How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology by Roger ArditiHow Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology by Roger Arditi

How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology

byRoger Arditi, Lev Ginzburg

Hardcover | May 25, 2012

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Understanding the functioning of ecosystems requires the understanding of the interactions between consumer species and their resources. How do these interactions affect the variations of population abundances? How do population abundances determine the impact of predators on their prey? Theview defended in this book is that the "null model" that most ecologists tend to use (derived from the Lotka-Volterra equations) is inappropriate because it assumes that the amount of prey consumed by each predator is insensitive to the number of conspecifics. In this book, the authors argue that the amount of prey available per predator (rather than the absolute abundance of prey) is the basic determinant of the dynamics of predation. This so-called ratio dependence is shown to be a much more reasonable "null model". Lessons can be drawn from a similardebate that took place in microbiology in the 1950's. Currently, populations of bacteria are known to follow the analogue of ratio dependence when growing in real-life conditions. Three kinds of arguments are developed. First, it is shown that available direct measurements of prey consumption are"in the middle" but most are close to ratio dependence and all are clearly away from the usual Lotka-Volterra relationship; an example is the system of wolves and moose on Isle Royale. Second, indirect evidence is based on the responses of food chains to nutrient enrichment: all empiricalobservations at the community level agree very well with the ratio-dependent view. Third, mechanistic approaches explain how ratio dependence emerges at the global scale, even when assuming Lotka-Volterra interactions at the local scale; this is illustrated by microcosm experiments, by individual-based models and by mathematical models. Changing the fundamental paradigm of thepredator-prey interaction has far-reaching consequences, ranging from the logical consistency of theoretical ecology to practical questions of eco-manipulation, biological control, conservation ecology.
Roger Arditi is a "professor of exceptional class" in Paris, France. He works for INRA, the French National Institute for Agronomic Research, in the research unit of Ecology and Evolution at University Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. He has published both in theoretical and applied areas of population and community ecology, authoring m...
Title:How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic EcologyFormat:HardcoverDimensions:304 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:May 25, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199913838

ISBN - 13:9780199913831

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Alternative theories of trophic interaction1.1 Monod vs. Contois: resource-dependent and ratio-dependent bacteria1.2 The standard predator-prey model of ecology1.3 The Arditi-Ginzburg ratio-dependent model1.4 Donor control and ratio dependence1.5 Predator-dependent models1.6 What happens at low consumer density? The gradual interference hypothesis1.7 Biomass conversion2. 2.1 Insect predators and parasitoids, snails, fish, and others: laboratory measurements2.1.1 Manipulating the consumer density alone2.1.2 Measuring interference in the presence of a saturating functional response2.1.3 The Arditi-Akakaya predator-dependent model2.1.4 Application to literature data2.1.5 Does interference increase gradually?2.2 Wasps and chrysomelids: a field experiment2.3 Wolves and moose: field observations2.3.1 Wolf social structure and spatial scales2.3.2 Model fitting and model selection methods2.3.3 The wolf-moose functional response is ratio-dependent2.4 Additional direct tests of ratio dependence2.4.1 Bark beetles2.4.2 Shrimps2.4.3 Egg parasitoids2.4.4 Benthic flatworms2.5 Identifying the functional response in time series3. Indirect evidence: food chain equilibria3.1 Cascading responses to harvesting at the top of the food chain3.2 Enrichment response when the number of trophic levels is fixed3.3 Enrichment response when the number of trophic levels increases with enrichment3.4 The paradox of enrichment3.5 Donor control and stability of food webs3.6 Why the world is green4. How gradual interference and ratio dependence emerge4.1 Experimental evidence of the role of predator clustering4.1.1 A microcosm experiment with cladocerans4.1.2 Predator aggregations lead to ratio dependence4.2 Refuges and donor control4.2.1 A simple exploratory theoretical model4.2.2 From donor control to ratio dependence4.3 The role of directed movements in the formation of population spatial structures4.3.1 Self-organization due to accelerated movement4.3.2 Spatially-structured predator-prey systems4.3.3 Generalization4.4 Ratio dependence and biological control4.4.1 The biological control paradox4.4.2 Trophotaxis and biological control4.5 Emergence of gradual interference: an individual-based approach4.5.1 A qualitative model based on predator home ranges4.5.2 An individual-based model based on trophotaxis5. The ratio dependence controversy5.1 How interference estimates can be wrong5.2 The paradox of enrichment and the cascading enrichment response: Is there any evidence that they exist?5.3 The fallacy of instantism5.4 Are population cycles really caused by predation?5.5 Mechanistic vs. phenomenological theories5.6 "The truth is always in the middle": How much truth is in this statement?6. It must be beautiful6.1 Scale invariance and symmetries6.2 Kolmogorov's insight6.3 Akakaya's ratio-dependent model for lynx-hare cycling6.4 The "limit myth"Appendices3.A Food chain responses to increased primary production3.A.1 Prey-dependent four-level food chain3.A.2 Ratio-dependent three-level food chain3.B Cascading response in the ratio-dependent model6.A How a revised ecology textbook could look