How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching by Susan A. AmbroseHow Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching by Susan A. Ambrose

How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching

bySusan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges, Michele DiPietro

Hardcover | May 17, 2010

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Praise for How Learning Works

"How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystified a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students' learning."
Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching

"This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching."
Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education

"Thank you Carnegie Mellon for making accessible what has previously been inaccessible to those of us who are not learning scientists. Your focus on the essence of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this book to all my colleagues."
Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

"As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will find advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously share it with you in this organized and readable book."
From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning

Susan A. Ambrose is Vice Provost for Teaching and Learning and Professor of Education at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. Michael W. Bridges is director of faculty development at UPMC St. Margaret Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Michele DiPietro is associate director for graduate programs at the Eberly Center and...
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Title:How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart TeachingFormat:HardcoverDimensions:336 pages, 9 × 6.2 × 1.2 inPublished:May 17, 2010Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470484101

ISBN - 13:9780470484104

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Professor Won takes the time to gauge students )326.6(? )326.5( knowl-)]TJ T* 0.0469 Tw (edge of statistical tests so that she can pitch her own instruction )Tj T* 0.0704 Tw (at the appropriate level. Professor Dione carefully explains a dif-)Tj T* 0 Tw (?)Tj 0.287 0 TD 0.2556 Tw [( )193.6(cult concept, provides concrete examples, and even gives an )]TJ -0.287 -1.3636 TD 0.2448 Tw (explicit warning about a common misconception. Yet neither )Tj T* -0.0424 Tw [(instructor )182.7(? )182.6(s strategy is having the desired effect on students )182.6(? )182.6( learn-)]TJ T* -0.0164 Tw (ing and performance. To understand why, it is helpful to consider )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw [(the effect of students )270(? )269.9( prior knowledge on new learning. )]TJ 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.309 Tw [( )534(Professor Won assumes that students have learned and )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.2438 Tw (retained basic statistical skills in their prerequisite course, an )Tj /F5 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 114 598.436 Tm 0 Tw ( )Tj 0 0 TD ( )Tj T* 0.055 Tw (Why Is This So Hard for Them to Understand? )Tj /F6 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 583.436 Tm 0.05 Tw [( )300(Every year in my introductory psychology class I teach my )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0499 Tw (students about classic learning theory, particularly the )Tj T* (concepts of positive and negative reinforcement. 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First, many of them have been reinforced over time and )Tj T* 0.1683 Tw (across multiple contexts. Moreover, because they often include )Tj T* 0.1049 Tw [(accurate )330(? )329.9(as well as inaccurate )329.9(? )329.9(elements, students may not rec-)]TJ T* 0.1793 Tw (ognize their ?)Tj 5.8547 0 TD 0.1794 Tw [( )117.4(aws. Finally, in many cases, misconceptions may )]TJ -5.8547 -1.3636 TD 0.0396 Tw (allow for successful explanations and predictions in a number of )Tj T* 0.2092 Tw (everyday circumstances. For example, although stereotypes are )Tj T* -0.0013 Tw (dangerous oversimpli?)Tj 9.3076 0 TD [( )-63.2(cations, they are dif?)]TJ 8.7081 0 TD [( )-63.2(cult to change in part )]TJ -18.0158 -1.3636 TD -0.005 Tw (because they ?)Tj 5.7639 0 TD [( )-67(t aspects of our perceived reality and serve an adap-)]TJ -5.7639 -1.3636 TD 0.2785 Tw [(tive human need to generalize and categorize \(Allport, )503.5(1954 )503.5(; )]TJ T* -0.225 Tw [(Brewer, )-269.9( 1988 ; )-270(Fiske )-270( & )-270(Taylor, )-270( 1991 \). )]TJ 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.076 Tw [( )301(Research has shown that deeply held misconceptions often )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD -0.0752 Tw (persist despite direct instructional interventions \(Ram, Nersessian, )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [( & )-299.2(Keil, )-299.2( 1997 ; )-299.2(Gardner )-299.2( & )-299.2(Dalsing, )-299.2( 1986 ; )-299.2(Gutman, )-299.2( 1979 ; )-299.2(Confrey, )]TJ T* 0.4312 Tw [( )656.2(1990 )656.2(\). For example, Stein and Dunbar conducted a study )]TJ T* 0.1567 Tw [(\(described in Dunbar, Fugelsang, )381.7(& )381.7( Stein, )381.7(2007 )381.7(\) in which they )]TJ T* 0.1074 Tw (asked college students to write about why the seasons changed, )Tj T* 0.06 Tw (and then assessed their relevant knowledge via a multiple choice )Tj T* 0.089 Tw (test. After ?)Tj 4.7671 0 TD 0.0891 Tw [( )27.1(nding that 94 percent of the students in their study )]TJ -4.7671 -1.3636 TD 0.1504 Tw (had misconceptions \(including the belief that the shape of the )Tj T* 0.2536 Tw [(earth )478.6(? )478.6(s orbit was responsible for the seasons\), the researchers )]TJ T* 0.0266 Tw (showed students a video that clearly explained that the tilt of the )Tj T* 0.0103 Tw [(earth )235.3(? )235.3(s axis, not the shape of the earth )235.3(? )235.3(s orbit, was responsible for )]TJ T* 0.165 Tw (seasonal change. Yet in spite of the video, when students were )Tj T* 0.0205 Tw (asked to revise their essays, their explanations for the seasons did )Tj T* -0.0282 Tw (not change fundamentally. Similarly, McCloskey, Caramazza, and )Tj T* 0.0098 Tw [(Green )234.8(\(1980\) )234.8( found that other deeply held misconceptions about )]TJ T* 0.1777 Tw (the physical world persist even when they are refuted through )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (formal instruction. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1265 Tw [( )351.5(Results like these are sobering. Yet the picture is not alto-)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1169 Tw (gether gloomy. To begin with, it is important to recognize that )Tj ET /Cs9 CS 0 SCN 1.25 w /GS4 gs 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 1 SCN 0.25 w 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 0 SCN 1.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l S /Cs9 cs 1 scn 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c f 0 SCN 249 700.5 m 255 700.5 l 252 703.5 m 252 697.5 l S 1.