How Children Learn to Write Words by Rebecca Treiman

How Children Learn to Write Words

byRebecca Treiman, Brett Kessler

Hardcover | May 21, 2014

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Writing allows people to convey information to others who are remote in time and space, vastly increasing the range over which people can cooperate and the amount they can learn. Mastering the writing system of one's language is crucial for success in a modern society. This book examines howchildren learn to write words. It provides a theoretical framework that integrates findings from a wide range of age groups - from children who are producing their first scribbles to experienced spellers who are writing complex words. To set the stage for these discussions, early chapters of thebook consider the nature of writing systems and the nature of learning itself. The following chapters review various aspects of orthographic development, including the learning of symbol shapes and punctuation. Each chapter reviews research with learners of a variety of languages and writing systems, revealing underlying similarities. Discussions of how orthography is andshould be taught are incorporated into each chapter, making the book of interest to educators as well as to psychologists, cognitive scientists, and linguists. This book is unique in the range of topics and languages that it covers and the degree to which it integrates linguistic insights about thenature of writing systems with discussions of how people learn to use these systems. It is written in a scholarly yet accessible manner, making it suited for a wide audience.

About The Author

Rebecca Treiman and Brett Kessler, both at Washington University in St. Louis, are widely known for their research on writing systems and how they are learned and used. They bring a combination of linguistic and psychological expertise to the topic.
Beginning to Spell: A Study of First-Grade Children
Beginning to Spell: A Study of First-Grade Children

by Rebecca Treiman


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by Rebecca Treiman


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Title:How Children Learn to Write WordsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:400 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:May 21, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199907978

