In India, the debate around social development has sharpened with the arrival of neoliberalism, which has widened the gulf between the rich and the poor. The India: Social Development Report 2012 (SDR 2012), prepared by the Council for Social Development, evaluates the life conditions ofIndian citizens by assessing social developmental indicators - political, social, and cultural. Instead of focusing solely on economic growth, it treats social development as a function of economic growth, social policy, and effective poverty reduction measures. It deals with key issues of socialdevelopment and interrogates the concept of development, as well as its meaning for those who are deprived and disadvantaged. The papers included in this report, besides giving an overall picture of social development, focus on the minorities in India with respect to certain key sectors such as education, poverty, food security, and health. These factors play an important role in the betterment of the conditions of thedeprived and minority communities and their life chances. The contributions combine empirical studies and critical analysis to explain the impact of policy interventions on social development and the challenges that remain. On the whole, the Report addresses the relationship between India'sdevelopmental process and social policy discourse.