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l S 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c f 0 SCN 249 19.5 m 255 19.5 l 252 22.5 m 252 16.5 l S 1.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l S 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c f 0 SCN 16.5 360 m 22.5 360 l 19.5 363 m 19.5 357 l S 1.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l S 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c f 0 SCN 481.5 360 m 487.5 360 l 484.5 363 m 484.5 357 l S endstream endobj 27 0 obj > stream H?T?Kk? ??~?9n?? ?:???9??;?oV?Uz??%???a3?g?2` $??v/??????e7E???"q5\??zBhK?? ???iR?u???3??3#m?E?i????\%?7???"q?y?S?:? 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Bear in mind that brainstorming )]TJ T* -0.0159 Tw [(does not provide a systematic gauge of students )209.1(? )209.1( prior knowledge. )]TJ T* 0.3082 Tw (Also, be prepared to differentiate accurate and appropriately )Tj T* 0.1744 Tw (applied knowledge from knowledge that is inaccurate or inap-)Tj T* 0.0449 Tw [(propriately applied. )269.9( )]TJ 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.2001 Tw [(Assign a Concept Map Activity )425.1( )-574.9( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.4414 0 TD [( )425.1( )425.1(To gain insights into what )]TJ -15.4414 -1.3636 TD 0.0337 Tw (your students know about a given subject, ask them to construct )Tj T* (a concept map representing everything that they know about the )Tj T* -0.0273 Tw [(topic. You can ask students to create a concept map \(see )197.7(Appendix )]TJ T* 0.2581 Tw [(B )483.1(\), representing what they know about an entire disciplinary )]TJ T* -0.0082 Tw (domain \(for example, social psychology\), a particular concept \(for )Tj T* 0.0563 Tw [(instance, Newton )281.3(? )281.3(s third law\), or a question \(for example, )281.3(? )281.3(What )]TJ T* 0.1486 Tw [(are the ethical issues with stem cell research? )373.6(? )373.6(\). Some students )]TJ T* 0.0383 Tw (may be familiar with concept maps, but others may not be, so be )Tj T* 0.0554 Tw (sure to explain what they are and how to create them \(circles for )Tj T* 0.0376 Tw (concepts, lines between concepts to show how they relate\). There )Tj T* 0.0759 Tw (are a number of ways to construct concept maps, so you should )Tj T* -0.0756 Tw (give some thought to what you are trying to ascertain. For instance, )Tj T* 0.0582 Tw [(if you are interested in gauging students )283.3(? )283.2( knowledge of concepts )]TJ T* 0.0353 Tw (as well as their ability to articulate the connections among them, )Tj T* 0.1483 Tw (you can ask students to generate both concepts and links. But )Tj T* 0.002 Tw [(if you are primarily interested in students )227(? )227( ability to articulate the )]TJ T* -0.0276 Tw (connections, you can provide the list of concepts and ask students )Tj T* 0.0624 Tw (to arrange and connect them, labeling the links. If there are par-)Tj T* 0.1798 Tw (ticular kinds of information you are looking for \(for example, )Tj T* -0.0277 Tw (causal relationships, examples, theoretical orientations\) be sure to )Tj T* 0.1242 Tw (specify what you want. 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You \(or your TAs or graders\) can often identify these )Tj T* 0.1191 Tw [(misconceptions simply by looking at students )344.1(? )344.1( errors on home-)]TJ T* 0.0995 Tw (work assignments, quizzes, or exams and noting commonalities )Tj T* 0.0167 Tw (across the class. You can also keep track of the kinds of problems )Tj T* 0.0136 Tw (and errors that students reveal when they come to of?)Tj 22.3054 0 TD [( )-48.3(ce hours or )]TJ -22.3054 -1.3636 TD -0.0052 Tw (as they raise or answer questions during class. Paying attention to )Tj T* 0.1318 Tw (these patterns of error can alert you to common problems and )Tj T* 0.0396 Tw (help you target instruction to correct misconceptions or ?)Tj 24.2571 0 TD 0.062 Tw [( ll )22.3(gaps )]TJ -24.2571 -1.3636 TD 0.4004 Tw (in understanding. Some instructors use classroom response )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [(systems )-193.4(\(also )-193.4(called )-193.5( ? clickers ? \) )-193.5(to )-193.5(quickly )-193.5(collect )-193.5(students ? )-193.5(answers )]TJ T* 0.1073 Tw (to concept questions posed in class. Clickers provide an instant )Tj T* 0.0418 Tw [(histogram of students )266.9(? )266.8( answers and can alert instructors to areas )]TJ T* 0.2608 Tw (of misunderstanding that might stem from insuf?)Tj 22.3329 0 TD 0.062 Tw [( cient )-198.9(prior )]TJ -22.3329 -1.3636 TD -0.225 Tw [(knowledge. )]TJ /F14 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 108 342.642 Tm 0.0099 Tc 0.0367 Tw [( )229.6( )229.6(Methods to A)9.9(c)-10.1(tiv)18.9(ate A)9.9(c)9.9(cur)11.9(ate P)6.9(rior Kno)7.9(wledge)9.9( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 320.142 Tm -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.6039 Tw [(Use Exercises to Generate Students )829(? )828.9( Prior Knowledge )828.9( )495.6( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.2727 0 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj -27.2727 -1.3636 TD 0 Tc 0.1354 Tw (Because students learn most effectively when they connect new )Tj T* 0.0184 Tw (knowledge to prior knowledge, it can be helpful to begin a lesson )Tj T* 0.1669 Tw (by asking students what they already know about the topic in )Tj T* -0.0108 Tw (question. This can be done any number of ways, such as by asking )Tj T* -0.053 Tw (students to brainstorm associations or create a concept map. Once )Tj T* 0.0935 Tw (students have activated relevant prior knowledge in their heads, )Tj T* 0.1128 Tw (they are likely to be able to integrate new knowledge more suc-)Tj T* -0.0521 Tw (cessfully. However, since activities like this can generate inaccurate )Tj T* -0.0241 Tw (and inappropriate as well as accurate and relevant knowledge, you )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw [(should be prepared to help students distinguish between them. )270( )]TJ 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.2025 Tw (Explicitly Link New Material to Knowledge from Previous )Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.225 Tw [(Courses )-1000( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.593 0 TD 0.3698 Tw [( )594.8( )594.8(Students tend to compartmentalize knowledge by )]TJ ET /Cs9 CS 0 SCN 1.25 w /GS4 gs 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 1 SCN 0.25 w 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 0 SCN 1.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l S /Cs9 cs 1 scn 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c f 0 SCN 249 700.5 m 255 700.5 l 252 703.5 m 252 697.5 l S 1.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l S 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c f 0 SCN 249 19.5 m 255 19.5 l 252 22.5 m 252 16.5 l S 1.