Interface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled Systems by C.j. GeorgopoulosInterface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled Systems by C.j. Georgopoulos

Interface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled Systems

byC.j. Georgopoulos

Paperback | January 10, 2012

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Title:Interface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled SystemsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:364 pages, 24 × 16 × 0.02 inPublished:January 10, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:9401089159

ISBN - 13:9789401089159

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Table of Contents

1 Microprocessor Basic Structures and Their Needs for Special Interfaces.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Some Useful Definitions.- 1.2.1 Definitions Related to Computers and Other Classes of Machines.- 1.2.2 Interface Definitions.- 1.3 Microprocessor Architectures.- 1.3.1 Basic ?P Architecture.- 1.3.2 The Evolution of Four Generations of ?Ps.- 1.3.3 4-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.4 8-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.5 16-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.6 32-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.4 Microprocessor Interface Requirements.- 1.4.1 The Importance of Interfacing.- 1.4.2 Interfaces in an Operating System With ?P.- 1.4.3 MC68020 Bus Interface.- 2 ?P- Logic Families Interfaces.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Basic Logic Families and Their Interface Capabilities.- 2.2.1 Interface Devices from TTL Logic Families.- 2.2.2 Interface Devices from ECL Logic Families.- 2.2.3 Interface Devices from NMOS and PMOS Families.- 2.2.4 Interface Devices from CMOS Logic Families.- 2.2.5 The ISO-CMOS Technology.- 2.3 Comparison of Characteristics and Capabilities of Key Logic Families as They May Apply to Microprocessor Interfacing.- 2.3.1 A Rule of Thumb.- 2.3.2 Power Consumption and Speed Comparisons.- 2.3.3 Noise Immunity Comparisons.- 2.4. Interface Considerations When Mixing Families.- 2.4.1 ECL and TTL Compatibility.- 2.4.2 Bipolar and CMOS Compatibility.- 2.4.3 CMOS to CMOS and Other Logic Families Interfacing.- 2.5 Design and Applications Examples.- 2.5.1 D- Type Flip-Flop as a ?P-Output Device.- 2.5.2 Emulating Complex MOS Chips with Shottky TTL ICs.- 3 ?P- Memory Interfaces.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Brief Review of Main Memory Types.- 3.3 Interface Requirements.- 3.3.1 Timing Requirements for Interface Between RAMs and ?Ps.- 3.3.2 Interfacing Fundamentals for Direct Memory Access (DMA).- 3.4 CMOS Memory System Interface Designs.- 3.4.1 System Timing Factors.- 3.4.2 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.4.3 HM-6100 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.4.4 80C48 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.5 Interfacing Bubble Memories to ?P- Based Systems.- 3.5.1 1-Mbit Bubble Memory to ?P Interface.- 3.5.2 High Performance Interface Circuitry.- 4 ?P-Timing and Synchronization Interfaces.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Fundamentals of IC Timing Circuits.- 4.2.1 Monolithic Timers.- 4.2.2 Adapted Timing Diagram Conventions.- 4.2.3 Clock Skewing Problems.- 4.3 Real-Time Clock Hardware and Software.- 4.3.1 Simple Version of Real-Time Clock.- 4.3.2 The MC146818 CMOS Real-Time Clock.- 4.4 Programmable Time Interface Modules.