Interpersonal Communication

Paperback | January 26, 2012

bySarah Trenholm, Arthur Jensen

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The seventh edition of Interpersonal Communication continues the tradition of excellence established by this theory-driven text. Its unique learning model, which emphasizes communication competence, stands at the forefront of the discipline. Now featuring a four-color interior and an entirelynew art program, it remains at the highest level of scholarship offered for courses in interpersonal communication. SUPPORT PACKAGE FOR INSTRUCTORS:* Instructor's Manual * Instructor's Resource CD with Computerized Test Bank * A Companion Website featuring chapter outlines, review questions, and PowerPoint-based slides is available at www.oup.com/us/trenholm

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The seventh edition of Interpersonal Communication continues the tradition of excellence established by this theory-driven text. Its unique learning model, which emphasizes communication competence, stands at the forefront of the discipline. Now featuring a four-color interior and an entirelynew art program, it remains at the highest l...

Sarah Trenholm is Professor of Speech Communication at Ithaca College. Arthur Jensen is Professor of Communicaiton and Associate Dean of the College of Visual and Performing Arts at Syracuse University.

other books by Sarah Trenholm

Format:PaperbackDimensions:432 pages, 9.88 × 7.91 × 0.59 inPublished:January 26, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199827508

ISBN - 13:9780199827503

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Table of Contents

PART 1 Introductory Perspectives1. Communication and CompetenceWhat is Communication?Definitions of Human CommunicationCharacteristics of CommunicationCommunication is a ProcessCommunication is Uniquely HumanCommunication is a Collective ActivityCommunication is RegulatorySummary and ImplicationsA Model of Communication CompetenceProcess Competence: Knowledge About CommunicationMessage CompetenceInterpretive CompetenceRole CompetenceSelf CompetenceGoal CompetenceCulture and ContextHistorical Change and Cultural ValuesHow Technology Affects Cultural ContextRelational Cultures as ContextPerformative Competence: Acting on KnowledgeSkill Building: On Taking a Process PerspectiveProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connections 1: Bonzo Goes to CollegeInterdisciplinary Connections 2: Insulting the MeatResearch in Review: Getting the Most Out of CollegeScreening Room: Meet the Parents2. Building Interpersonal RelationshipsWhat is Interpersonal Communication?The Situational Approach to Interpersonal CommunicationThe Developmental Approach to Interpersonal CommunicationThe Role of Interpersonal Communication in RelationshipsWhat is a Relationship?The Characteristics of RelationshipsRelational Paths: Intimacy and DistancePrivate vs. Public RelationshipsIndependence vs. ConformityWhat Does It Take To Be Relational Competent?Communication Competence and RelationshipsSome Characteristics of Healthy RelationshipsSkill Building: A PreviewProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connections 1: The Neuroscience of LoveInterdisciplinary Connections 2: Mind Your MannersResearch in Review: Stress and Interpersonal CommunicationScreening Room: Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindPART 2 Sending and Receiving Messages3. Nonverbal CommunicationWhat is Nonverbal Communication?Spontaneous CommunicationSymbolic CommunicationThe Power of Nonverbal CodesThe Functions of Nonverbal CodesExpressing MeaningModifying Verbal MessagesRegulating the Flow of InteractionThe Structure of Nonverbal CodesThe Visual Communication SystemProxemicsEnvironmental PreferenceTerritorialityPersonal SpaceKinesicsBody MovementsTypes of GesturesGazeThe Expressive Function of GazeUsing Gaze to Monitor and Regulate InteractionLooking vs. SeeingFacial ExpressionUniversal ExpressionsMisreading Facial ExpressionsArtifactsPhysical AppearanceClothing and AdornmentThe Auditory Communication SystemVocal CharacteristicsMessages in the VoiceThe Invisible Communication SystemChronemicsOlfacticsHapticsTypes of TouchThe Contexts and Functions of TouchCulture and Nonverbal CommunicationBalancing Nonverbal CodesExpectancy Violations