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l S 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c f 0 SCN 16.5 360 m 22.5 360 l 19.5 363 m 19.5 357 l S 1.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l S 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c f 0 SCN 481.5 360 m 487.5 360 l 484.5 363 m 484.5 357 l S endstream endobj 35 0 obj > endobj 36 0 obj > stream /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d /GS3 gs 1 i 108 635.45 m 408 635.45 l S BT /F8 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 150.287 641.4501 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc 0.0444 Tw [(How D)-6.6(oes Students)19.4(?)97.4( P)20.4(r)-7.6(ior K)-15.6(n)-0.6(owledge A)]TJ 16.0742 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0.0441 Tw [( ec)-11.2(t )42.1(Their L)16.8(ear)-7.2(ning? )]TJ /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 394.064 81.1501 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (15)Tj ET /GS2 gs BT /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 132 605.1201 Tm 0.0989 Tw [( )323.9(Understanding what students know )323.9(? )323.9(or think they know )323.9(?)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.017 Tw [( )242(coming into our courses can help us design our instruction more )]TJ T* 0.2312 Tw (appropriately. It allows us not only to leverage their accurate )Tj T* 0.2974 Tw (knowledge more effectively to promote learning, but also to )Tj T* 0.3273 Tw (identify and ?)Tj 6.2257 0 TD [( )265.4(ll gaps, recognize when students are applying )]TJ -6.2257 -1.3636 TD 0.2396 Tw (what they know inappropriately, and actively work to correct )Tj T* -0.2251 Tw (misconceptions. )Tj /F1 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 108.1399 470.12 Tm 0.03 Tc 0.0314 Tw [( )268.4( )268.4(WHA)81(T)10( DOES)10( )40(THE)10( RESEARCH)10( )40(TELL)10( US)10( ABOUT)20( )]TJ 0 -1.0714 TD 0.0298 Tc 0.0316 Tw [(PRIOR)9.8( KNOWLEDGE)9.8(?)29.8( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 425.12 Tm 0 Tc 0.2087 Tw [( )433.7(Students connect what they learn to what they already know, )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0271 Tw (interpreting incoming information, and even sensory perception, )Tj T* -0.0137 Tw (through the lens of their existing knowledge, beliefs, and assump-)Tj T* 0.0471 Tw [(tions \(Vygotsky, )272.1(1978 )272.1(; National Research Council, )272.1(2000 )272.1(\). In fact, )]TJ T* 0.1258 Tw (there is widespread agreement among researchers that students )Tj T* 0 Tw ( )Tj /F10 1 Tf 0 0 TD (must)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.833 0 TD 0.1016 Tw [( )326.6( connect new knowledge to previous knowledge in order to )]TJ -1.833 -1.3636 TD -0.225 Tw [(learn )-316.2(\(Bransford )-316.2( & )-316.3(Johnson, )-316.3( 1972 ; )-316.3(Resnick, )-316.3( 1983 \). )-316.3(However, )-316.3(the )]TJ T* 0.0554 Tw (extent to which students are able to draw on prior knowledge to )Tj T* 0 Tw ( )Tj /F10 1 Tf 0 0 TD (effectively)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.6279 0 TD -0.0177 Tw [( )207.3( construct new knowledge depends on the nature of their )]TJ -3.6279 -1.3636 TD -0.0066 Tw [(prior knowledge, as well as the instructor )218.5(? )218.4(s ability to harness it. In )]TJ T* 0.1259 Tw (the following sections, we discuss research that investigates the )Tj T* 0.1118 Tw (effects of various kinds of prior knowledge on student learning )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (and explore its implications for teaching. )Tj /F14 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 108 207.62 Tm 0.0104 Tc -0.1934 Tw [( A)10.4(c)-9.6(tiv)19.4(ating )-229.6(P)7.4(rior )-229.6(Kno)8.4(wledge)10.4( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 185.12 Tm 0 Tc -0.0422 Tw [( )182.8(When students can connect what they are learning to accurate and )]TJ T* 0.0563 Tw (relevant prior knowledge, they learn and retain more. In essence, )Tj T* 0.1735 Tw [(new knowledge )398.5(? )398.5(sticks )398.5(? )398.5( better when it has prior knowledge to )]TJ T* 0.0373 Tw (stick to. In one study focused on recall, for example, participants )Tj T* -0.0404 Tw (with variable knowledge of soccer were presented with scores from )Tj ET /Cs9 CS 0 SCN 1.25 w /GS4 gs 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 1 SCN 0.25 w 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 0 SCN 1.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l S /Cs9 cs 1 scn 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c f 0 SCN 249 700.5 m 255 700.5 l 252 703.5 m 252 697.5 l S 1.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l S 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c f 0 SCN 249 19.5 m 255 19.5 l 252 22.5 m 252 16.5 l S 1.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l S 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c f 0 SCN 16.5 360 m 22.5 360 l 19.5 363 m 19.5 357 l S 1.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l S 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c f 0 SCN 481.5 360 m 487.5 360 l 484.5 363 m 484.5 357 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj > stream /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d /GS3 gs 1 i 96 635.45 m 396 635.45 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 210.536 641.4501 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn 0 Tc 0.036 Tw [(Ho)6(w L)34(earning W)24(orks)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 96 81.1501 Tm 0 Tw (18)Tj ET /GS2 gs BT /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 96 605.142 Tm -0.225 Tc ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.2246 Tw [(Implications of This Research )449.7( )-550.4( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.0528 0 TD 0.2247 Tw [( )449.7( )449.7(Students learn more readily )]TJ -15.0528 -1.3636 TD -0.0351 Tw (when they can connect what they are learning to what they already )Tj T* 0.0103 Tw (know. However, instructors should not assume that students will )Tj T* 0.3456 Tw (immediately or naturally draw on relevant prior knowledge. )Tj T* 0.1126 Tw [(Instead, they should deliberately activate students )337.7(? )337.6( prior knowl-)]TJ T* 0.0449 Tw [(edge to help them forge robust links to new knowledge. )269.9( )269.9( )]TJ /F14 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 96 492.142 Tm 0.0097 Tc -0.1927 Tw [( A)9.7(c)9.7(cur)11.7(ate )-229.6(but )-229.6(Insu)]TJ 7.7218 0 TD 0.0104 Tc 0.0853 Tw [( cient )49.1(P)7.4(rior )49.1(Kno)8.4(wledge)10.4( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 96 469.642 Tm 0 Tc 0.0129 Tw [( )237.9(Even when students )237.9(? )237.9( prior knowledge is accurate and activated, it )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0077 Tw (may not be suf?)Tj 6.466 0 TD [( )-54.3(cient to support subsequent learning or a desired )]TJ -6.466 -1.3636 TD -0.0034 Tw (level of performance. Indeed, when students possess )Tj /F10 1 Tf 21.8672 0 TD 0 Tw (some)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.851 0 TD -0.0003 Tc -0.2247 Tw [( )-221.6(relevant )]TJ -23.7182 -1.3636 TD 0 Tc 0.0992 Tw (knowledge, it can lead both students and instructors to assume )Tj T* -0.0049 Tw (that students are better prepared than they truly are for a particu-)Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (lar task or level of instruction. