At the end of the 20th century, many of the major health problems facing highly industrialized nations stem from advanced technology, a richer diet, and lengthened life span. The scope of public health has greatly expanded. While health hazards to the public have increased, the strategies available to remedy them have grown commensurably. Public health has borrowed and adapted knowledge from the biological, medical, behavioral, and social sciences, and has been quick to recognize the potential of new fields such as the management sciences for safeguarding the health of the community. Through chapters written by expert contributors, this reference provides a synopsis of the state of the development of public health in twenty countries around the world. These countries vary considerably in national policies for organizing health services. Some are heavily industrialized, such as Germany and the United States, while others, such as Tanzania and Thailand, are less developed. Each chapter is devoted to a particular country, with chapters discussing similar issues in order to foster comparisons. Chapters discuss the overall status of public health from practice to research and teaching, and take into account the resulting health effects and the quality and efficiency of the delivery systems. Chapters include extensive references, and an appendix lists organizations in each country.