How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender

Hardcover | August 8, 2012

EditorHolger Afflerbach, Hew Strachan

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There are many histories of how wars have begun, but very few which discuss how they have ended. This book fills that gap. Beginning with the Stone Age and ending with globalized terrorism, it addresses the specific issue of surrender, rather than the subsequent establishment of peace. At itsheart is the individual warrior or soldier, and his or her decision to lay down arms. In the ancient world surrender led in most cases to slavery, but a slave still lived rather than died. In the modern world international law gives the soldiers rights as prisoners of war, and those rights includethe prospect of their eventual return home. But individuals can surrender at any point in a war, and without having such an effect that they end the war. The termination of hostilities depends on a collective act for its consequences to be decisive. It also requires the enemy to accept the offer to surrender in the midst of combat. In otherwords, like so much else in war, surrender depends on reciprocity - on the readiness of one side to stop fighting and of the other to accept that readiness. This volume argues that surrender is the single biggest contributor to the containment of violence in warfare, offering the vanquished theopportunity to survive and the victor the chance to show moderation and magnanimity. Since the rules of surrender have developed over time, they form a key element in understanding the cultural history of warfare.

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There are many histories of how wars have begun, but very few which discuss how they have ended. This book fills that gap. Beginning with the Stone Age and ending with globalized terrorism, it addresses the specific issue of surrender, rather than the subsequent establishment of peace. At itsheart is the individual warrior or soldier,...

Holger Afflerbach, from 2002-2006, was DAAD Professor of History at Emory University. Afflerbach specializes in late nineteenth and twentieth Century German history; international relations; military history, particularly World War I and World War II; and Austrian and Italian history. Among his publications are the biography of the Pr...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:520 pages, 9.69 × 6.73 × 0.01 inPublished:August 8, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199693625

ISBN - 13:9780199693627

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Table of Contents

Introduction:Part I: No Quarter? The Beginnings of Surrender1. Laurence Keeley: No Surrender in Prehistoric Warfare Chapter2. Paul Cartledge: Surrender in Ancient Greece3. Loretana de Libero: Surrender in Ancient RomePart II: Learning to Surrender? The Middle AgesHans Henning Kortum: Introduction: Surrender in Medieval Times4. John Gillingham: Surrender in Medieval Europe - An Indirect Approach5. John France: Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades6. Catherine Holmes: Basil II the Bulgar-slayer and the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarians in 1014: mutilation and prisoners-of -war in the Middle AgesPart III: The Developments of Rules and Regulations: Surrender in Early Modern TimesJohn A. Lynn: Introduction: Honourable Surrender in Early Modern European HistoryIII.a. Surrender in Intercultural Wars7. Ross Hassig: How Fighting ended in the Aztec Empire and its Surrender to the Europeans8. William Campbell: Different Concepts of Surrender:Surrender in the Northeastern Borderlands of Native AmericaIII.b.: Surrender in Early Modern Europe9. Lothar Hobelt: Surrender in the Thirty-Years War10. John Childs: Surrender and the Laws of War in Western Europe, c. 1650-178311. Daniel Krebs: Rituals of Surrender in the AmericanWar of IndependencePart IV: A Question of Honour: Surrender in Sea Warfare12. Holger Afflerbach: Surrender in Sea Warfare from Elizabethan to our own TimesPart V: The Times of International Law: Surrender in Modern WarsIntroduction: Hew Strachan: Surrender in Modern Warfare since theFrench RevolutionV.a. The 19th Century13. Michael Broers: "Civilized, rational behaviour"? The Concept of Surrender in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792-181514. Joseph Glatthaar: Robert E. Lee, the Army of Northern Virginia and Confederate Surrender15. Edward Spiers: Surrender in 19th Century Colonial WarsV.b. Surrender in World War I.16. Alan Kramer: Methods of Individual Surrender in the Great War17. Dennis Showalter: By the book? Commanders surrendering in World War I18. Jay Winter: The breaking point: Surrender 1918Part VI: Unconditional Surrender? World War IIIntroduction: Gerhard Weinberg: Surrender in World War IIVI a. 'Conventional' surrenders19. Martin Alexander: French Surrender in 1940: Soldiers, Commanders, Civilians20. Mark Connelly: The Issue of Surrender in the Malayan Campaign, 1941-194221. John Gooch: Neither Defeat nor Surrender: Italy's Change of Alliances in 1943VI b. Germany and Japan in World War II22. John Zimmermann: German Soldiers and Surrender, 194523. Mordecai George Sheftall: Kamikaze Warfare in Imperial Japan's Existential Crisis, 1944-194524. Richard Bessel: The German surrender 1945Part VII: Our times: Asymmetric Wars - Endless Wars and No Surrender?25. Michael Codner: Kosovo, the Serbian Surrender and the Western Dilemma: achieving victories with low casualties26. Audrey Kurth Cronin: How Fighting Ends - Asymmetric Wars, Terrorism, and Suicide BombingConclusionIndex