The concept of National Innovation Systems is well established in academic research and enthusiastically adopted by policymakers. Yet there are relatively few in-depth studies of individual national innovation systems.This book provides just that: a model for the application of the concept to an individual economy. Leading scholars provide a detailed analysis of the particular circumstances of Norway - a high income, high productivity, resource rich economy, with relatively modest investment in RandD, and aremarkable track record of social equity. The authors argue that investment in human capital may be more significant than any formula for RandD investment. The book includes contributions from historians, economists, and sociologists, and offers an unparalleled account of the development of one of the world's most successful economies. It will be essential reading for academics and policymakers concerned with innovation and growth.