Comprising more than one million words, the 2nd edition of the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics encompasses the full range of the contemporary field of linguistics, including such areas as historical, comparative, formal, mathematical, functional, and philosophical linguistics.Special attention is given to interrelations within branches of linguistics and to relations of linguistics with other disciplines. Areas of intersection with the social and behavioral sciences-ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and behavioral linguistics-receive major coverage,as does interdisciplinary work in language and literature, mathematical linguistics, computational linguistics, and applied linguistics (particularly as it is concerned with language education). The International Encyclopedia of Linguistics is available in four print volumes and as an e-referenceedition at www.oxford-linguistics.com. Longer entries in the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, ranging up to four thousand words, survey the major fields of study-for example, anthropological linguistics, history of linguistics, semantics, and phonetics. Shorter entries treat specific topics within these fields, such as codeswitching, sound symbolism, and syntactic features. Other short entries define and discuss technical terms used within the various subfields or provide sketches of the careers of important scholars in the history of linguistics, such as Leonard Bloomfield, Roman Jakobson, and Edward Sapir. Linedrawings, maps, tables, and diagrams are generously employed to illustrate the text of many articles. A major emphasis of the work is its extensive coverage of languages and language families. From those as familiar as English, Japanese, and the Romance languages to Hittite, Yoruba, and Nahuatl, languages from all corners of the world receive treatment. Languages that are the subject ofindependent entries are analyzed in terms of their phonology, grammatical features, syntax, and writing systems. Language lists attached to each article on a language group or family enumerate all languages, extinct or still spoken, within that group and provide detailed information on the numberof known speakers, geographical range, and degree of intelligibility with other languages in the group. In this way, virtually every known language receives coverage. For ease of reference and to aid research, the articles are alphabetically arranged, each signed by the contributor, supported by up-to-date bibliographies, and readily accessible via a system of cross-references and a detailed index and synoptic outline. Authoritative, comprehensive, andinnovative, the 2nd edition of the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics will be an indispensable addition to personal, public, academic, and research libraries and will introduce a new generation of readers to the complexities and concerns of this field of study.