TheoryCognitive Valence TheoryCompensating and Reciprocating in Everyday LifeThe Interplay of Verbal and Nonverbal CommunicationSkill Building: Communicating FeelingsExpressing FeelingsReflecting FeelingsProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: A Better Place to LiveInterdisciplinary Connection 2:The Guarded SelfResearch in Review: Pinocchio's NoseScreening Room: Freaky Friday4. Language and Interpersonal CommunicationWhat is Language?How Verbal and Nonverbal Codes DifferCharacteristics of Verbal CodesThe Functions of LanguageThe Structure of LanguageSemantic Meaning: Language at the Level of the WordDenotative and Connotative MeaningsThe Importance of Semantic CompetenceSyntactic Meaning: Language at the Level of the SentenceOrder as MeaningThe Importance of Syntactic CompetencePragmatic Meaning: Language at the Level of the Speech ActLanguage in UseInterpreting and Producing Speech ActsUsing Pragmatic Rules in InteractionMessage Production: Achieving Pragmatic GoalsLanguage, Power, and PoliticsThe Sapir-Whorf HypothesisLanguage and LabelsIdentity and Language UseSocial Class and DiscourseGender and DiscourseEarly FindingsLater CriticismsLanguage, Domination, and FreedomAvoiding Sexist LanguageSkill Building: Initiating ConversationStarting to TalkFinding a TopicAsking QuestionsUsing Free Information during ConversationClosing ConversationsProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: Speaking with NamesInterdisciplinary Connection 2: From Raillery to RantResearch Review: Please and Thank You, Two Magic WordsScreening Room 1: The King's Speech5. ListeningWhat is Listening?Listening vs. HearingThe Listening ProcessBeyond Accuracy: Listening RelationallyListening and the New TechnologiesWays of ListeningTypes of ListeningListening StylesWhat Should We Listen For?Conflict Management and Effective ListeningWhen are Conflicts Healthy?Why Are Conflicts Difficult to Manage?Hot EmotionsBiased PerceptionsCommunication ObstaclesPersonal Differences in Conflict ManagementAttitudes about Human NatureEmotional IntelligenceSkill Building: Becoming a More Competent ListenerImproving Comprehension and EvaluationEnhancing Empathic ListeningProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connections 1: Hot Under the Collar or Cool Under FireInterdisciplinary Connections 2: Do Crows Really Use SUVs to Crack Nuts?Research in Review: When Parents and Children Don't See Eye to EyeScreening Room: About a Boy6. Perceiving and Interpreting Social WorldsFactors that Affect the Way we See the WorldEmotions and PerceptionMotivation and PerceptionCognitive Structures and PerceptionSchematic Thinking and Information ProcessingSchemata that Describe and Classify PeoplePersonal ConstructsPerson Prototypes and StereotypesStereotypesSchemata that Define Roles and RelationshipsSchemata Containing Information about the SelfSchemata that Tell Us What to Do in Social SituationsSocial Cognition and Interpersonal InteractionSizing up SituationsEpisode IdentificationUsing Scripts to Guide InteractionThe Invisibility of Situational ConstraintsPerceiving Other PeopleUsing Personal Constructs to Judge OthersImplicit Personality Theories and InteractionEvaluating RelationshipsSelf-MonitoringCreating Relational DefinitionsExplaining Behavior by Making AttributionsPersonality vs. SituationAttributional BiasesOverestimating PersonalityUnderestimating the SituationSeeing Things from Our Own PerspectiveCategorical Thinking and Interpretive CompetenceNa`ve Realism: Seeing What We BelieveDual Processing and Impression FormationAttention and IdentificationControlled CategorizationPersonalizationSkill Building: Becoming More MindfulMindfulness and Open-MindednessIncreasing MindfulnessProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: The Power of the PresentInterdisciplinary Connection 2: Making Sense by Using Reflections and InterpretationsResearch in Review: When Being Mindful Really MattersScreening Room: Memento7. Meeting Social ExpectationsCreating Social IdentitiesSocial Control and ConformityThe Nature of Social RolesChoosing Our RolesSocial Support and Role IdentityThe Looking-Glass SelfSocial Comparison ProcessesCommitment and Role IdentityRewards and Role IdentityHow Social Roles Affect CommunicationCommunication as PerformanceFace-Work and the Social