- 4.4.1 Programmable Timer Module With Integrated Hardware and Software Capabilities.- 4.4.2 Universal Clock Generator-Clock Stretching.- 5 ?P-Peripheral Chips Interfaces.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Peripheral Processors.- 5.2.1 Host MPU Architecture.- 5.2.2 Multiprocessor Interfaces (MPIF).- 5.2.3 Peripheral Addressing in ?P Systems.- 5.2.4 FIFO Input/Output Device.- 5.2.5 The SCSI Peripheral Interface Standard.- 5.3 IC Peripheral Chips.- 5.3.1 Support Chips.- 5.3.2 Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) Chip.- 5.3.3 A Universal Peripheral Controller.- 5.4 Design Examples and Applications.- 5.4.1 ?P-Based Interface for Current Loop Devices.- 5.4.2 ?P-Interface in Portable Systems.- 5.4.3 Interfacing a 6800-Family Peripheral to MC68000 CPU.- 6 ?P Interfaces in Instrumentation.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Review of Some Basics on Measurements.- 6.2.1 Terms in RMS AC Measurements.- 6.2.2 Error Sources in ?P- Based Calculations.- 6.2.3 IC Instrumentation Amplifiers.- 6.3 The IEEE-488 Instruments Bus.- 6.3.1 Speed Limitations Imposed by the IEEE-STD-488 Specification.- 6.3.2 Typical Handshake Times of Instruments.- 6.3.3 Example of Interface of a Voice-Response System to IEEE-488.- 6.4 ?P Interfaces in Music, Sound and Talking Instruments.- 6.4.1 Simple Sound-Generator ?P Interface.- 6.4.2 Polyphonic Sound-Generator Chip- ?P Interface.- 6.4.3 Interfacing of ?P With a Talking Chip.- 6.5 ?P- Controlled Measurements Stations.- 6.5.1 A Representative System.- 6.5.2 ?P Interfacing Within the System.- 6.5.3 ?P Functions and Sequences.- 7 ?P Interfaces in Communications Systems.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Review of Some Basic Communications Components.- 7.2.1 Modem Fundamentals for Data Transmission.- 7.2.2 Dedicated and Other Telecommunications Chips.- 7.2.3 BORSCHT and SLIC Functions in Telephone Systems.- 7.3 ?P Interfaces in Connection to Communications Standards.- 7.3.1 Some Representative Communications Standards.- 7.3.2 Data Communication Protocols and the IEEE-802 Standard.- 7.3.3 Simplification of 1553-Bus Interface.- 7.4 Design and Applications Examples of Communication Systems with ?P-Interfaces.- 7.4.1 Interfaces in ?P-Based Modems.- 7.4.2 Interfacing ?Ps With Analog Multiplexers.- 7.4.3 Interfacing a Dedicated Multiplier to a ?P.- 8 ?P Interfaces in Automated Offices.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 LAN and PABX Interfaces.- 8.2.1. Interconnection Media in the Office Environment.- 8.2.2 Local Area Network Architectures.- 8.2.3 ?P Interfaces in a LAN Using the Ethernet (LANCE) Controller Chip.- 8.2.4 ?P Interfaces in a PABX.- 8.3 Workstations and ?P Interfaces.- 8.3.1 Workstation Features.- 8.3.2 Architecture of the 925 Family of Office Workstations Based on Motorola 68000 ?Ps.- 8.3.3 Designing a Workstation System and Its Interfaces With the NS16000 or NS32000 Families.- 8.4 Man-Machine Interfaces.- 8.4.1 Touch Display Interface.- 8.4.2 Keypad Interface.- 8.4.3 Interfaces in Speech Recognition Systems.- 8.5 Peripheral and Terminal Interfaces.- 8.5.1 TTY to ?P- Hardware Interface.- 8.5.2 Interfaces in Magnetic Peripheral Integration.- 8.5.3 ?P-Based Infrared Communication Terminals in Automated Office.- 9 ?P Interfaces in Data Acquisition Systems.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Basic Building Blocks of a Data Acquisition System.- 9.2.1 A Data Acquisition System in Block Diagram Form.- 9.2.2 Analog-to-Digital Converters Fundamental Concepts.