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.0676 Tw [( )292.6(In fact, there are many different types of knowledge, as evi-)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.19 Tw (denced by a number of typologies of knowledge \(for example, )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [(Anderson )-745.2( & )-745.3(Krathwohl, )-745.3( 2001 ; )-745.3(Anderson, )-745.3( 1983 ; )-745.3(Alexander, )]TJ T* [(Schallert, )-285.8( & )-285.9(Hare, )-285.9( 1991 ; )-285.9(DeJong )-285.9( & )-285.9(Ferguson - Hessler, )-285.9( 1996 \). )-285.9(One )]TJ T* 0.0787 Tw (kind of knowledge that appears across many of these typologies )Tj T* 0.1703 Tw (is )Tj /F10 1 Tf 1.0623 0 TD 0.1514 Tw (declarative knowledge)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.3313 0 TD 0.1703 Tw [( )395.3(, or the knowledge of facts and concepts )]TJ -9.3936 -1.3636 TD 0.2514 Tw (that can be stated or declared. Declarative knowledge can be )Tj T* 0.091 Tw [(thought of as )316(? )316(knowing what. )316(? )316( The ability to name the parts of )]TJ T* -0.0298 Tw [(the circulatory system, describe the characteristics of hunter )195.3(- )195.2(gath-)]TJ T* 0.0108 Tw [(erer social structure, or explain Newton )235.8(? )235.8(s Third Law are examples )]TJ T* 0.1734 Tw (of declarative knowledge. A second type of knowledge is often )Tj T* 0.176 Tw (referred to as )Tj /F10 1 Tf 6.2212 0 TD 0.1564 Tw (procedural knowledge)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.2995 0 TD 0.1761 Tw [( )401.1(, because it involves knowing )]TJ -14.5206 -1.3636 TD 0.1423 Tw (how and knowing when to apply various procedures, methods, )Tj T* 0.1028 Tw (theories, styles, or approaches. The ability to calculate integrals, )Tj T* 0.0957 Tw [(draw with 3 )320.7(- )320.7(D perspective, and calibrate lab equipment )320.7(? )320.7(as well )]TJ T* 0.0065 Tw [(as the knowledge of when these skills are and are not applicable )231.6(?)]TJ T* 0.045 Tw [( )270(fall into the category of procedural knowledge. )]TJ ET /Cs9 CS 0 SCN 1.25 w /GS4 gs 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 1 SCN 0.25 w 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 0 SCN 1.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l S /Cs9 cs 1 scn 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c f 0 SCN 249 700.5 m 255 700.5 l 252 703.5 m 252 697.5 l S 1.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l S 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c f 0 SCN 249 19.5 m 255 19.5 l 252 22.5 m 252 16.5 l S 1.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l S 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c f 0 SCN 16.5 360 m 22.5 360 l 19.5 363 m 19.5 357 l S 1.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l S 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c f 0 SCN 481.5 360 m 487.5 360 l 484.5 363 m 484.5 357 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj > endobj 39 0 obj > endobj 40 0 obj > stream /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d /GS3 gs 1 i 108 635.45 m 408 635.45 l S BT /F8 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 150.287 641.4501 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc 0.0444 Tw [(How D)-6.6(oes Students)19.4(?)97.4( P)20.4(r)-7.6(ior K)-15.6(n)-0.6(owledge A)]TJ 16.0742 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0.0441 Tw [( ec)-11.2(t )42.1(Their L)16.8(ear)-7.2(ning? )]TJ /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 394.064 81.1501 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (33)Tj ET /GS2 gs BT /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 605.142 Tm -0.225 Tc ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf T* 0 Tc 0.3664 Tw [(Use Analogies and Examples That Connect to Students )591.5(? )591.4( )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.3509 Tw [(Everyday Knowledge )575.9( )-424.1( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.6319 0 TD 0.351 Tw [( )576( )576(Examples or analogies that draw on )]TJ -10.6319 -1.3636 TD 0.0994 Tw [(students )324.5(? )324.4( everyday lives and the wider world make new material )]TJ T* 0.1444 Tw (more understandable and create more robust knowledge repre-)Tj T* 0.1003 Tw [(sentations in students )325.4(? )325.3( minds. For example, an instructor could )]TJ T* 0.2554 Tw [(draw on students )480.4(? )480.4( memories from childhood and experiences )]TJ T* 0.3295 Tw (with younger siblings to help them understand concepts in )Tj T* 0.1548 Tw [(child development. Similarly, an instructor could use students )379.9(? )379.8( )]TJ T* -0.0077 Tw (experiences with the physical world to introduce concepts such as )Tj T* 0.1331 Tw (force and acceleration. Analogies are also useful for connecting )Tj T* -0.0337 Tw [(new knowledge to prior knowledge. For example, students )191.3(? )191.3( experi-)]TJ T* 0.0037 Tw (ence with cooking can be enlisted to help them understand scien-)Tj T* 0 Tw (ti?)Tj 0.917 0 TD 0.2392 Tw [( )177.2(c processes such as chemical synthesis \(just as in cooking, )]TJ -0.917 -1.3636 TD 0.0876 Tw (when you mix or heat chemicals, you need to know when preci-)Tj T* 0.1445 Tw (sion is and is not critical\). Students often show more sophisti-)Tj T* 0.122 Tw (cated reasoning when working in familiar contexts, and we can )Tj T* 0.0687 Tw (build on their knowledge from these contexts as we explore new )Tj T* -0.2251 Tw (material. )Tj 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.3648 Tw (Ask Students to Reason on the Basis of Relevant Prior )Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.2251 Tw [(Knowledge )-1000.1( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 6.0009 0 TD 0.1997 Tw [( )424.7( )424.7(Often students have prior knowledge that could )]TJ -6.0009 -1.3636 TD 0.1168 Tw (help them reason about new material and learn it more deeply. )Tj T* -0.0085 Tw (Thus, it can be useful to ask students questions that require them )Tj T* -0.033 Tw (to use their prior knowledge to make predictions about new infor-)Tj T* 0.2281 Tw (mation before they actually encounter it. For example, before )Tj T* 0.0435 Tw (asking students to read an article from the 1970s, you might ask )Tj T* 0.0487 Tw (them what was going on historically at the time that might have )Tj T* 0.0863 Tw [(informed the author )311.4(? )311.3(s perspective. Or when presenting students )]TJ T* -0.0824 Tw (with a design problem, you might ask them how a famous designer, )Tj T* -0.026 Tw (whose work they know, might have approached the problem. 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JK??Z???4?H%?>?????mq8?z??1B??????[??=}???#????7???P;?i@?@????W>!?P???7?P?y? \*?W]?F???O?p???X?????c??J??)f6??