Interpreting Canadas Past: A Pre-Confederation Reader

Paperback | June 2, 2004

EditorJ. M. Bumsted, Len Kuffert

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Designed to accompany J.M. Bumsted's introductory history texts (the two-volume Peoples of Canada and the single-volume History of the Canadian Peoples), Interpreting Canada's Past is a collection of readings that now includes primary documents as well as previously published scholarlyarticles.

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Designed to accompany J.M. Bumsted's introductory history texts (the two-volume Peoples of Canada and the single-volume History of the Canadian Peoples), Interpreting Canada's Past is a collection of readings that now includes primary documents as well as previously published scholarlyarticles.

J.M. Bumsted and Len Kuffert are both at University of Manitoba.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:448 pages, 9 × 7 × 0.75 inPublished:June 2, 2004Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0195420179

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. The Origins of North AmericansIntroductionDocument 1: "Where the First People Came from," C. Douglas Ellis, ed., Cree Legends from the West Coast of James Bay (Winnipeg: U of Manitoba Press, 1995)Document 2: from Jose de Acosta Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias 1590, vol. I (London: The Haklyt Society, 1880)Reading 1: from Diamond Jenness, ed., The American Aborigines: Their Origins and Antiquity (NY, 1933)Reading 2: from K.R. Fladmark, "Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America," American Antiquiry, 44 (1979)Reading 3: from J.M. Adovasio, "The Ones that Will Not Go Away: A Biased View of Pre-Clovis Populations in the New World," in Olga Saffir and N.D. Praslov, eds., From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic-Paleo-Indian Adaptations (NY and London: Plenum Press, 1933)Reading 4: from E. James Dixon, "Learning from Those Who Have Gone Before," Bones, Boats and Bison: Archaeology and the First Colonization of Western North America (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999)Reading 5: from Anne McIlroy, "Who were the first North Americans," The Globe and Mail, 6 Sept. 2003Suggestions for further reading:Davis, Nigel, Voyagers to the New World (NY: William Morrow and Co., 1979). A sensible presentation of alternate scenarios of North American origins.Dewar, Elaine, Bones: Discovering the First Americans (Toronto: Random House Canada, 2001). A journalist explores the politics of the scientific issues of the origins debate.Dixon E. James, Bones, Boats and Bison: Archaeology and the First Colonization of Western North America (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999). A Good discussion of recent findings.Fagan, Brian M., Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent (3rd ed., NY: Thames and Hudson, 2000). A useful summary of conventional wisdom.Chapter 2. The Missionaries and the First NationsIntroductionDocument 2: from Joyce Marshall, ed., Word from New France: The Selected Letters of Marie de l'Incarnation (Toronto: OUP, 1967)Reading 1: from Francis Parkman, The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century (vol 1, Toronto: George Morang and Company, 1900)Reading 2: from J.H. Kennedy, Jesuit and Savage in New France (New Haven: Yale UP, 1950)Reading 3: from Denys Delage, Bitter Feast: Amerindians and Europeans in Northeastern North America, 1600-1664 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1993)Reading 4: from Carole Blackburn, Harvest of Souls: The Jesuit Missions and Colonialism in North America, 1632-1650 (Montreal and London: McGill-Queens UP, 2000)Suggestions for further reading:Blackburn, Carole, Harvest of Souls: The Jesuit Missions and Colonialism in North America, 1632-1650 (Montreal and London: McGill-Queens UP, 2000). A critical study of the missionary thrust in early Canada.Kennedy, J.H. Jesuit and Savage in New France (New Haven: Yale UP, 1950). This is the standard modern account from the missionary perspective.Parkman, Francis, The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century (many editions). The classic nineteenth-century romantic story of the missionaries.Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed., The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610-1791 (73 vol. in 35), NY: Pageant Books, 1959. The missionary case is presented in the words of the missionaries themselves.Chapter 3. The Seigneurial System in CanadaIntroductionDocument 1: from Edicts, Ordinances, Declarations and Decrees relative to the Seigniorial Tenure (Quebec, 1852)Document 2: Report of General James Murray on the State of Canada under French Administration, 5 June 1762," in W.B. Munro, ed., Documents relating to the Seigniorial Tenure in Canada (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1907)Reading 1: from Francis Parkman, The Old Regime in Canada, II (Toronto: George N. Morang and Co., 1899)Reading 2: from Marcel Tudel, The Seigneurial Regime (Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1971)Reading 3: from Richard Colebrook Harris, The Seigneurial Regime in Early Canada: A Geographical Study (Madison, Wisc., 1966)Reading 4: from "Seigniorial Tenure in New France, 1688-1739: An Essay on Income Distribution and Retarded Economic Development," Historical Reflections, X:2 (1983)Suggestions for further reading:Dechene, Louise, Habitants and merchants in seventeenth-century Montreal (Montreal: McGill-Queens UP, 1992). Despite its title, a broadranging picture of rural Canada. The study is based on much research and quantitative data in the French Annales tradition.Harris, R. Cole, The Seigneurial System in Early Canada: A Geographical Study (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966). This is the most influential modern study, by and large, dubious of Old World origins.Munro, William Bennett, ed., Documents relating to the Seigniorial Tenure in Canada, 1598-1854 (Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1908). The best collection of printed documents, most of which are published only in the French originals.Munro, William