- 9.2.3 Digital-to-Analog Converters Fundamental Concepts and Basic Parameters.- 9.2.4 Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers.- 9.3 The Interface Block and Its Components.- 9.3.1 Basic Design Problems.- 9.3.2 Converter Selection Problems and Tradeoffs.- 9.3.3 Examples of DAC - Microprocessor Interfacing.- 9.3.4 Examples of ADC - Microprocessor Interfacing.- 9.4 Design Examples of Special Interfaces.- 9.4.1 ADC-to-DMA Interface.- 9.4.2 ?P Interfacing to a 10-Bit Plus Sign ADC.- 9.4.3 DAC/UART Interface Circuitry for Serial-Data Processing.- Charter 10 ?P Interfaces in Automated Factory Environments.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Interfacing with the Analog World in a Factory.- 10.2.1 Communicating With the Real World.- 10.2.2 Input Interfaces and Isolation from the Noisy Environment.- 10.2.3 ?P Interfaced 12-Bit D/A Converter.- 10.3 Microprocessor Interfaces in Industrial Robots.- 10.3.1 Robot Control Hardware Structure.- 10.3.2 User Interface in a Mobile Robotic Parts Delivery System.- 10.3.3 Remote Control of a Robot or Cluster of Robots via Two-Way Infrared Links.- 10.4 Other ?P-Interface Examples for the Factory Environment.- 10.4.1 Embedded ?P Applications.- 10.4.2 Interfacing Digital-to-Synchro Converters.- 10.4.3 Interface in Control of a Stepper-Motor Driven Robot.- 11 ?P Interfaces in Distributed Process Control.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Elements and Structures of Distributed Systems.- 11.2.1 Elements of Distribuded Systems Environment.- 11.2.2 Distributed Systems Information Structures.- 11.2.3 General Interfacing Techniques for Distributed Data Systems.- 11.3 Interfaces in Remote Job Sites.- 11.3.1 Remote I/O Interface Fundamentals.- 11.3.2 Serial Addressable Multiplexing (SAMUX).- 11.3.3 Remote Interface Adapters (RIA).- 11.4 Bus Interfaces in Distributed Systems.- 11.4.1 The STD BUS for 8-Bit Microprocessors.- 11.4.2 The MULTIBUS System Bus.- 11.4.3 The VME Bus.- 12 ?P Interfaces in Energy Management, Heating and Motor Control Systems.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 liP Interfaces in Power Plants.- 12.2.1 Interfaces in Energy Production Monitoring.- 12.2.2 Interfaces in Power Distribution Management Systems.- 12.2.3 Communications Interfaces in Power Distribution Systems.- 12.2.4 Interfaces in Solar Power Generation Control.- 12.3 ?P Interfaces in Motor Controls.- 12.3.1 Simple ?P Interface for Relay Control.- 12.3.2 Timers/?P Interface in Concurrent Driving of Three Stepping Motors.- 12.3.3 Multiprocessor System Interface in Motor RPM control.- 12.4 ?P Interfaces in Heating Control.- 12.4.1 Interfaces in Boiler Monitoring.- 12.4.2 Interfaces in Heating of Multipurpose Buildings.- 13 ?P Interfaces in Automotive Electronics.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Electronic Interfaces in Automobile Engine Control Mechanisms.- 13.2.1 Engine Control Concepts.- 13.2.2 Interfaces for the Electronic Ignition System.- 13.2.3 Interfaces for the Fuel Injection System.- 13.2.4 ?P Control and Interfaces for Diesel Engines.- 13.3 Electronic Interfaces in other Automotive Systems.- 13.3.1 Displaying of Driving Information via ?P Interface.- 13.3.2 Multiplex Bus Control and Interface.- 14 ?P Interfaces in Medical Applications.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Exploring Microprocessor Applications in Medicine.- 14.2.1 ?P- Based Internal Human Conditioning System.- 14.2.2 ?Ps as Rehabilitation Tools.- 14.2.3 ?Ps in Home Health Care.- 14.3 Interfaces in Patient Information and Monitoring Center.