_?e?S endstream endobj 42 0 obj > stream /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d /GS3 gs 1 i 108 635.45 m 408 635.45 l S BT /F8 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 150.287 641.4501 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc 0.0444 Tw [(How D)-6.6(oes Students)19.4(?)97.4( P)20.4(r)-7.6(ior K)-15.6(n)-0.6(owledge A)]TJ 16.0742 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0.0441 Tw [( ec)-11.2(t )42.1(Their L)16.8(ear)-7.2(ning? )]TJ /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 394.064 81.1501 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (27)Tj ET /GS2 gs BT /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 605.1201 Tm 0.1897 Tw [(research )414.7(\(1989\) )414.7( shows that students can be guided away from )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0865 Tw (misconceptions through a process of reasoning that helps them )Tj T* 0.0484 Tw (build on the accurate facets of their knowledge as they gradually )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (revise the inaccurate facets. )Tj 0 -2.3636 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.0652 Tw [(Implications of This Research )290.2( )-709.8( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 14.5747 0 TD 0.0653 Tw [( )290.3( )290.3(It is important for instructors )]TJ -14.5747 -1.3636 TD 0.3348 Tw (to address inaccurate prior knowledge that might otherwise )Tj T* -0.0071 Tw (distort or impede learning. In some cases, inaccuracies can be cor-)Tj T* 0.0842 Tw (rected simply by exposing students to accurate information and )Tj T* 0.0773 Tw (evidence that con?)Tj 7.7256 0 TD 0.0774 Tw [( )15.4(icts with ?)]TJ 4.5127 0 TD [( )15.4(awed beliefs and models. However, )]TJ -12.2383 -1.3636 TD -0.0274 Tw (it is important for instructors to recognize that a single correction )Tj T* 0.2095 Tw (or refutation is unlikely to be enough to help students revise )Tj T* 0.0329 Tw (deeply held misconceptions. Instead, guiding students through a )Tj T* 0.0463 Tw (process of conceptual change is likely to take time, patience, and )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [(creativity. )]TJ /F1 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 108.1399 358.12 Tm 0.03 Tc -0.237 Tw [( WHA)81(T)10( )-268.4(STR)-7(A)81(TEGIES)10( )-268.4(DOES)10( )-228.4(THE)20( )]TJ 0 -1.0714 TD 0.0314 Tw [(RESEARCH)10( SUGGEST)10(?)30( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 313.12 Tm 0 Tc 0.0878 Tw [( )312.8(In this section we offer \(1\) a set of strategies to help instructors )]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.1491 Tw [(determine the extent and quality of students )374.2(? )374.1( prior knowledge, )]TJ T* 0.0004 Tw (relative to the learning requirements of a course. We then provide )Tj T* -0.006 Tw [(strategies instructors can employ to \(2\) activate students )219(? )219( relevant )]TJ T* 0.1095 Tw [(prior knowledge, \(3\) address gaps in students )334.6(? )334.5( prior knowledge, )]TJ T* 0.1362 Tw (\(4\) help students avoid applying prior knowledge in the wrong )Tj T* 0.2693 Tw (contexts, and \(5\) help students revise and rethink inaccurate )Tj T* 0 Tw (knowledge. )Tj /F14 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 108 177.62 Tm 0.0099 Tc 0.0367 Tw [( )229.6( )229.6(Methods to Gau)6.9(ge the Ex)-15.1(tent and Nature of)9.9( )]TJ 0 -1.0714 TD 0.0103 Tc -0.1933 Tw [(Students)11.3( ? )-229.6(P)7.3(rior )-229.6(Kno)8.3(wledge)10.3( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 140.12 Tm -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.1692 Tw [(Talk to Colleagues )394.2( )-605.8( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.6234 0 TD [( )394.2( )394.2(As a starting point for ?)]TJ 10.555 0 TD [( )107.2(nding out what )]TJ -20.1784 -1.3636 TD 0.0192 Tw (prior knowledge students bring to your course, talk to colleagues )Tj ET /Cs9 CS 0 SCN 1.25 w /GS4 gs 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 1 SCN 0.25 w 27 684 m 12 684 l 477 684 m 492 684 l 27 36 m 12 36 l 477 36 m 492 36 l 36 693 m 36 708 l 36 27 m 36 12 l 468 693 m 468 708 l 468 27 m 468 12 l S 0 SCN 1.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 700.5 m 257 697.739 254.761 695.5 252 695.5 c 249.239 695.5 247 697.739 247 700.5 c 247 703.261 249.239 705.5 252 705.5 c 254.761 705.5 257 703.261 257 700.5 c h 246 700.5 m 258 700.5 l 252 706.5 m 252 694.5 l S /Cs9 cs 1 scn 255 700.5 m 255 698.843 253.657 697.5 252 697.5 c 250.343 697.5 249 698.843 249 700.5 c 249 702.157 250.343 703.5 252 703.5 c 253.657 703.5 255 702.157 255 700.5 c f 0 SCN 249 700.5 m 255 700.5 l 252 703.5 m 252 697.5 l S 1.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 257 19.5 m 257 16.739 254.761 14.5 252 14.5 c 249.239 14.5 247 16.739 247 19.5 c 247 22.262 249.239 24.5 252 24.5 c 254.761 24.5 257 22.262 257 19.5 c h 246 19.5 m 258 19.5 l 252 25.5 m 252 13.5 l S 255 19.5 m 255 17.843 253.657 16.5 252 16.5 c 250.343 16.5 249 17.843 249 19.5 c 249 21.157 250.343 22.5 252 22.5 c 253.657 22.5 255 21.157 255 19.5 c f 0 SCN 249 19.5 m 255 19.5 l 252 22.5 m 252 16.5 l S 1.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 24.5 360 m 24.5 357.239 22.261 355 19.5 355 c 16.739 355 14.5 357.239 14.5 360 c 14.5 362.761 16.739 365 19.5 365 c 22.261 365 24.5 362.761 24.5 360 c h 13.5 360 m 25.5 360 l 19.5 366 m 19.5 354 l S 22.5 360 m 22.5 358.343 21.157 357 19.5 357 c 17.843 357 16.5 358.343 16.5 360 c 16.5 361.657 17.843 363 19.5 363 c 21.157 363 22.5 361.657 22.5 360 c f 0 SCN 16.5 360 m 22.5 360 l 19.5 363 m 19.5 357 l S 1.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c s 1 SCN 0.25 w 489.5 360 m 489.5 357.239 487.261 355 484.5 355 c 481.739 355 479.5 357.239 479.5 360 c 479.5 362.761 481.739 365 484.5 365 c 487.261 365 489.5 362.761 489.5 360 c h 478.5 360 m 490.5 360 l 484.5 366 m 484.5 354 l S 487.5 360 m 487.5 358.343 486.157 357 484.5 357 c 482.843 357 481.5 358.343 481.5 360 c 481.5 361.657 482.843 363 484.5 363 c 486.157 363 487.5 361.657 487.5 360 c f 0 SCN 481.5 360 m 487.5 360 l 484.5 363 m 484.5 357 l S endstream endobj 43 0 obj > endobj 44 0 obj > endobj 45 0 obj > endobj 46 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > stream H???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????~}|{zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcba`_^]\[ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA@?>= > endobj 50 0 obj > stream H?T?;o? 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Thus, it is )Tj T* 0.5764 Tw (important for instructors to highlight these connections. )Tj T* -0.0313 Tw (Instructors can help students activate relevant prior knowledge by )Tj T* 0.0033 Tw (framing particular lectures, discussions, or readings in relation to )Tj T* -0.0368 Tw (material learned previously in the semester. For example, in a liter-)Tj T* 0.0858 Tw [(ary theory course, the professor might begin class by saying, )310.8(? )310.8(In )]TJ T* (Unit 2 we discussed feminist theory. 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Similarly, we may uncover misconceptions and )Tj T* 0.0821 Tw [(inaccuracies in students )307.1(? )307.1( prior knowledge that are actively inter-)]TJ T* 0.0449 Tw (fering with their ability to learn the new material. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1245 Tw [( )349.5(Although, as instructors, we can and should build on stu-)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.028 Tw [(dents )253.1(? )253( prior knowledge, it is also important to recognize that not )]TJ T* 0.0293 Tw (all prior knowledge provides an equally solid foundation for new )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [(learning. )]TJ ET q 108 437.75 m 408 437.75 -300 -46 re 108 437.75 m W n /GS1 gs q 150 0 0 -150 258 414.750031 cm BX /Sh1 sh EX Q Q BT /F7 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 151.766 417.74 Tm -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F11 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc (Principle:)Tj /F7 1 Tf 3.7139 0 TD 0.045 Tw [( )270( Students )270(? )270( prior knowledge can help or )]TJ 2.252 -1.25 TD -0.225 Tw [(hinder )-270(learning. )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 132 365.07 Tm 0.0728 Tw [( )297.8(Students do not come into our courses as blank slates, but )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.0192 Tw (rather with knowledge gained in other courses and through daily )Tj T* 0.1384 Tw (life. This knowledge consists of an amalgam of facts, concepts, )Tj T* 0.0309 Tw (models, perceptions, beliefs, values, and attitudes, some of which )Tj T* 0.0726 Tw (are accurate, complete, and appropriate for the context, some of )Tj T* -0.0217 Tw (which are inaccurate, insuf?)Tj 11.4146 0 TD [( )-83.7(cient for the learning requirements of )]TJ -11.4146 -1.3636 TD 0.0993 Tw (the course, or simply inappropriate for the context. As students )Tj T* 0.0114 Tw (bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it in?)Tj 22.1383 0 TD 0.062 Tw [( uences )50.5(how )]TJ -22.1383 -1.3636 TD 0.0449 Tw (they ?)Tj 2.3529 0 TD 0.045 Tw [( )-17(lter and interpret incoming information. )]TJ -0.1711 -1.3636 TD 0.0525 Tw [( )277.5(Ideally, students build on a foundation of robust and accu-)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1049 Tw (rate prior knowledge, forging links between previously acquired )Tj T* 0.0982 Tw (and new knowledge that help them construct increasingly com-)Tj T* -0.073 Tw (plex and robust knowledge structures \(see Chapter Two\). However, )Tj T* 0.0519 Tw (students may not make connections to relevant prior knowledge )Tj T* 0.0049 Tw [(spontaneously. If they do not draw on relevant prior knowledge )230(?)]TJ T* 0.0485 Tw [( )273.5(in other words, if that knowledge is )]TJ /F10 1 Tf 15.3224 0 TD 0 Tw (inactive)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.907 0 TD -0.225 Tw [( ? it )-273.5(may )-273.5(not )-273.5(facilitate )]TJ -18.2294 -1.3636 TD 0.1657 Tw [(the integration of new knowledge. 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In )]TJ -10.6798 -1.3636 TD 0.0386 Tw [(actuality, although students have some knowledge )263.6(? )263.6(they are able )]TJ T* 0.0083 Tw [(to identify and describe a variety of statistical tests )233.3(? )233.3(it may not be )]TJ T* 0 Tw (suf?)Tj 1.583 0 TD 0.1237 Tw [( )61.7(cient for Professor Won )348.7(? )348.7(s assignment, which requires them )]TJ -1.583 -1.3636 TD -0.0366 Tw (to determine when particular tests are appropriate, apply the right )Tj T* -0.0348 Tw (test for the problem, and then interpret the results. Here Professor )Tj T* 0.0914 Tw [(Won )316.4(? )316.4(s predicament stems from a mismatch between the knowl-)]TJ T* 0.1652 Tw (edge students have and the knowledge their instructor expects )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (and needs them to have to function effectively in her course. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD -0.0182 Tw [( )206.8(In Professor Dione )206.8(? )206.8(s case it is not what students do )]TJ /F10 1 Tf 21.3291 0 TD 0 Tw (not)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.222 0 TD -0.225 Tw [( )-206.8(know )]TJ -24.7329 -1.3636 TD 0.0421 Tw (that hurts them but rather what they )Tj /F10 1 Tf 15.9621 0 TD 0 Tw (do)Tj /F3 1 Tf 0.889 0 TD 0.0422 Tw [( )267.2( know. His students, like )]TJ -16.8511 -1.3636 TD -0.0268 Tw [(many of us, have come to associate positive with )198.2(? )198.2(good )198.2(? )198.2( and nega-)]TJ T* 0.0966 Tw [(tive with )321.6(? )321.6(bad, )321.6(? )321.6( an association that is appropriate in many con-)]TJ T* 0.111 Tw (texts, but not in this one. 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The following semester, they redesigned the course so that )Tj T* -0.035 Tw (students were asked to generate examples of activities in their own )Tj T* 0.1725 Tw (lives that had either high or low variability, to represent them )Tj T* 0.1673 Tw (graphically, and draw on them as they reasoned about various )Tj T* -0.0096 Tw (aspects of variability. While both groups of students continued to )Tj T* 0.1212 Tw [(struggle with the concept, post )346.2(- )346.2(tests showed that students who )]TJ T* 0.1287 Tw (had generated relevant prior knowledge outperformed students )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (in the baseline class two to one. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD -0.0102 Tw [( )214.8(Exercises to generate prior knowledge can be a double )214.8(- )214.8(edged )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.0474 Tw (sword, however, if the knowledge students generate is inaccurate )Tj T* 0.0195 Tw [(or inappropriate for the context \(Alvermann, Smith, )244.5(& )244.5( Readance, )]TJ T* 0.2705 Tw [( )495.5(1985 )495.5(\). 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People with )Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.1222 Tw (more prior knowledge of soccer recalled more scores \(Morris et )Tj T* 0.0002 Tw [(al., )225.2(1981 )225.2(\). Similarly, research conducted by Kole and Healy )225.2(\(2007\) )225.2( )]TJ T* -0.006 Tw (showed that college students who were presented with unfamiliar )Tj T* -0.0383 Tw [(facts about well )186.7(- )186.7(known individuals demonstrated twice the capac-)]TJ T* 0.0167 Tw (ity to learn and retain those facts as students who were presented )Tj T* -0.0199 Tw (with the same number of facts about unfamiliar individuals. Both )Tj T* 0.0926 Tw (these studies illustrate how prior knowledge of a topic can help )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (students integrate new information. