Technological change is central in explaining industrial leadership, but the relationships and interactions between scientific research, industrial innovation, and competitiveness are neither clear nor straightforward. Public research funding and business strategy dictate to a significantextent the manner in, and extent to which innovation occurs within the economy. This book analyses the role of technological change in the competitiveness of firms and national economies. This includes an examination of:* the roles of RandD spending, and the organisational and technological capabilities of firms in the encouragement of innovation; * the way institutions in various nations differ in the way in which they encourage - or discourage - innovation; and the way in which different industrial sectors provide - or fail to provide - incentives to innovate; and* the ways in which trade, the operation of multinationals and international trade negotiations influence national production and innovation systems . The book combines insights of innovation scholars with those from business history, sociology and economics, in exploring the relation between organizational structures and the process of innovation. It places the analysis of innovation within an international perspective and gives historical andcurrent examples of the interaction between organisational and technological capabilities, industrial and innovation policies and economic performance. Examples are drawn from a range of sectors (services, pharmaceuticals, construction, chemicals) and a range of countries (including the UK and otherEuropean countries, the USA, East Asia and Latin America).