.- 2.4.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy.- 2.4.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy.- 2.4.3 Ruthenium Red Staining.- 2.4.4 Lanthanum Hydroxide Staining.- 2.4.5 Enzyme Histochemistry.- 2.4.6 Morphometric Analysis.- 2.4.6.1 Specimen Sampling.- 2.4.6.2 Classification of Platelet Profiles.- 2.4.6.3 Evaluation of Platelet Activation.- 2.4.6.4 Evaluation of the Open Canalicular System.- 3 The Resting Platelet.- 3.1 Origin of Platelets.- 3.2 Platelets Under the Light Microscope.- 3.3 Ultrastructure of the Resting Platelet.- 3.3.1 Plasma Membrane.- 3.3.2 Cytoskeleton.- 3.3.3 Organelles.- 3.3.3.1 Mitochondria.- 3.3.3.2 ?-Granules and Lysosomes.- 3.3.3.3 Dense Bodies.- 3.3.4 Endomembrane Systems.- 3.3.4.1 Dense Tubular System.- 3.3.4.2 Open Canalicular System.- 4 The Activated Platelet In Vitro.- 4.1 Platelet Shape Change.- 4.1.1 Platelet Shape Change and the Open Canalicular System.- 4.1.2 Shape Change-Associated Alterations of Macromolecule-Binding Properties and Platelet Aggregation.- 4.1.3 Reorganization of the Platelet Cytoskeleton.- 4.2 Secretory Reaction of the Platelet (Release Reaction).- 4.3 Consolidation of Platelet Aggregates.- 4.4 Biochemical Changes During Platelet Activation..- 4.4.1 Cell Biological Pathways of Stimulus-Response Coupling.- 4.4.2 Energy Metabolism of the Activated Platelet.- 4.5 Role of Positive Feedback Loops in Platelet Activation.- 5 The Activated Platelet In Vivo.- 5.1 Role of the Blood Platelet in Hemostasis.- 5.1.1 Question of Platelet Activation in Hemostasis...- 5.1.2 Role of Blood Flow in Hemostasis.- 5.2 Question of the Adequate Platelet Stimulus Effective in Thrombogenesis.- 5.3 Role of Blood Flow in Thrombosis.- 5.3.1 Localizing Role of Fluid Dynamics in Thrombosis.- 5.3.2 Blood Flow in Tubes of Simple and Complicated Geometry.- 5.3.3 Concept of "Shear-Induced Platelet Activation".- 5.3.4 "Shear-Induced Platelet Activation" Revisited.- 5.3.5 "High Shear" Versus "Low Shear" in Thrombogenesis.- 5.4 Thrombogenesis as an Interaction of Fluid Dynamic Conditions and Biological Reactions.- 6 Summary.- References.