Inedible Meat by-Products by A. M. PearsonInedible Meat by-Products by A. M. Pearson

Inedible Meat by-Products

byA. M. Pearson, T. R. Dutson

Paperback | August 1, 2012

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Inedible meat, poultry and fish by-products are major contributors to the profitability of the slaughterers and processors of all types of muscle food. Although the by-products per se make important economic contributions to the productivity of the industries, their importance varies widely between classes and for different species. As important as this may be, the utilization of the otherwise waste by-products has become even more crucial from the standpoint of protecting the environment. Hence, the editors decided that a book dealing with inedible meat, poultry and fish by-products would be useful not only to slaughterers and processors, but also to those involved in research and teaching. Focusing on the advan­ tages of the useful inedible products and methods involved in their pro­ duction could very well lead to new and better uses for by-products as well as in improving the environment. As in past volumes of this series, the authors are leaders in their respective fields of discussion. Their expertise provides not only a back­ ground on present industrial practices but also areas and means for improving the production of by-products.
Title:Inedible Meat by-ProductsFormat:PaperbackPublished:August 1, 2012Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401179352

ISBN - 13:9789401179355

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Table of Contents

1. An Overview of Inedible Meat, Poultry and Fishery By-Products.- I. Introduction.- II. Raw Materials.- A. Composition.- B. Sources.- C. Collection.- III. Classification and Utilization.- IV. Processing.- V. Volumes and Economic Impact.- A. Volumes.- B. Economic Impact.- VI. Import and Export Markets.- A. Hides and Pelts.- B. Tallow and Grease.- C. Meat Meal.- VII. Changing Nature of Markets.- VIII. New Opportunities.- IX. Conclusions.- X. References.- 2. Handling, Grading, and Curing of Hides and Skins.- I. Introduction.- II. The Animal Hide or Skin.- A. Structure and Function.- B. Raw Material for Leather Manufacture.- C. Other Uses for Animal Hides and Skins.- III. Curing/Preservation of Raw Hides and Skins.- A. Handling of Raw Skins: Preventing Deterioration.- B. Salt Pack.- C. Frigorificos.- D. Brine Curing.- E. Non-Salt Preservation.- IV. Marketing of Hides and Skins.- A. Standards for Cattlehide Marketing.- B. Pigskins.- C. Sheepskins and Goatskins.- V. Export of Hides and Skins.- VI. Future of Hide and Skin Preservation and Marketing.- VII. Summary.- VIII. References.- 3. The Tanning Process and the Production of Finished Leather Goods.- I. Raw Material Types and Sources.- A. Cattle Skins and Hides.- B. Sheepskins and Lambskins.- C. Pig and Hog Raw Materials.- D. Other Species.- II. Temporary Preservation of Raw Material.- A. Salt Curing.- B. Chrome-in-the Blue Production and Fresh Hide Processing.- III. Leather Manufacturing Technology.- A. Tannery Hide Substance Purification by Beamhouse Processes.- B. Hide Substance Tannage Processes.- C. Retannage Coloring and Lubrication.- D. Leather Drying.- E. Finishing of Leather.- F. Trends in Types of Leather.- IV. Leather Goods Production.- A. Footwear Manufacturing.- B. Other Leather Goods Manufacturing.- V. Industry Trends.- VI. Summary.- VII. References.- 4. Wool and Hair.- I. Introduction.- II. Production Alternatives-Costs and Benefits.- III. Wool.- A. Alternatives.- B. Different Processes.- C. The Woolly Skin.- D. Wool Separated from the Skins.- E. Steps in Skin Separation.- F. Preparation of Skins for Sliping.- G. Removal of Wool from the Skin.- H. Wool Prices.- I. Features of Slipe Wool.- J. Determining Wool Characteristics.- IV. Hair.- A. Hair-On Leather Goods.- B. Other Uses for Hair.- V. Summary.- VI. References.- 5. Blood Meal, Meat and Bone Meal and Tallow.- I. Introduction.- II. Blood Meal.- A. Blood, A Valuable By-Product.- B. Composition and Yields of Blood.- C. Blood Collection, Transportation and Storage.- D. Blood Processing.- III. Meat and Bone Scraps, Tallows and Meat and Bone Meals.- A. Rendering Raw Material and Product Yields.- B. Collection and Transportation of Raw Material.- C. Rendering Systems.- IV. Grades of Tallows and Greases.