Intermediate Text Book of Chemistry by Alexander Smith

Intermediate Text Book of Chemistry

byAlexander Smith

Paperback | February 8, 2012

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated.1919 Excerpt: ... degree of ionization is 0.8. When the conductivity becomes 5, 5/5,.or all, of the molecules are dissociated. For example, in hydrochloric acid, if we take the normal solution (p. 115) containing 36.5 g. of acid per liter as the unit of concentration, the fractions ionized at various concentrations are as follows: ION, 0.17; N, 0.78;.AT/10, 0.91; AT/100, 0.96. Thus, measurements of conductivity enable us to study the ionic decomposition of all ionogens, and to state accurately the fraction ionized, at each concentration, in solutions of every ionogen. This information is obviously most valuable, for it places us in a position to know the exact constitution of every solution we use in the laboratory. In the following section the data on which such knowledge can be based is given. In the next chapter the mode of applying the data is explained. Constitution of Solutions of Ionogens: Fractions Ionized.--The dilute acids used in the laboratory are generally of six times normal (6AT) concentration. But, often, we add only a drop or two to a large bulk of liquid, so that the acids are commonly very dilute as actually employed. The solutions of salts are of different strengths, but the great majority are of normal (N), or even smaller concentrations. In practice they, also, are still further considerably diluted before use. If, therefore, we give the fractions ionized (total molecules of ionogen = 1) in decinormal solutions (except where otherwise specified), the reader will be able to estimate roughly the proportion of each kind of ions in any application of the reagent. In the case of acids containing more than one displaceable hydrogen unit, the kind of ionization on which the figure is based is indicated by a period. Thus H.HC03 means that the whole of the ioniz...

Details & Specs

Title:Intermediate Text Book of ChemistryFormat:PaperbackDimensions:142 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.3 inPublished:February 8, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217491197

ISBN - 13:9780217491198

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