ISBN - 13:9780199907977

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Table of Contents

PrefaceSymbols and AbbreviationsAbbreviationsGeneral SymbolsPhonetic Symbols1. Introduction1.1 Writing as a Tool1.2 Orthographic Knowledge as a Part of Writing1.2.1 Cognitive Resources and Technical Tools1.2.2 Social Implications of Nonstandard Spelling1.3 How Can Orthographic Knowledge Be Achieved?1.3.1 Discovery Learning and the Whole-Language Approach1.3.2 Direct Instruction and the Phonics Approach1.4 Spelling and Reading1.5 Orthographic Reform1.6 Past Work on Writing Systems and How They Are Learned1.7 Our Approach2. Writing Systems2.1 Outer Form of Scripts2.2 What Writing Systems Represent2.2.1 Representing Ideas: Semasiography2.2.2 Representing Speech: Glottographic Writing2.2.2.1 Representing Words and Morphemes: Logography2.2.2.2 Representing Syllables: Syllabary2.2.2.3 Representing Phonemes: Alphabetic Writing2.2.2.4 Representing Subphonemic Features: Featural Writing2.2.2.5 Mixed Writing Systems2.3 How Writing Represents Meaning2.3.1 How Semasiographies Represent Meaning2.3.2 How Glottographies Represent Meaning2.4 Composition of Characters2.4.1 Composing Semasiograms2.4.2 Composing Logograms2.4.3 Composing Letters2.5 Underrepresentation2.6 Arranging Multiple Characters2.6.1 Lines and Pages of Text2.6.2 Grouping of Characters2.7 Conservatism in Writing2.8 Sound Change and its Effects on Writing2.8.1 Types of Sound Change2.8.2 Effects of Sound Change on Writing2.9 Which Language Do We Write?2.10 Conclusions3. Learning and Teaching3.1 Statistical Learning3.2 Learning through Language3.3 Implicit and Explicit Knowledge3.4 Learning of Language and Learning About Language3.5 Formal and Informal Teaching3.6 Conclusions4. Theories4.1 Rote Memorization4.2 Dual-Route Theory4.3 Constructivism4.4 Phase Theory4.5 Connectionist Theories4.6 IMP4.7 Methods of Testing the Theories4.8 Conclusions5. Graphic Form5.1 Surface Properties of Writing5.2 Learning About the Surface Properties of Writing5.2.1 Artificiality and Two-Dimensionality5.2.2 Iconicity5.2.3 Sequentiality and Directionality5.2.4 Knowledge About Units5.2.5 Differences Among Types of Writing5.2.6 Differentiating Writing From Pictures and Numbers5.2.7 Summary5.3 Theories5.4 Teaching5.5 Conclusions6. Symbolic Function6.1 Learning That Writing Stands for Something Outside Itself6.2 Learning What Writing Stands For and How6.3 Theories6.4 Conclusions7. The Order of the Alphabet7.1 Principles in Ordering7.1.1 Arbitrary Ordering7.1.2 Principled Ordering7.1.2.1 Deletions7.1.2.2 Insertions7.1.2.3 Reordering7.1.2.4 Other Scripts7.2 When and How Children Learn About Alphabet Order7.2.1 Oral Methods7.2.2 Alphabet Books7.2.3 Learning About Alphabet Order at School7.3 How Does Knowledge of Alphabet Order Influence Children?7.4 Conclusions8. Symbol Shapes8.1 Principles That Underlie Systems of Symbol Shapes8.1.1 Economy8.1.2 Conservatism8.1.3 Beauty8.1.4 Expressiveness8.1.5 Similarity8.1.6 Contrast8.1.7 Redundancy8.1.8 Summary of the Principles That Underlie Systems of Symbol Shapes8.2 Learning and Use of Shapes as Graphic Objects8.2.1 Learning About the Similarities Among the Shapes of Writing8.2.2 Learning About Contrasts Among the Shapes of Writing8.2.3 Production8.2.4 Learning Variant Forms of Shapes8.3 Nonarbitrary Links Between Symbol Shapes and Functions8.4 Formal and Informal Teaching8.5 Theories8.6 Conclusions9. Letter Names9.1 Principles That Underlie Systems of Letter Names9.1.1 Phonetic Iconicity9.1.2 Legality9.1.3 Similarity9.1.4 Contrast9.1.5 Economy9.1.6 Conservatism9.1.7 Other Principles9.1.8 Summary of Principles That Underlie Systems of Letter Names9.2 Learning the Phonological Forms of Letter Names9.3 Do Children Benefit From the Phonetic Iconicity of Letter Names?9.4 Should Children Learn Letter Names?9.5 Names of Auxiliary Marks9.6 Theories9.7 Conclusions10. Early Spelling in Phonographic Writing Systems10.1 Do Beginners Spell Using One Symbol for Each Syllable?10.2 Letter Names and Early Spelling10.2.1 Spellings With Whole Letter Names10.2.2 Partial and Inexact Matches to Letter Names10.2.3 Conclusions About Letter Name Spellings10.3 Other Labels10.4 Phonological Analysis and Classification10.4.1 Consonant Cluster Onsets10.4.2 One Versus Two Sounds10.4.3 Final Consonant Clusters10.4.4 Other Ambiguities Involving Phonemes10.4.5 Suprasegmental Features10.5 Beyond Phonology10.6 Teaching10.7 Conclusions11. Complex Spellings11.1 Beyond the Regular Word Versus Exception Word Dichotomy11.2 Conditioning by Neighboring Segments11.2.1 Coda-to-Vowel Conditioning11.2.2 Onset-to-Vowel Conditioning11.2.3 Vowel-to-Onset Conditioning11.2.4 Vowel-to-Coda Conditioning11.2.5 Do Rimes Have a Special Status?11.2.6 Extended Spellings of Intervocalic Consonants11.2.7 Summary of Results on Conditioning by Neighboring Segments11.3 Conditioning by Position11.4 Conditioning by Stress11.5 Conditioning by Morphology11.5.1 Influences of Morphology on Spelling11.5.2 Summary of Results on Morphological Conditioning11.6 Other Types of Conditioning11.7 Unconditioned Inconsistencies11.8 Other Complexities11.8.1 Homographs11.8.2 Words With More Letters Than Phonemes11.8.3 Additional Complexities11.9 Summary of Findings on Learning of Complex Patterns11.10 Teaching11.11 Conclusions12. Punctuation and Capitalization12.1 Punctuation12.1.1 Punctuation Marks12.1.2 Word Separation12.2 Capitalization12.3 Teaching12.4 Conclusions13. Conclusions and Extensions13.1 Evaluation of Theories of the Learning of Orthography13.2 Broader Influences of Knowledge About Writing13.2.1 Influences on Reading13.2.2 Influences on Language13.2.3 Influences Outside of Language13.2.4 Summary of Writing's Influences13.3 Instruction About Orthography13.3.1 Teach Patterns13.3.2 Include Activities That Focus Attention on Writing Itself13.3.3 Provide Feedback After Errors13.3.4 Don't Assume Too Much13.3.5 Teach Teachers as Well as Children13.3.6 It's Just Orthography13.4 Assessing Children's Spelling13.5 Differences Between Children13.6 Final WordsReferences