- V. Meat and Bone Meals.- A. Buyer's Specifications.- B. Effects of Rendering Systems on Amino Acid Content.- VI. Uses of Tallows and Meat Meals.- A. Tallows.- B. Blood Meals.- C. Meat and Bone Meals.- VII. Summary.- VIII. References.- 6. Inedible Fats and Greases.- I. Introduction.- II. Processing.- III. Classification and Quality Assessment of Rendered Animal Fats.- A. Classification of Rendered Animal Fats.- B. Quality Assessment.- C. Classification of Fats used in the Feed Industry.- IV. Production and Usage of Inedible Tallow and Greases.- A. Volume Produced.- B. Markets for Rendered Fat.- V. Fat Digestion by Ruminant and Nonruminant Animals.- A. Ruminants.- B. Nonruminants.- VI. Nutritional Characteristics of Rendered Fats.- VII. Uses and Selection of Fats for Livestock Diets.- A. Poultry.- B. Swine.- C. Dairy.- D. Beef.- E. Milk Replacers for Calves.- F. Miscellaneous Roles of Fat in the Feed Industry.- VIII. Production of Fatty acids and Lubricants from Inedible Fats and Greases.- A. Fatty acids.- B. Lubricants.- IX. Summary.- X. References.- 7. Soap and Detergents.- I. Early History of Soap Making.- A. From By-Product to Valuable Consumer Product.- II. Chemistry of Soapmaking.- III. Raw Materials Used in Soap Manufacture.- IV. Physical and Chemical Properties of Soap.- A. Solid Soap Phases.- B. Why Tallow is an Important Ingredient in Soap.- C. Alternative Soapmaking Materials.- D. Properties of Soap.- V. How Soap Works.- A. Uses of Soap-Based Products.- B. Bar Soaps and How They are Made.- C. Water Hardness Reaction.- D. Rancidity.- E. Soap-Alkaline Reaction.- VI. Influence of Raw Materials on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soap.- A. Effect of Fats.- B. Effect of Base.- VII. Soap-Making Processes.- A. Kettle Process.- B. Continuous Soapmaking (Fatty Acid Route).- C. Continuous Soapmaking (Neutral Fat Saponification).- D. The New SaponiflexTM Process.- VIII. Detergents.- IX. Summary.- X. References.- 8. Feathers, Feather Meal and Other Poultry By-Products.- I. Introduction.- II. Feathers.- A. Yield of Feathers.- B. Composition.- C. Products.- III. Feather Meal.- A. Definition.- B. Production Process.- C. Composition.- D. Nutritive Value of Feathers.- IV. Hackle Feathers for Fly Tying.- A. Use.- V. Blood Meal (BM).- A. Definition.- B. Availability.- C. Production Process.- D. Nutritive Value.- VI. Inedible Poultry By-Product Meal (PBPM).- A. Definition.- B. PBPM Availability.- C. Nutritive Value.- VII. Poultry Hatchery By-Product.- A. Definition.- B. Effect of Source on Nutritive Value.- VIII. Other Poultry Wastes-Hatchery Wastes, Dead Birds, Wastage from Egg-Breaking Plants and Slaughter-House Wastes.- A. Definition.- B. Product Development for Recycling Hatchery Wastes, Dead Birds, Wastage from Egg Breaking Plants and Slaughter-House Wastes.- C. Waste from Egg-Breaking Plants.- IX. Summary.- X. References.- 9. Fish Processing By-Products and their Recalamation.- I. Introduction.- II. Fish Meal and Its Production.- A. and Location of Industry and Some Probable Influences on Future Production.- B. Fish-Meal Production Methods.- C. Factors Affecting Fish Meal Quality.- D. Fish Solubles and Fish Oil.- E. Crustacean Meals.- F. Molluscan Meals.- III. Other Fishery By-Products-Production and Uses.- A. Fish Silage.- B. Liquefied Fish.- C. Fish Hydrolysates.- IV. Other Uses of Fish Processing Waste.- A. Bait.- B. Pet Feeds and Flavorings.- C. Fertilizers and Compost.- D. Chitin and Chitosan.- E. Pharmaceuticals.- F. Fish Leather.- G. Other Products.- V. Future Considerations.- VI. References.- 10. Inedible Gelatin and Glue.- I. Introduction.- II. Gelatin Quality Grades.- III. Collagen Raw Materials.- A. Collagen Protein Structure.- B. Raw Materials for Making Gelatin.- IV. Gelatin and Glue-Making Processes.- A. Rawstock Preparation.- B. Rawstock Pretreatment.- C. Extraction.- D. Post-Extraction Processing.- E. Chemical Modification.- V. Physical and Chemical Testing and Standards.- A. Moisture and Ash.- B. Gelatin and Concentration.- C. Gel Setting and Melting.- D. Gel Strength and Bloom Value.- E. Viscosity.- F. Average Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions.- G. Amino Acid Composition.- H. Isoionic and Isoelectric Points.- I. Color and Clarity.- VI. Properties of Gelatin Solutions, Gels and Solids.- A. Molecular Size and Shape.- B. Hydrolysis.- C. Polyampholyte Properties.