- 14.3.1 Multiprocessor Architecture and Interfaces.- 14.3.2 Communication Interfaces Between Instruments.- 14.4 Interfaces in Electrocardiography (ECG).- 14.4.1 ?P Interfaces in Basic Portable ECG Instruments.- 14.4.2 ?P Interfaces in Advanced Portable ECG Instruments With Self-Testing and Diagnostic Capabilities.- 14.4.3 ?P Interfaces in the HP Model 78660A Defibrillator-Monitor.- 15 Interfaces for ?P-Controlled Fiber Optic Systems.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 ?P Interfaces in Simple Fiber Optic Links and Instrumentation.- 15.2.1 Optoelectronic Interfaces in Typical FO Digital Links.- 15.2.2 Interfaces in a FO Fail-Safe Monitor System.- 15.2.3 ?P Interfaces in FO Temperature Instrument.- 15.3 ?P Interfaces in Teledistribution Fiber Optic Systems.- 15.3.1 FO Multiplexer Mixing Analog and Digital Signals.- 15.3.2 TDM Multiplexing in ?P-Controlled FO Link.- 15.3.3 FO Distributed Process Control System With ?P-Interface Units.- 15.4 ?P Interfaces in Fiber Optic Local Area Networks.- 15.4.1 FO Interfaces in the Light of LAN Standards.- 15.4.2 A Fiber Optic LAN Suitable for Offices and Factories.- 16 Interfaces in ?P- Based Security and Alarm Systems.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 General Approaches to Security Systems Interfaces.- 16.2.1 Separation of Security Functions for Proper Interfacing.- 16.2.2 Sophistication and Vulnerability of Integrated Security Systems.- 16.3 Data-Encryption Interfaces in Communication Systems.- 16.3.1 The Data Encryption Standard.- 16.3.2 Data Encryption Chips.- 16.3.3 Interfaces in Data Encryption With 16-Bit Microprocessor.- 16.4 ?P- Based Fire Detection and Security Systems Using Infrared Techniques.- 16.4.1 ?P Interfaces in Automatic Fire Detection.- 16.4.2 ?P Interfaces in Burglaralarm and Intrusion Systems.- 17 ?P- Based ATE Systems Interfaces.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 The Evolution of ?P- Controlled Automatic Test Equipment.- 17.2.1 The Role of Automatic Test Equipment.- 17.2.2 Basic Distributed ATE Systems.- 17.2.3 Distant ATE System.- 17.3 Automatic Testing and the IEEE-STD-488 Interface.- 17.3.1 Controller Interfaces.- 17.3.2 Microprocessors and IEEE-488 Interfaces.- 17.4 Design and Applications Examples.- 17.4.1 Design for Testability for ?P-Based Boards.- 17.4.2 I/O Processor Control Interfaces for IEEE Test Bus.- 17.4.3 Linking ATE via Local- Area Network.- 18 VLSI Technology Impact on ?P Interfaces.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Changes in Design Philosophies at the Circuit Level.- 18.2.1 SSI/MSI TTL Glue Parts and the Trend Toward LSI/VLSI.- 18.2.2 The Current Mode Logic Masterlice Family.- 18.2.3 Differences Due to Classical Switching Theory When Using VLSI Circuitry.- 18.3 Changes in Design Philosophies at the Circuit Level.- 18.3.1 Memory-intensive Microsystem Hardware.- 18.3.2 VLSI-Based I/O Formatter.- 18.3.3 Microfunctions, Buses, and Distributed Processes.- 18.3.4 Control Functions and Interfacing Rules.- 18.4 Simplified ?P Interfaces for Controllers Under the VLSI Influence.- 18.4.1 The VLSI Data Communication Controllers.- 18.4.2 VLSI Memory Access Controllers Support 32-Bit Processors.- 18.4.3 VLSI Disk-Controller Chip Improves Winchester Interface.- Appendix Abbreviations.

Editorial Reviews

`...this is a book which provides a useful addition to the library of those working in this area. The information has been thoroughly researched and is clearly written.'
Microprocessors and Microsystems, 10:5 (1986)