This book provides historical sketches of the most significant national and international learned societies and academies located outside the United States. Complementing Joseph Kiger's Research Institutions and Learned Societies, which covers the United States, this volume includes profiles, arranged alphabetically, on some 100 organizations located in fifty-three countries. Each profile provides comprehensive, uniform, up-to-date information, including founding, history, purpose, activities, governance, current operations, and location of offices and archives, on the subject society. Entries conclude with sources of additional information. Appendices include chronologies, genealogies, and topical listings. The work includes a full index.