- D. Colloid Protection and Flocculation.- E. Gel Formation.- F. Organic Solvents.- VII. Photographic Uses of Gelatin.- A. Precipitation and Chemical Sensitization of Silver Halide Emulsions.- B. Coating of Emulsion and Non-Emulsion Layers.- C. Role in Image Forming.- D. Role During Chemical Processing.- VIII. Summary.- IX. References.- 11. Methods of Disposal of Paunch Contents with Emphasis on Composting.- I. Introduction.- II. Characteristics of Paunch Manure.- A. High Moisture Content.- B. High Ratio of Suspended Solids.- C. High Content of Organic Matter.- D. Strong and Objectionable Odor.- E. Favorable Growth Medium for Pathogens, Insects and Rodents.- III. Methods of Disposal.- A. Landfills.- B. Lagoons and Waste-Water Treatment Facilities.- C. Spreading Untreated Raw Paunch Manure Directly onto Agricultural Fields.- D. Re-feeding Ensilaged/Silaged Paunch Manure to Livestock.- E. Burning.- F. Composting Paunch Waste into an Organic Fertilizer.- IV. Composting Methodology.- A. Advantages.- B. Methods of Composting.- C. Humus.- V. Summary.- VI. References.- 12. Pharmaceutical and Biological Products.- I. Introduction.- II. Animal Products as Nutritional Supplements.- A. Liver.- B. Heart.- C. Tongue.- D. Kidneys.- E. Thymus Glands.- F. Brains.- G. Tripe and Intestines.- H. Fish Oils.- I. Fish Meal.- III. Animal Products Used as Pharmaceuticals.- A. Glandular Extracts.- IV. Summary.- V. References.- 13. Inedible Meat, Poultry and Fish By-Products in Pet Foods.- I. Importance of Inedible Meat By-Products in Pet Foods.- A. Nutrition versus Pet Owner Satifaction.- B. Animal versus Vegetable Ingredients.- II. Sources of By-Products for Pet Foods.- III. Use of By-Products in Pet Foods.- A. Proteins.- B. Fats.- C. Bones and Minerals.- D. Egg Products.- E. Blood Meal.- F. Feathers and Hair.- G. Hide Meal.- H. Digests and Flavor Enhancers.- I. Extruded Dead Birds as a Method of Disposal.- IV. Competition and Allocation of By-Products Between Pet Foods and Other Uses.- A. Tallow versus Vegetable Oils.- B. Fishmeal versus Oilseed Proteins.- V. Special Processing for Pet Foods.- A. Economics Associated with Various Pet Foods.- VI. Types of Pet Food and Uses of By-Products.- A. Dry-Type Foods.- B. Canned Pet Foods.- C. Semi-Moist Foods.- D. Frozen and Fresh Pet Foods.- VII. New Problems-Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).- VIII. Summary.- IX. References.- 14. Leathers Used in Sporting Goods.- I. Introduction.- II. Guidelines for Selection of Rawstock.- A. Factors Influencing Selection.- III. Tanning Sporting Goods Leathers.- A. Types of Tanning Material.- B. Selection and Tanning of Baseball Leathers.. ..- C. Selection and Tanning of Cricket Ball Leathers ..- D. Selection and Tanning of Softball Leathers.- E. Selection and Tanning of Baseball Glove Leathers.- F. Selection and Tanning of Basketball Leathers.- G. Selection and Tanning of Football Leathers.- H. Selection and Tanning of Soccer Ball Leathers.- IV. Summary.- V. References.- 15. Land Application of Paunch Manure and Blood.- I. Introduction.- II. Production and Characteristics of Manure, Blood and Paunch Manure.- III. Land Application.- A. Nutrient Value of Manure and Paunch Contents.- IV. Soil Properties, Transportation and Application of Packinghouse Waste.- A. Influence of Soil Properties.- B. Transportation and Application.- V. Example Problem for Land Application of Animal Processing Waste.- A. Animal Processing Waste Application Plan.- VI. Summary.- VII. References.- 16. Reduction of Pollution and Reclamation of Packinghouse Waste Products.- I. Introduction.- II. The Recycling Concept.- A. Disposal Systems.- III. Water.- A. Waste Water.- B. Water Consumption Management.- C. Water Pollution Management.- D. Water Pollution Control Actions.- E. Advanced Pretreatment.- F. Effluent Treatment in a Local Municipal Plant.- G. Effluent Treatment Within a Meat Plant.- H. Cattle Slaughtering Plants.- I. Pig Slaughtering Plants.- J. Poultry Slaughtering Plants.- IV. Air Pollution.- A. Main Sources of Odours.- B. Abatement Methods.- V. Collection and Disposal of Solid Waste.- A. Solid Waste Products.- B. Amounts and Chemical Composition.- C. Collection.- D. Methods of Disposal.- VI. External Noise Abatement.- A. Sources of Noise.- B. Noise Measuring Conditions.- C. Noise Mapping.- D. Traffic Noise.- VII. Summary.- VIII. References.