SelfOther Aspects of Everyday PerformanceSets, Costumes, and PropsBackstage BehaviorEnsemble ActingCommunication as Story-tellingSkill-Building: Showing Politeness and RespectInterpersonal SensitivityAvoiding Threats to FaceBalancing Solidarity and IndependenceProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 7.1: They Just Like to Be Not the Same as UsInterdisciplinary Connection 7.2: Talking Tough in TeamstervilleResearch in Review 7.1: Guys Can't Say That to GuysScreening room 7.1: Big Fish8. Establishing Individual IdentitiesThe Self in HistorySelf Concepts: Gaining Independence from Social Roles and RulesWhat is the Self-Concept?Self as NarrativeSelf as Cognitive SchemaSelf as BehaviorSelf as Relational AchievementSelf as Internal DialoguePersonality Differences and Interpersonal CommunicationCommunicator StylesRhetorical SensitivityThe Noble SelfThe Rhetorical ReflectorThe Rhetorical SensitiveAttachment StylesIntimacy MotivationSkill-Building: Improving Competence Through Self-DisclosureWhat is Self Disclosure?General Rules for Revealing the SelfA Case Study in Disclosure: Coming OutHow to Reveal Same Sex OrientationWhat to Say When a Friend Comes OutProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: The Saturated SelfInterdisciplinary Connection 2: Zen and the Art of SelflessnessResearch Review: Presentation of Self in CyberspaceScreening Room 1: Big Eden9. Achieving Personal and Relational GoalsWhat is Interpersonal Influence?Types of InfluenceCulture and InfluenceIssues in InfluenceSkills for Goal AchievementFace and Interpersonal InfluenceSymbolic Role-TakingTheories of Influence; Understanding Others' NeedsThe Need for RewardsClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningSocial LearningSocial Exchange ProcessesThe Need for ConsistencyCognitive Dissonance TheoryWays to Reduce DissonanceCommitment and ConsistencyThe Need to Establish IdentityValue TheoryRelationships and Self ValidationSummary: Choice and MotivationSource CharacteristicsPower and Interpersonal InfluenceSelf-Presentation StrategiesInfluence as Self-PersuasionMessage StrategiesCompliance-Seeking StrategiesStrategies in InteractionSkill Building: Steps to Goal AchievementPrinciples of Goal CompetenceBecoming Appropriately AssertiveProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: Weapons of InfluenceInterdisciplinary Connection 2: What's in a Name?Research in Review: Wait 'Till you Hear What I HeardScreening Room: Thank You For SmokingPART 3 Relational contexts10. Understanding Family RelationshipsMaintaining Family TiesThe Family as a SystemFamily StructuresPower-Authority StructureDecision-Making StructureInteraction StructureCharacteristics of Family StructuresRole DifferentiationBoundariesCoordination of SubsystemsThe Functions of the FamilyInternal FunctionsProviding CareSocializationIntellectual DevelopmentRecreationEmotional SupportExternal functionsCultural TransmissionAccommodationFamilies and ChangeThe Dynamics of Family EvolutionThe Family Life CycleStressful Contact with Outside SourcesIllness or Death of a Family MemberDivorce or Separation of Family MembersStrategies for Coping with ChangeAnticipating ChangeEncouraging Family CohesivenessMaintaining AdaptabilityBuilding Social NetworksFamily Communication PatternsFamily Rules and Family IdentityEstablishing Communication RulesRegulative RulesConstitutive rulesFamily Themes and IdentityInteraction in Family SubsystemsHusbands and WivesParents and ChildrenSiblingsFamilies in HistorySkill Building: Communicating to ComfortProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: Creating Hallmark MomentsInterdisciplinary Connection 2: Divorce is When Your Family is DeadResearch in Review: You're My Parent But You're NotScreening Room: The Kids Are All Right11. Creating Intimate RelationshipsWhat is Intimacy?Have People Always Had Intimate Relationships?Moving from Public to Private RelationshipsFactors that Influence Definitions of IntimacyFamily MessagesRecent Cultural MessagesEnvironnemental ConditionsIndividual Relational Messages and IntimacySending Dominance MessagesDimensions of IntimacyRelational Contracts and CulturesOpening the Door to Intimacy: Interpersonal AttractionDuck's Filtering Theory of AttractionInterpersonal MagnetsPhysical BeautySimilarityReciprocal LikingComplementary