Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology

Paperback | October 22, 2014

byPatrick Nolan, Gerhard Lenski

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Taking a macrosociological, global approach, Human Societies offers an introduction to sociology that is truly comparative, cross-cultural, and historical. It compares societies over time and across environments, emphasizing the dynamics of social change. Its clearly developedecological-evolutionary perspective provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding the array of social arrangements found in human societies over the past 100,000 years. Since industrial societies are introduced only after this theoretical base has been firmly established and older, simpler, and smaller societies have been examined in detail, students see their own society (and other contemporary societies) in a broader and more meaningful way. By showing how socialarrangements are related to the environmental and technological contexts that societies are situated in, Human Societies encourages students to look for the reasons why social arrangements are the way they are, and why they change over time.

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Taking a macrosociological, global approach, Human Societies offers an introduction to sociology that is truly comparative, cross-cultural, and historical. It compares societies over time and across environments, emphasizing the dynamics of social change. Its clearly developedecological-evolutionary perspective provides a powerful theo...

Patrick Nolan is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of South Carolina. An NDEA Title IV Fellow at Temple University, he has been recognized several times by his students as "one who has made a difference." In addition, in November of 2002 he received the Excellence in Teaching Award from the Alpha Chapter ...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:464 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:October 22, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019938245X

ISBN - 13:9780199382453

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Table of Contents

PrefacePART ONE Theoretical Foundations1. The Human ConditionHuman Societies: Their Place in NatureSocieties as Adaptive Mechanisms / A Definition of Human SocietiesUnderstanding Human Societies: Basic AssumptionsHuman Societies and the Environment / Human Societies: Their Genetic Heritage / Human Cultures: A New and Unique Mode of Adaptation and a New and Unique Kind of HeritageHuman Societies: The Basic ModelExcursus: A Brief History of Sociology2. Human Societies as Sociocultural SystemsHuman Societies as SystemsThe Five Basic Components of Human SocietiesPopulation / Culture / Material Products / Social Organization / Social Institutions and Institutional SystemsThe World System of Societies3. The Evolution of Human SocietiesForces Promoting Social and Cultural ContinuityForces Promoting Social and Cultural ChangeForms of Innovation / Causes of Innovation / Variations in the Rate of InnovationForces of SelectionIntrasocietal Selection / Intersocietal SelectionSocietal Growth and DevelopmentSubsistence Technology's Role in Sociocultural Evolution / Ideology's Role in Sociocultural EvolutionA Model of the Evolution of the World System of SocietiesExcursus: A Comparison of Biological and Sociocultural Evolution4. Types of Human SocietiesClassifying Human SocietiesSocietal Types through HistoryHistorical ErasDifferences among Types of SocietiesSize of Societies / Permanence of Settlements / Societal Complexity / IdeologySocietal Types: What They Are and What They Are NotTechnological Determinism RejectedPART TWO Preindustrial Societies5. Hunting and Gathering SocietiesThe Emergence of Homo Sapiens Sapiens prior to 100,000 b.c.: Establishing a Genetic Foundation for Cultural EvolutionHunting and Gathering Societies 100,000 b.c. to 8,000 b.c.: Cultural Evolution TakesHunting and Gathering Societies of the Recent PastPopulation / Kinship / The Economy / The Polity / Stratification / Religion / Education / The Arts and Leisure / Tribal Ties: Links between SocietiesHunting and Gathering Societies in Theoretical PerspectiveArchaeological and Ethnographic Evidence Compared / A Model of Limited Development / The Last Hunting and Gathering Societies6. Horticultural SocietiesCauses of the Shift from Hunting and Gathering to HorticultureThe Technology of HorticultureSimple Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and EuropeThe First Great Social RevolutionSimple Horticultural Societies in the Modern EraPopulation and Economy / The Continuing Importance of Kinship / Developments in Polity, Stratification, and WarfareAdvanced Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and EuropeThe Shift from Stone to Metals / Social Consequences of Metal Tools and WeaponsAdvanced Horticultural Societies in the Modern EraIncreased Size and Complexity / Political Development / Horticultural Societies in Southeast AsiaHorticultural Societies in Theoretical PerspectiveExcursus: Race, Environment, and Societal Development7. Agrarian SocietiesSimple Agrarian SocietiesTechnology / Religion and the Growth of the Economic Surplus / Population: Growth in Size of Communities and Societies / The Polity: Growth of the State / The Economy: The First Monetary Systems and the Growth of Trade / Stratification: Increasing Inequality / Slowdown in the Rate of TechnologicalInnovationAdvanced Agrarian SocietiesTechnology / Population: Continuing Trends / The Economy: Increasing Differentiation / The Polity: Continuing Development of the State / Religion: The Emergence of Universal Faiths / Kinship: Changing Significance in Society / The Role of Women in Agrarian Societies / Leisure and the Arts /Stratification: Increasing ComplexityVariations on Agrarian ThemesAgrarian Societies in Theoretical Perspective8. Some Evolutionary Bypaths and a Brief ReviewEnvironmentally Specialized Societal TypesFishing Societies / Herding Societies / Maritime SocietiesA Brief Review: Sociocultural Evolution to the Eve of the Industrial RevolutionPART THREE Industrial Societies and Industrializing Societies9. The Industrial RevolutionCauses of the Industrial RevolutionThe Accumulation of Information in the Agrarian Era / Advances in Water Transportation and the Conquest of the New World / The Printing Press and the Spread of Information / Advances in Agriculture / A Model of the Causes of the Industrial RevolutionA Brief History of the Industrial RevolutionFirst Phase: Steam Engines, Iron, Coal, Textile Machines, Factories / Second Phase: Railroads, Steamships, Steel, Rubber, Farm Machines / Third Phase: Automobiles, Airplanes, Telephones, Electricity, Petroleum, Radios, Movies / Fourth Phase: Television, Computers, Transistors, the Internet,Plastics, Globalization / Key Innovations: New Energy, New Machines, New Materials / A Caution: The Dark Side of the Industrial RevolutionCauses of the Continuing Industrial RevolutionGreater Informational Resources and a Larger Population / Changing Attitudes toward Innovation / The Rise of Modern Science / War / Environmental Feedback / The Desire for Ever Higher Standards of LivingVarying Levels of Industrialization in the World System of SocietiesConsequences of the Industrial RevolutionInitial Consequences / Long-Run Consequences: An Overview10. Industrial Societies: Technologies and EconomiesThe Technological Foundation of Industrial SocietiesThe Economies of Industrial SocietiesThe Urbanization of Production / Rise in Productivity and in the Standard of Living / The Shift from Labor-Intensive to Capital-Intensive Industries / Changes in the Labor Force / The Rise of Market Economies / Moves toward Mixed Economies / Evolution of the Modern CorporationGlobalization: Increasing Economic Integration of the World Economy11. Industrial Societies: Ideologies and PolitiesIdeologies in Industrial SocietiesTheistic Religions / New Secular IdeologiesDifferences among Industrial SocietiesThe Polities of Industrial SocietiesThe Democratic Trend / Democracy as a Variable / Causes of the Democratic Trend / Mass Political Parties / Special Interest Groups / The Mass Media / Political Conflict and Stability / The Growth of Government / Governmental Bureaucracies: Their Expansion and TransformationPolitical Globalization and the Challenge to the New World Order12. Industrial Societies: Social StratificationStratification in Industrial SocietiesPolitical Stratification / The Distribution of Income / The Distribution of Wealth / Occupational Stratification / Educational Stratification / Racial and Ethnic Stratification / Age and Sex StratificationVertical MobilitySocial Inequality: Two Basic Trends13. Industrial Societies: Population, the Family, and LeisurePopulationGrowth in Size of Societies / Trends in Health and Longevity / Declining Birthrates and Increasing Immigration / Population Distribution: The Growth of Urban PopulationsThe FamilyChanging Structure of Households and Families/ Changing Functions of the Family / Causes of Change in the Family / The Nuclear Family in Industrial Societies / The Changing Role of Women / The Changing Role of Youth /The Generation GapLeisure and the ArtsProblems and ProgressIndustrial Societies in Theoretical Perspective14. Industrializing Hybrid SocietiesTwo Types of Industrializing SocietiesEconomies and Population GrowthIdeologiesPolities and ConflictsSocial StratificationEducationKinshipThe Status of WomenIndustrializing Societies in Theoretical PerspectiveExcursus: Marxist Societies as Natural Experiments15. Retrospect and ProspectLooking BackThe Divergent Path / The Question of ProgressLooking AheadPopulation / Natural Resources and the Biophysical Environment / Technology / Ideology / Polity / Economy / The World System / The Higher GoalsGlossaryAppendixNotesPhoto and Art CreditsIndex

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