Identified versus Statistical Lives: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Hardcover | March 17, 2015

EditorI. Glenn Cohen, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal

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The identified lives effect describes the fact that people demonstrate a stronger inclination to assist persons and groups identified as at high risk of great harm than those who will or already suffer similar harm, but endure unidentified. As a result of this effect, we allocate resourcesreactively rather than proactively, prioritizing treatment over prevention. For example, during the August 2010 gold mine cave-in in Chile, where ten to twenty million dollars was spent by the Chilean government to rescue the 33 miners trapped underground. Rather than address the many, more costeffective mine safety measures that should have been implemented, the Chilean government and international donors concentrated efforts in large-scale missions that concerned only the specific group. Such bias as illustrated through this incident raises practical and ethical questions that extend toalmost every aspect of human life and politics.What can social and cognitive sciences teach us about the origin and triggers of the effect? Philosophically and ethically, is the effect a "bias" to be eliminated or is it morally justified? What implications does the effect have for health care, law, the environment and other practice domains? This volume is the first to take an interdisciplinary approach toward answering this issue of identified versus statistical lives by considering a variety of perspectives from psychology, public health, law, ethics, and public policy.

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The identified lives effect describes the fact that people demonstrate a stronger inclination to assist persons and groups identified as at high risk of great harm than those who will or already suffer similar harm, but endure unidentified. As a result of this effect, we allocate resourcesreactively rather than proactively, prioritizin...

I. Glenn Cohen is Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, and Director of the Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology, and Bioethics. Norman Daniels Daniels is the Mary B. Saltonstall Professor and Professor of Ethics and Population Health at the Harvard School of Public Health. Nir Eyal Associate Professor of Global H...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:240 pages, 9.29 × 6.42 × 0.91 inPublished:March 17, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190217472

ISBN - 13:9780190217471

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Table of Contents

AcknowledgmentsContributorsI. Glenn Cohen, Norman Daniels, and Nir Eyal: Statistical versus Identified Persons: An IntroductionPart I: Social Science1. Deborah A. Small: On the Psychology of the Identifiable Victim Effect2. Peter Railton: "Dual-Process" Models of the Mind and the "Statistical Victim Effect"Part II: Ethics and Political Philosophy3. Dan W. Brock: Identified vs. Statistical Lives: Some Introductory Issues and Arguments4. Matthew Adler: Welfarism, Equity, and the Choice Between Statistical and Identified Victims5. Michael Otsuka: Risking Life and Limb: How to Discount Harms by Their Improbability6. Nir Eyal: Concentrated Risk, the Coventry Blitz, Chamberlain's Cancer7. Norman Daniels: Can There Be Moral Force to Favoring an Identified over a Statistical Life?8. Caspar Hare: Statistical People and Counterfactual Indeterminacy9. Marcel Verweij: How (Not) to Argue for the Rule of Rescue: Claims of Individuals versus Group Solidarity10. Michael Slote: Why Not Empathy?Part III: Applications11. I. Glenn Cohen: Identified versus Statistical Lives in U.S. Civil Litigation: Of Standing, Ripeness, and Class Actions12. Lisa Heinzerling: Statistical Lives in Environmental Law13. Johann Frick: Treatment versus Prevention in the Fight against HIV/AIDS and the Problem of Identified versus Statistical Lives14. Till Bernighausen and Max Essex: From Biology to Policy: Ethical and Economic Issues in HIV Treatment-as-Prevention15. Jonathan Wolff: Testing, Treating, and Trusting