NeedsCosts and RewardsOther Sources of AttractionComing Closer: Creating Intimate RelationshipsStages in the Development of Romantic CouplingInitiatingExperimentingIntensifyingIntegratingBondingThe Development of FriendshipRawlins' Friendship StagesRawlins' Friendship StagesKeeping It Together: Relational MaintenanceBalancing Relational DialecticsThe Expressive-Protective DialecticThe Autonomy-Togetherness DialecticThe Novelty-Predictability DialecticThe Gender Role DialecticWorking Out Dialectic TensionsPerceptual Biases during MaintenanceRelational Maintenance BehaviorsToo Close for Comfort: When Relationships Self-DestructStages in Relational DeteriorationDifferentiatingCircumscribingStagnatingAvoidingTerminatingDysfunctional Relational PatternsWhy Patterns Are ImportantUnhealthy Patterns of CommunicationProblems of PunctuationDisconfirming ResponsesDouble Binds and ParadoxesURPs and SpiralsSigns of Trouble to ComeSuccessful CouplesUnstable CouplesGottman's Four HorsemenCriticismContemptDefensivenessStonewallingSkill Building: Offering Effective FeedbackProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: Playing the Dating GameInterdisciplinary connection 2: Long Distance Dating RelationshipsResearch in Review: "This is Your Brain on Love"Screening Room: The Social Network12. Managing Professional RelationshipsInterpersonal Communication in Public SituationsPublic Realms in HistoryInteracting in the Public Realm TodayEnacting Roles and ScriptsShowing and Deserving RespectAvoidance RitualsPresentational RitualsDemeanorGiving Priority to Practical GoalsMaking Room for Expressive BehaviorCommunicating in Our CommunitiesSpace and Place: Community Design and CommunicationThird Places: Connecting with Your CommunityInteracting in the WorkplaceSizing Up Organizational CulturesLearning the RopesAttending to Organizational Stories and RitualsNarratives and StoriesRituals and PracticesParticipating in Communication NetworksJoining the TeamLeading the TeamBuilding Teamwork SkillsEstablishing NormsDeveloping CohesionCoping with Supervision and StatusStatus Differences in CommunicationEffective Supervisory CommunicationServing the CustomerOne-to-One MarketingInternal Customer RelationsBalancing Personal and Professional RelationshipsFraming Friendship in the WorkplaceManaging the Office RomanceDeciphering the Boundaries between Home, Work, and CommunitySkill Building: Approaches to Workplace ConflictChoosing Your Conflict StyleTaking a Problem-Solving Approach to NegotiationCompromise vs. Problem-SolvingProblem-Solving StrategiesRules for Cooperative Problem-SolvingProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: The Conversational OrganizationInterdisciplinary Connection 2: Sorry, I'm Not ApologizingResearch Review: Lessons from The ApprenticeScreening Room 1: BarbershopScreening Room 2: Office Spaces13. Interpersonal Communication, Culture, and ChangeCultural InfluencesDimensions of DifferenceLocus of Control: Control vs. ConstraintAction Orientation: Doing vs. BeingAttitudes Toward Time: M-time vs. P-timeConnections to Others: Individualism vs. CollectivismCommunication Styles: Low-Context vs. High-ContextAmerican Cultural PatternsEthnic, Regional, and Class DifferencesShifting Cultural IdentitiesEthnicity and Language ChoicesRegional and Class DifferencesCommunicating Across CultureBarriers to Intercultural UnderstandingPrejudiceCommunicating PrejudiceEthnocentrismAssumed SimilarityHistorical InfluencesThe Colonial Period (1600-1780)The Colonial HouseholdCodes of ConductSocial Identity and PatriarchyGender Roles and Social IdentityThe Early Industrial Period (1830-1880)Social Change and AnxietyThe l9th-Century HomeRudeness and CivilityGender Roles and Personal IdentityThe Modern Period (1900-1960)Mass Consumption and the American DreamHome and Family ValuesPersonality and Self-ExpressionSex and Self-DiscoverySkill Building: Increasing Sensitivity to ContextAdapting to International DifferencesIncreasing Co-cultural UnderstandingProcess to PerformanceQuestioning Communication RevisitedReview TermsSuggested ReadingsOnline Student ResourcesObservation GuidesExercisesInterdisciplinary Connection 1: The Thrill of VictoryInterdisciplinary Connection 2: If You Can't Stand the ShameResearch in Review: When Nobody Knows Who You Really AreScreening Room: Crash