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.0473 Tw [( )272.3(However, students may not spontaneously bring their prior )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.0333 Tw (knowledge to bear on new learning situations \(see the discussion )Tj T* 0.1329 Tw (of transfer in Chapter Four\). Thus, it is important to help stu-)Tj T* 0.1427 Tw (dents activate prior knowledge so they can build on it produc-)Tj T* 0.2688 Tw (tively. Indeed, research suggests that even small instructional )Tj T* 0.1101 Tw [(interventions can activate students )335.1(? )335.1( relevant prior knowledge to )]TJ T* 0.1669 Tw (positive effect. For instance, in one famous study by Gick and )Tj T* 0.0933 Tw [(Holyoak )318.3(\(1980\) )318.3(, college students were presented with two prob-)]TJ T* -0.009 Tw (lems that required them to apply the concept of convergence. The )Tj T* 0.0131 Tw (researchers found that even when the students knew the solution )Tj T* 0.0769 Tw (to the ?)Tj 3.1318 0 TD [( )14.9(rst problem, the vast majority did not think to apply an )]TJ -3.1318 -1.3636 TD 0.1515 Tw (analogous solution to the second problem. However, when the )Tj T* -0.018 Tw (instructor suggested to students that they think about the second )Tj T* 0.0301 Tw (problem in relation to the ?)Tj 11.4898 0 TD 0.0302 Tw [( )-31.8(rst, 80 percent of the student partici-)]TJ -11.4898 -1.3636 TD 0.0909 Tw (pants were able to solve it. In other words, with minor prompts )Tj T* 0.3058 Tw (and simple reminders, instructors can activate relevant prior )Tj T* -0.026 Tw (knowledge so that students draw on it more effectively \(Bransford )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [( & )-270(Johnson, )-270( 1972 ; )-270(Dooling )-270( & )-270(Lachman, )-270( 1971 \). )]TJ 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.113 Tw [( )338(Research also suggests that asking students questions spe-)]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0 Tw (ci?)Tj 0.991 0 TD 0.0317 Tw [( )-30.3(cally designed to trigger recall can help them use prior knowl-)]TJ -0.991 -1.3636 TD 0.2124 Tw (edge to aid the integration and retention of new information )Tj T* 0.1722 Tw [(\(Woloshyn, Paivio, )397.2(& )397.2( Pressley, )397.2(1994 )397.2(\). For example, Martin and )]TJ T* 0.3362 Tw [(Pressley )561.2(\(1991\) )561.2( asked Canadian adults to read about events )]TJ T* 0.1756 Tw (that had occurred in various Canadian provinces. 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A )Tj T* 0.1242 Tw (number of concept inventories have been widely used and have )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw [(high validity and reliability. )270( )]TJ 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.0702 Tw [(Have Students Assess Their Own Prior Knowledge )295.3( )-704.8( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.8665 0 TD -0.225 Tw [( In )-295.3(some )]TJ -23.8665 -1.3636 TD 0 Tw (?)Tj 0.287 0 TD 0.0279 Tw [( )-34.1(elds and at some levels of expertise, having students assess their )]TJ -0.287 -1.3636 TD 0.1199 Tw [(own knowledge and skills can be a quick and effective )344.9(? )344.9(though )]TJ T* -0.0167 Tw [(not necessarily foolproof )208.4(? )208.3(way to diagnose missing or insuf?)]TJ 24.9298 0 TD 0.062 Tw [( cient )]TJ -24.9298 -1.3636 TD 0.0206 Tw [(prior knowledge. 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Examine the data for the class as a whole in )]TJ T* 0.1781 Tw (order to identify areas in which your students have either less )Tj T* 0.1782 Tw (knowledge than you expect or more. In either case, this infor-)Tj T* 0.3993 Tw (mation can help you recalibrate your instruction to better )Tj T* 0.0313 Tw [(meet student needs. See )256.3(Appendix A )256.3( for more information about )]TJ T* -0.225 Tw [(student )-269.9(self - assessments. )]TJ 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.1391 Tw [(Use Brainstorming to Reveal Prior Knowledge )364.2( )-635.9( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.2855 0 TD -0.225 Tw [( One )-364.2(way )-364.2(to )]TJ -22.2855 -1.3636 TD 0.1631 Tw [(expose students )388.2(? )388.1( prior knowledge is to conduct a group brain-)]TJ T* 0.0961 Tw (storming session. 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Thus, students may be moving in the direction of )Tj T* -0.0117 Tw (more accurate knowledge even when it is not yet apparent in their )Tj T* -0.225 Tw [(performance )-274.4(\(Alibali, )-274.4( 1999 ; )-274.5(Chi )-274.5( & )-274.5(Roscoe, )-274.5( 2002 \). )-274.5(Moreover, )-274.5(even )]TJ T* 0.0603 Tw (when students retain inaccurate beliefs, they can learn to inhibit )Tj T* 0.3413 Tw (and override those beliefs and draw on accurate knowledge )Tj T* 0.1931 Tw (instead. Research indicates, for instance, that when people are )Tj T* 0 Tw (suf?)Tj 1.583 0 TD 0.2094 Tw [( )147.4(ciently motivated to do so, they can consciously suppress )]TJ -1.583 -1.3636 TD 0.2348 Tw (stereotypical judgments and learn to rely on rational analysis )Tj T* 0.1838 Tw [(more and stereotypes less \(Monteith )408.8(& )408.8( Mark, )408.8(2005 )408.8(; Monteith, )]TJ T* 0.0151 Tw [(Sherman, )240.1(& )240.1( Devine, )240.1(1998 )240.1(\). Moreover, since consciously overcom-)]TJ T* 0.1259 Tw (ing misconceptions requires more cognitive energy than simply )Tj T* 0.2269 Tw (falling back on intuitive, familiar modes of thinking, there is )Tj T* 0.019 Tw (research to suggest that when distractions and time pressures are )Tj T* 0.1259 Tw (minimized, students will be more likely to think rationally and )Tj T* -0.0724 Tw (avoid applying misconceptions and ?)Tj 15.0115 0 TD -0.0723 Tw [( )-134.3(awed assumptions \(Finucane )]TJ -15.0115 -1.3636 TD -0.225 Tw [(et )-270(al., )-269.9( 2000 ; )-270(Kahnemann )-270( & )-270(Frederick, )-270( 2002 \). )]TJ 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1925 Tw [( )417.5(In addition, carefully designed instruction can help wean )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1231 Tw (students from misconceptions through a process called )Tj /F10 1 Tf 24.1987 0 TD 0 Tw (bridging)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.074 0 TD -0.225 Tc ( )Tj -27.2727 -1.3636 TD 0 Tc -0.225 Tw [(\(Brown, )-521.8( 1992 ; )-521.9(Brown )-521.9( & )-521.9(Clement, )-521.9( 1989 ; )-521.9(Clement, )-521.9( 1993 \). )-521.9(For )]TJ T* -0.05 Tw (example, Clement observed that students often had trouble believ-)Tj T* 0.0992 Tw (ing that a table exerts force on a book placed on its surface. To )Tj T* 0.1098 Tw (help students grasp this somewhat counterintuitive concept, he )Tj T* 0.1946 Tw (designed an instructional intervention for high school physics )Tj T* 0.1655 Tw [(students that started from students )390.6(? )390.5( accurate prior knowledge. )]TJ T* 0.1904 Tw (Because students did believe that a compressed spring exerted )Tj T* 0.1264 Tw (force, the researchers were able to analogize from the spring to )Tj T* 0.0166 Tw (foam, then to pliable wood, and ?)Tj 13.9049 0 TD [( )-45.3(nally to a solid table. The inter-)]TJ -13.9049 -1.3636 TD 0.0828 Tw (mediate objects served to bridge the difference between a spring )Tj T* 0.1018 Tw (and the table and enabled the students to extend their accurate )Tj T* 0.0912 Tw (prior knowledge to new contexts. Using this approach, Clement )Tj T* 0.068 Tw (obtained signi?)Tj 6.3219 0 TD [( )6(cantly greater pre )293(- )293( to posttest gains compared to )]TJ -6.3219 -1.3636 TD 0.1921 Tw [(traditional classroom instruction. 