Human Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis

Paperback | November 28, 2006

EditorUnited United Nations Development Program, United Nations Development Program

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Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods - but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. In the early 21st Century, prospects for human development are threatened by a deepening global water crisis. Debunking the myth that the crisis is the result of scarcity, this report argues poverty, power and inequality are at the heart of the problem.
 
*Investigates the underlying causes and consequences of a crisis that leaves 1.2 billion people without access to safe water and 2.6 billion without access to sanitation
*Examines the social and economic forces that are driving water shortages and marginalizing the poor in agriculture and examines the scope for international cooperation to resolve cross-border tensions in water management
*Includes special contributions from Gordon Brown and Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, President Lula, President Carter, and the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan.

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Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods - but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. In the early 21st Century, prospects for human development are threatened by a deepening glo...

The United Nations Development Program is the UN's global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. They are on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As the...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:388 pages, 11.01 × 8.52 × 1.03 inPublished:November 28, 2006Publisher:Palgrave MacmillanLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0230500587

ISBN - 13:9780230500587

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION * OVERVIEW * CHAPTER 1: WATER AND SANITATION -- THE NEXT LEAP FORWARD * 1 WATER AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT * 1.1 Lessons from the rich world * 1.2 global water and sanitation: the great divide * 1.3 Under-reported deprivation * 2 THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF THE WATER AND SANITATION CRISIS * 2.1 Human security and water security -- the deadly link at birth *  2.2 The wider health costs 2.3 Life cycle disadvantages * 2.4 Time poverty and gender inequality * 2.5 Water and sanitation deficits hurt girls' education * 2.6 Human dignity * 2.7 From people to countries -- the economic costs * 3 WHY INEQUALITY MATTERS * 3.1 The poor account for most of the deficit * 3.2 Unequal access to 'improved' sources * 3.3 The poor pay more -- and more than they can afford * 3.4 Scarcity amidst abundance -- the great water divides * 4 THE MDGS AND BEYOND: GETTING ON TRACK AND ACHIEVING THE GOALS * 4.1 The MDG progress report * 4.2 Meeting the target --costs and benefits * 5 MAKING PROGRESS A REALITY * 5.1 National strategies * 5.2 International aid * CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS * CHAPTER 2 WATER FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION * 1 WHY THE POOR PAY MORE -- AND GET LESS WATER * 1.1 'Improved' and 'unimproved' water -- an illusory border * 1.2 The role of vendors * 1.3 Climbing the price ladder * 1.4 Overcoming exclusion -- the financing, affordability and access challenges * 2 MANAGING THE NETWORK -- THE PROVIDERS DILEMMA *  2.1 Public providers -- the unvirtuous circle * 2.2 The public-private link * 3 DELIVERING THE OUTCOMES -- THE POLICIES * 3.1 Reaching the rural poor * 3.2 Solidarity financing access for the urban poor * 3.3 International solidarity matters too * SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS * CHAPTER 3 SANITATION * INTRODUCTION * 1 OVERVIEW OF THE SANITATION PROBLEM * 2 WHY SANITATION LAGS SO FAR BEHIND WATER * 2.1 Why supply-driven provision is particularly ill-suited to improving sanitation in deprived settlements * 2.2 Why governments and donors give more support to water than to sanitation * 2.3 When sanitation does not always lag behind water * 3 BREAKING THE CYCLE (DRAWING ON LESSONS FROM SUCCESS STORIES) * 3.1 Comparing different experiences in urban areas * 3.2 Comparing different experiences in rural areas * 3.3 Involving Children * 4 JUDGING SUCCESS * 5 WAYS AHEAD: MORE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT, MORE ENGAGEMENT WITH THE UNSERVED * 5.1 Avoiding inappropriate models of sanitation improvement * 5.2 Tapping collective demands for better sanitation * 5.3 Supporting community groups in organizing for better sanitation * 5.4 Promoting good hygiene * 5.5 Encouraging local government to be more responsive to demands for sanitary improvement * 5.6 Obtaining national support for locally-driven sanitary improvement * 6 GOING TO SCALE AND REACHING THE MDG TARGETS * 6.1 What role for international agencies? * 6.2 Combining government, community and household contributions * CHAPTER 4 WATER --SCARCITY, RISK AND VULNERABILITY * INTRODUCTION * 1 RETHINKING SCARCITY IN A WATER-STRESSED WORLD * 1.1 Understanding scarcity * 1.2 The shrinking resource base -- problems, policies and responses * 2 RISK, VULNERABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY * 2.1 The crucial role of infrastructure * 2.2 Global warming -- the predictable disaster * SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS * INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT * CHAPTER 5 WATER COMPETITION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE * INTRODUCTION * 1 WATER AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT -- THE LIVELIHOOD LINK * 1.1 The livelihood links * 1.2 Agriculture under pressure -- the emerging scenarios * 1.3 Immovable objects and irresistible forces * 1.4 Putting human development and equity at the heart of water management * 2 COMPETITION, RIGHTS, AND THE SCRAMBLE FOR WATER * 2.1 The limits to private water markets * 2.2 Equity and empowerment have not been central to the rights framework in water * 2.3 Customs and rights in sub-Saharan Africa * 2.4 Rethinking water rights * 3 THE GOVERNANCE CHALLENGE IN IRRIGATION * 3.1 Equity, efficiency and empowerment in irrigation systems * 3.2 Financing with equity * 3.3 Empowerment - the missing link * 4 REDUCING RISK AND RAISING PRO-POOR PRODUCTIVITY * 4.1 Water harvesting and micro-irrigation * 4.2 Low-technology solutions with high human development returns * SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS * CHAPTER 6 MANAGING TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: POWER, INTERDEPENDENCE AND INSTITUTIONS * INTRODUCTION * 1 HYDROLOGICAL INTERDEPENDENCE * 1.1 Sharing the world's water * 1.2 Following the river * 2 THE COSTS OF NON COOPERATION * 2.1 Transmitting tensions down the river * 2.2 Shrinking lakes and dirty rivers * 3 THE CASE FOR COOPERATION * 3.1 The rules of the game * 3.2 On the river and beyond the river * 3.3 The state of cooperation * 3.4 Obstacles to deeper cooperation * 4 RIVER BASIN COOPERATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT * 4.1 Basin level cooperation* 4.2 Strengthening institutional structures for water management * 4.3 Investing in human development needs assessments * 4.4 International support * CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS