Immunobiology and Immunopharmacology of Bacterial Endotoxins by A. SzentivanyiImmunobiology and Immunopharmacology of Bacterial Endotoxins by A. Szentivanyi

Immunobiology and Immunopharmacology of Bacterial Endotoxins

byA. Szentivanyi, Herman Friedman

Paperback | April 15, 2013

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Endotoxins are constituents of all gram negative bacteria, as well as many other microorganisms. Since their original discovery and study at the beginning and middle parts of this century, many investigations have been performed concerning their immunochemistry and physicochemistry, as well as their pharmacologic activities and physiologic effects on the host. It became widely recognized during the beginning of this century that the pyrogenicity of many microbial infections may be associated with endotoxins. Furthermore, some 80 years ago, attempts were begun to "treat" a variety of illnesses including neoplasia, with such "pyrogens", Le. , bacterial endo­ toxins. Inconclusive results were observed including some detrimental ones as well as, in some cases, beneficial ones. It became widely accepted that during infections with many gram negative organisms the fever occurring in patients, as well as many of the untoward pathophysiological effects of the infections, seemed to be due to the endotoxin the bacteria contained or released. In this regard, septic shock has been studied in detail by many clinicians, physiologists and pharmacologists and attempts have been made to relate the devastating effects of infection on metabolic and physiologic alterations caused by endotoxins. Recently, however, many beneficial effects of endotoxin have also been studied.
Title:Immunobiology and Immunopharmacology of Bacterial EndotoxinsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:518 pagesPublished:April 15, 2013Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461293197

ISBN - 13:9781461293194

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Table of Contents

Introductory Section.- The Biology and Physiopharmacology of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins and Their Role in Immunoregulation - An Introductory Preview.- Retrospective and Prospective View of Endotoxin Research.- I. Chemical and Molecular Characteristics of Endotoxins.- Beneficially Active Structural Entities in Endotoxin Preparations.- The Antigenic Structure of the Lipooligosaccharides of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae.- Lipid A: Relationships of Chemical Structure and Biological Activity.- Production of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Cross-Reactive Determinants on Lipopolysaccharides.- Physical Properties of Short-Chain and Long-Chain Fractions of Lipopolysaccharide.- Analysis and Characterization of Bacterial Endotoxins (Lipopolysaccharides) by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Followed by Silver Stain.- II. Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of Endotoxins.- Metabolic Effects of Endotoxin.- Glucose Dyshomeostasis in Endotoxicosis: Direct Versus Monokine-Mediated Mechanisms of Endotoxin Action.- In Vivo Effects on Cellular Metabolism and Calcium Dynamics by Continuous Infusion of Endotoxin.- Endotoxin (LPS) Toxicity to Hepatocytes (H) in Vitro - Modulation by Macrophages (M).- Effects of Endotoxin on Mixed Function Oxidase Activity.- Myocardial Performance and Adrenergic Modulation of Cyclic AMP Following Endotoxin Administration.- Cyclic Nucleotides in the Immunopharmacology of Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins.- III. Immunogenicity and Non-Specific Effects of Endotoxin.- Nonspecific Effects of LPS on Bacterial Infections.- Bacteroides Species Increases Lipopolysaccharide Susceptibility of Experimental Animals.- The Role of Post-Endotoxin Serum Components from BCG Infected Mice in the Protection of Compromised Hosts.- Protection Against Lethal Haemophilus Pleuropneumoniae Infection in Swine by Antibodies to LPS Core Antigens.- Salmonella Antigens as Protective Immunogens in Salmonella Infection.- Protective Function of Neutrophils During Experimental Endotoxic Shock.- Active Immunization with E. coli J5 and its Protective Effects from Endotoxic Shock in Calves.- Clinical Recognition and Treatment of Endotoxinemia.- Transient Suppression of Yeast Phagocytosis Induced by Legionella Pneumophila in Cultures of Murine Resident Peritoneal Macrophages.- The Effect of Endotoxin on Migration Inhibitory Factor and Interferon.- IV. Effects of Endotoxins on Cells of the Immune System.- Regulation of the Cell Cycle of Murine B Lymphocytes by Lipopolysaccharides.- Synergistic Effect of Endotoxin with Concanavalin A on DNA Synthesis in Lymphocytes and the Role of Interleukins 1 and 2.- Biochemical, Immunological and Functional Analysis of Lymphocytes from the LPS Non-Responder C3H/HeJ Mouse.- Effects of Endogenous Gut LPS on Cells of the Secretory Immune System.- Molecular Mechanisms in Lymphokine-Induced Macrophage Activation - Enhanced Production of Oxygen Radicals.- Induction of Gamma Interferon by Endotoxin in "Aged" Murine Splenocyte Cultures.- Characterization and Localization of Lipopolysaccharides Following the Ingestion of E. coli by Murine Macrophages In Vitro.- The Release of Immunopotentiating Mediators from Macrophages Activated by Endotoxins.- Changes in Macrophage Progenitor Cell Composition in the Bone Marrow of "Early Phase" Endotoxin-Tolerized Mice.- Production of Colony-Stimulating Factor (CSF) by Bone Marrow Cells Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Phorbol Esters.- V. Modulation of the Immune Response by Endotoxins.- Modulation of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses by a Structurally Established Nontoxic Lipid A.- Endotoxin Membrane Protein Complexes as Immunomodulators.- Endotoxin Associated Proteins and Their Polyclonal and Adjuvant Activities.- Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Recurrence of Arthritis Initiated by Peptidoglycan-Polysaccharide.- Antibiotics, Immunity, and Immunoenhancement.- The Effect of Selected Antibiotics on the Endogenous Intestinal Microflora and its Consequences for Experimental Tumor Growth in BALB/c Mice.- Restoration of Antibody Responsiveness by Endotoxin in Retrovirus-Immunodepressed Mice: Role of Macrophages.- Endotoxin and Polysaccharide Derivative Induced Enhanced Antibody Formation in Leukemia Virus Infected Mice.- Clinical Relevance of Endotoxemia.- Contributors.