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Instead, it is critical to assess )Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0033 Tw [(both the amount and nature of students )221.6(? )221.6( prior knowledge so that )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0449 Tw [(we can design our instruction appropriately. )270( )269.9( )]TJ /F14 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 96 522.62 Tm 0.0101 Tc -0.1931 Tw [( Inappropriate )-229.6(P)7.1(rior )-229.6(Kno)8.1(wledge)10.1( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 96 500.12 Tm 0 Tc 0.1789 Tw [( )403.9(Under some circumstances, students draw on prior knowledge )]TJ T* 0.2833 Tw (that is inappropriate for the learning context. Although this )Tj T* -0.0035 Tw (knowledge is not necessarily inaccurate, it can skew their compre-)Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (hension of new material. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD -0.0078 Tw [( )217.2(One situation in which prior knowledge can distort learning )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD -0.0383 Tw (and performance is when students import everyday meanings into )Tj T* 0.0216 Tw (technical contexts. Several studies in statistics, for example, show )Tj T* -0.0116 Tw (how commonplace de?)Tj 9.4188 0 TD [( )-73.5(nitions of terms such as )]TJ /F10 1 Tf 10.4101 0 TD 0 Tw (random)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.999 0 TD -0.0115 Tw [( )213.5( and )]TJ /F10 1 Tf 2.0198 0 TD 0 Tw (spread)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.425 0 TD -0.225 Tc ( )Tj -27.2727 -1.3636 TD 0 Tc -0.032 Tw [(intrude in technical contexts, distorting students )193(? )193( understandings )]TJ T* 0.1442 Tw [(of statistical concepts \(Del Mas )369.2(& )369.2( Liu, )369.2(2007 )369.2(; Kaplan, Fisher, )369.2(& )369.2( )]TJ T* -0.0739 Tw [(Rogness, )151.1(2009 )151.1(\). 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When presented with the counterintuitive )Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.2339 Tw [(concept of negative reinforcement, Professor Dione )458.9(? )458.9(s students )]TJ T* 0.2329 Tw (drew on associations \(of positive as desirable and negative as )Tj T* 0.3296 Tw (undesirable\) that were interfering with their comprehension. )Tj T* 0.017 Tw (However, if Professor Dione had tried activating a different set of )Tj T* 0.1283 Tw [(associations )353.4(? )353.3(namely of positive as adding and negative as sub-)]TJ T* 0.046 Tw [(tracting )271(? )271(he may have been able to leverage those associations to )]TJ T* -0.0197 Tw (help his students understand that positive reinforcement involves )Tj T* 0.1506 Tw (adding something to a situation to increase a desired behavior )Tj T* 0.1481 Tw (whereas negative reinforcement involves subtracting something )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (to increase a desired behavior. )Tj 0 -2.7273 TD -0.225 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj /F15 1 Tf 0 0 TD 0 Tc 0.1476 Tw [(Implications of This Research )372.7( )-627.4( )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 14.8218 0 TD 0.1477 Tw [( )372.7( )372.7(When learning new material, )]TJ -14.8218 -1.3636 TD 0.0731 Tw (students may draw on knowledge \(from everyday contexts, from )Tj T* 0.0279 Tw (incomplete analogies, from other disciplinary contexts, and from )Tj T* 0.0634 Tw (their own cultural or linguistic backgrounds\) that is inappropri-)Tj T* 0.0632 Tw (ate for the context, and which can distort their interpretation of )Tj T* 0.2206 Tw (new material or impede new learning. 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Yet if Westerners interpret these practices )]TJ T* 0.2826 Tw (through the lens of their own prior cultural knowledge and )Tj T* 0.1733 Tw (assumptions, they may emerge with a distorted understanding )Tj T* 0.0449 Tw (that can impede further learning. )Tj 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1102 Tw [( )335.2(Research suggests that if students are explicitly taught the )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1394 Tw (conditions and contexts in which knowledge is applicable \(and )Tj T* 0.1418 Tw (inapplicable\), it can help them avoid applying prior knowledge )Tj T* 0.0042 Tw (inappropriately. Moreover, if students learn abstract principles to )Tj T* 0.0662 Tw (guide the application of their knowledge and are presented with )Tj T* 0.2112 Tw (multiple examples and contexts in which to practice applying )Tj T* -0.0312 Tw (those principles, it not only helps them recognize when their prior )Tj T* -0.022 Tw (knowledge is relevant to a particular context \(see Chapter Four on )Tj T* -0.0325 Tw (transfer\), but also helps them avoid misapplying knowledge in the )Tj T* 0.1053 Tw [(wrong contexts \(Schwartz et al., )330.3(1999 )330.3(\). Researchers also observe )]TJ T* -0.0128 Tw (that making students explicitly aware of the limitations of a given )Tj T* 0.1137 Tw (analogy can help them learn not to approach analogies uncriti-)Tj T* 0.045 Tw [(cally or stretch a simple analogy too far \(Spiro et al., )270(1989 )270(\). )]TJ 2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1236 Tw [( )348.6(Another way to help students avoid making inappropriate )]TJ -2.1818 -1.3636 TD 0.1028 Tw (associations or applying prior knowledge in the wrong contexts )Tj T* -0.0591 Tw (is to deliberately activate their relevant prior knowledge \(Minstrell, )Tj T* 0.0725 Tw [( )297.5(1989, 1992 )297.5(\). 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Table of Contents

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits.

Foreword (Richard E. Mayer).

Acknowledgments.

About the Authors.

Introduction Bridging Learning Research and Teaching Practice.

1 How Does Students' Prior Knowledge Affect Their Learning?

2 How Does the Way Students Organize Knowledge Affect Their Learning?

3 What Factors Motivate Students to Learn?

4 How Do Students Develop Mastery?

5 What Kinds of Practice and Feedback Enhance Learning?

6 Why Do Student Development and Course Climate Matter for Student Learning?

7 How Do Students Become Self-Directed Learners?

Conclusion Applying the Seven Principles to Ourselves.

Appendices.

Appendix A What Is Student Self-Assessment and How Can We Use It?

Appendix B What Are Concept Maps and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix C What Are Rubrics and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix D What Are Learning Objectives and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix E What Are Ground Rules and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix F What Are Exam Wrappers and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix G What Are Checklists and How Can We Use Them?

Appendix H What Is Reader Response/Peer Review and How Can We Use It?

References.

Name Index.

Subject Index.