Human Biological Variation

Paperback | March 17, 2010

byJames H. Mielke, Lyle W. Konigsberg, John H. Relethford

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This text explores human biological variation in its broadest sense - from the molecular to the physiological and morphological - focusing on the micro-evolutionary analysis of genetic variation among recent human populations. Authoritative yet accessible, Human Biological Variation, SecondEdition, opens with an engaging introduction to basic genetics and the evolutionary forces that set the stage for understanding human diversity. It goes on to offer a clear and detailed discussion of molecular genetics, including its uses and its relationship to anthropological and evolutionarymodels. The text features up-to-date discussions of classic genetic markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) along with extensive background on DNA analysis and coverage of satellite DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and Alu inserts. Coverage includes current issues such as themeaning and significance of "race," quantitative genetics and the "nature versus nurture" debates, biocultural interactions, population structure, and cultural and historical influences on patterns of human variation. Integrating real-world examples on interesting topics - including dyslexia, IQ,and homosexuality - this second edition of Human Biological Variation provides the most thorough and contemporary view of our biological diversity.

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This text explores human biological variation in its broadest sense - from the molecular to the physiological and morphological - focusing on the micro-evolutionary analysis of genetic variation among recent human populations. Authoritative yet accessible, Human Biological Variation, SecondEdition, opens with an engaging introduction t...

James H. Mielke is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. Lyle W. Konigsberg is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. John H. Relethford is Distinguished Teaching Professor and Chair of Anthropology at the State University of New York College at Oneonta.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:464 pages, 9.25 × 6.5 × 0.68 inPublished:March 17, 2010Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195387406

ISBN - 13:9780195387407

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Table of Contents

Section I: Background1. Comprehending Human Biological Diversity: A Brief HistoryThe Beginnings of Western Classification SystemsClassifying the DiversityA Shift in Racial ClassificationsPolygenismMore Measuring of Skulls and the Ideal TypeTypological ApproachMendelian GeneticsQuestioning the Usefulness of the Race ConceptA Genetic Definition of RaceClines and PopulationsSo, Where Are We Today?Chapter SummarySupplemental Resources2. The Genetic Basis of Human VariationA Minimalist View of the Requirements for Inheritance via DNAMitosis produces identical nuclear DNA in daughter cellsMeiosis produces haploid daughter cellsHuman ChromosomesThe Processes of Cell DivisionMitosisMeiosisDeoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)The molecular composition of DNAReplicationTranscriptionTranslationFrom Genotype to PhenotypeDominanceMutationSubstitutionsInsertions and deletionsRecombinationsTranslocations and non-disjunctionMutation frequenciesBasic Transmission Genetics - The Mendelian LawsMendel's First Law - segregation of allelesMendel's Second Law - independent assortment of allelesBeyond MendelSex-linked inheritanceMitochondrial DNAWhat Is a Gene?Explorations in Diversity: Telomere Length and Aging *Chapter SummarySupplemental Resources3. Population Genetics and Human VariationProbability TheoryProbability rulesHardy-Weinberg EquilibriumAllele frequenciesExpected genotype frequenciesWhy is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium important?How can we tell if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?Departures from Hardy-Weinberg EquilibriumMultiple locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibriumAssortative matingInbreedingEvolutionary ForcesMutationSelectionDriftMigrationCombining forcesChapter SummarySupplemental ResourcesSection II: Variation in Genes, Simple Genetic Traits, and DNA Markers4. Blood Group Polymorphisms*Antigens, Antibodies, and the Immune System*The immune system*Innate immunityAcquired immunity (adaptive immunity)Genetic Polymorphisms in the BloodABO, Hh (FUT1), Secretor (FUT2), and Lewis (FUT3) SystemsThe ABO histo-blood group systemHh (FUT1) and BombayThe secretor system (FUT2)The Lewis system (FUT3)Explorations in Diversity: Histo-Blood Groups and Diet *Geographical Distribution and Natural Selection of the ABO Histo-Blood Group SystemCholeraSyphilis (treponemal diseases)PlagueSmallpoxPathogen receptors *Blood group associationsOther possible selective factors and the ABO systemThe Rh SystemThe Rh system and selection*Explorations in Diversity: Erythrocytes as Pathogen DecoysThe MNSs Blood Group SystemThe Duffy Blood Group SystemOther Blood GroupsChapter SummarySupplemental Resources5. Serum Protein and Red Cell EnzymesDetection of Genetic PolymorphismsSome Plasma ProteinsHaptoglobin (alpha-2-globulins)Transferrin (Tf)Group-specific component or vitamin D-binding proteinImmunoglobulins (Gm-Am and Km)Apolipoproteins, Beta Lipoproteins, and Beta-2-GlycoproteinsOther plasma proteinsExplorations in Diversity: Novel Ways to Explore Human Variation and Evolution *Red Cell EnzymesGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseOther enzyme systems of anthropological interestExploring Population Structure with Classical MarkersExample 1: The Irish travelers or tinkersExample 2: The origins of Indo-EuropeansChapter SummarySupplemental Resources6. Human Leukocyte Antigen and PolymorphismThe Major Histocompatibility ComplexLocation and Organization of the MHCLinkage DisequilibriumHLA and Disease AssociationsHLA and Population DiversityExplorations in Diversity: HLA and Mate Choice? *Chapter SummarySupplemental Resources7. Human Hemoglobin VariantsBeginnings of Hemoglobin ResearchThe Hemoglobin Molecule and Hemoglobin GenesHemoglobin VariantsThe Geographic Distribution of the Sickle Cell AlleleHow resistance to faliparum malaria worksThe Possibility of Differential FertilityOrigin of the Sickle Cell AlleleOther HemoglobinopathiesHbE (Hemoglobin E)HbC (Hemoglobin C)Other Hemoglobinopathies of anthropological interestThalassemiasAlpha-thalassemiasBeta- thalassemiasThalassemia HaplotypesThe Thalassemias and Natural SelectionChapter SummarySupplemental Resources8. Milk, Taste, and Cerumen *Lactase Restriction and PersistenceTaste: Phenylthiocarbamide (6-N-PROPYLTHIOURACIL)Variation in Ear Wax, or CerumenChapter SummarySupplemental Resources9. DNA MarkersMolecular Genetic Techniques and DNA VariationPolymerase chain reaction (PCR)Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP)Insertions and deletions ("indels")Interspersed nuclear elements: SINEs and LINEsDNA sequencingTandem repeatsExplorations in Diversity: Two DNA Vignettes from across the Globe *Copy number variants *American Indians *The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the DiasporaHow Many Races are Documented in Our DNA?DNA Markers and Individual VariationThomas Jefferson and the descendants of Sally HemmingsWho is buried in Jesse James's grave?Chapter SummarySupplemental ResourcesSection III: Variation in Complex Traits and Other Variations10. The Mendelian Basis for Quantitative Trait VariationCompontents of variation for a quantitative traitEstimation of Narrow Sense Heritability (h2)Narrow Sense Heritability of the Cephalic IndexMultiple Quantitative TraitsEvolution and Quantitative TraitsMutationSelectionGenetic drift and migrationExplorations in Diversity: QTLs, LODs, and AIMs *Chapter SummarySupplemental Resources11. Anthropometric VariationAnthropometric MeasuresBody measuresSkin foldsHead measuresVariation Within PopulationsGeneticsExplorations in Diversity: Can We Tell Race from Cranial Measurements? *Human growthAgingSexual dimorphismEnvironmental VariationsCorrelations with climateHigh-altitude adaptation*Explorations in Diversity: The Practical Value of AnthropometryChapter SummarySupplemental Resources12. PigmentationSkin ColorThe biology of skin colorExplorations in Diversity: Skin and Hair Color of the Neandertals *Variation in human skin colorThe Evolution of Human Skin ColorSelection for dark skinSelection for light skinOther Aspects of Human PigmentationHair colorEye colorChapter SummarySupplemental ResourcesSection IV: Population Studies and Human Behaviors13. Population Structure and Population HistoryGenetic DistancesComputing genetic distancesThe representation of genetic distancesPopulation StructureFactors effecting population structureCase study: The Aland IslandsExplorations in Diversity: The Colonization of the Pacific Ocean *Case Studies in Population HistoryAdmixture in African AmericansThe population history of IrelandGlobal Genetic Diversity and the History of the Human Species *Levels of genetic diversityGenetic distanceGene treesNeandertal DNAChapter SummarySupplemental Readings14. Genetics, Behavior, and Human VariationHuman Behavioral GeneticsGenetics, environment, and behaviorCase Studies in Behavioral GeneticsDyslexiaSexual orientationIQ test scoresChapter SummarySupplemental ResourcesGlossaryReferenceIndex* = new to this edition