Bennett, The Seigniorial System in Canada: A Study in French Colonial Policy (NY: Longmans, 1907). The author's analysis of the documents he later reprinted.Chapter 4. The Expulsion of the Acadians, 1755IntroductionDocument 1: excerpt from 1755 council minutes, in Thomas B. Akins, ed., Acadia and Nova Scotia: Documents Relating to the Acadian French and the First British Colonization of the Province 1714-1758 (Halifax, 1870)Document 2: Governor Lawrence to Board of Trade, 18 July 1755, in Akins, ibid.Reading 1: from C. Bruce Fergusson, "The Expulsion of the Acadians," Dalhousie Review, 35 (1955-6)Reading 2: from Naomi Griffiths, The Contexts of Acadian History 1686-1784 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens UP, 1992)Reading 3: from Charles D. Mahaffie Jr., A Land of Discord Always: Acadia from its Beginning to the Expulsion of its People 1604-1755 (Camden, Maine: Down East Books)Reading 4: from Earl Lockerby, "The Deportation of the Acadians from Ile St. Jean, 1758," Acadiensis, XXVII (spring, 1998)Suggestions for further readingClark, Andrew Hill, Acadia: The Geography of Nova Scotia to 1760 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981). A full study of the historical geography of Acadia.Daigle, Jean, ed., The Acadians of the Maritimes: Thematic Studies (Moncton: Centre d'etudes acadienne, 1982). A collection of essays on the history of the Acadians from the seventeenth century to the present.Griffiths, Naomi, The Acadians: Creation of A People (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1969). Usually regarded as the standard account.Plank, Geoffrey, An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001). A recent account by an American-based scholar.Chapter 5. The Quebec Act, 1774IntroductionDocument 1: from The Quebec Act, in Adam Shortt and Arthur G. Doughty, eds., Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada 1759-1791 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1907)Document 2: Guy Carleton to Lord Dorchester, 11 November 1774, in ibid.Reading 1: from Coffin, Victor, The Province of Quebec and the Early American Revolution (Madison, WI: The University, 1896)Reading 2: from Hilda Neatby, Quebec: The Revolutionary Age, 1760-1791 (Toronto: MandS, 1966)Reading 3: excerpt from Gustav Lanctot, Canada and the American Revolution, 1774-1784 (Toronto and Vancouver, 1967)Reading 4: excerpt from Philip Lawson, The Imperial Challenge: Quebec and Britain in the Age of the American Revolution (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens UP, 1989)Suggestions for further reading:Burt, Alfred Leroy, The Old Province of Quebec (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1933). A very old study that has stood the test of time.Neatby, Hilda, The Quebec Act: Protest and Policy (Scarborough: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1972). A useful compendium of historical writing on the Quebec Act.Neatby, Hilda, Quebec: The Revolutionary Age, 1760-1791 (Toronto: MandS, 1966). This work, while quite dated in some respects, remains the most judicious overall view of the Quebec Act in the context of the larger history of Quebec.Chapter 6. The LoyalistsDocument 1: The Petition of 55 Loyalists, 22 July 1783, in Vindication of Governor Parr and his Council (London, 1784)Document 2: A Memorial of Samuel Hakes and 600 others, 15 August 1783, in Ibid.Document 3: The Diary of Sarah Frost, 1783, in Walter Bates, Kingston and the Loyalists of the "Spring Fleet" of 1783 (Fredericton: Non-Entity Press, 1980)Reading 1: from Rev. Nathaniel Burwash, "U.E. Loyalists, Founders of Our Institutions," United Empire Loyalist Association, Annual Transactions, 1904-1911Reading 2: from Mary Beth Norton, "Eighteenth-Century American Women in Peace and War: The Case of the Loyalists," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 33 (1976)Reading 3: from James W. St. G. Walker, "The Establishment of a Free Black Community in Nova Scotia, 1783-1840," in Martin L. Kilson and Robert Rotberg, eds., The African Diaspora: Interpretive Readings (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)Reading 4: from Norman Knowles, Inventing the Loyalists: The Ontario Loyalists Tradition and the Creation of Usable Pasts (Toronto: UTP, 1997)Suggestions for further reading:Brown, Wallace, and Hereward Senior, Victorious in Defeat: The Loyalists in Canada (Toronto: Methuen, 1984). Perhaps the best recent general synthesis.Condon, Ann Gorman, The Envy of the American States: The Loyalist Dream for New Brunswick (Fredericton: New Ireland Press, 1984). A study of the experiences of the twenty members of the Loyalist elite in the new province of New Brunswick.Graymont, Barbara, The Iroquois in the American Revolution (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1972). Still the best study of how a number of Iroquois ended up as Loyalists in Canada.MacKinnon, Neil, This Unfriendly Soil: The Loyalists Experience in Nova Scotia, 1781-1791 (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1986). A detailed study of the Loyalist settlement of Nova Scotia.Chapter 7. The Western Fur TradeDocument 1: excerpt from Harry W. Duckworth, ed., The English River Book: A North West Company Journal and Account Book of 1786 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990)Document 2: excerpt from Lord Selkirk, A Sketch of the British Fur Trade (1815), in J.M. Bumsted, ed., The Collected Writings of Lord Selkirk 1810-1820: Volume II in the Writings and Papers of Thomas Douglas, Fifth Earl of Selkirk (Winnipeg: The Manitoba Record Society, 1987)Reading 1: From Harold A. Innis, The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930)Reading 2: From Elaine Allan Mitchell, "The Scot in the Fur Trade," in W. Stanford Reid, ed., The Scottish Tradition in Canada (Toronto: MandS, 1976)Reading 3: From Arthur J. Ray, Indians in the Fur Trade: their role as trappers, hunters, and middlemen in the lands southwest of Hudson Bay 1660-1870 (Toronto: UTP, 1974)Reading 4: From Jennifer S.H. Brown, Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company Families in Indian Country (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1980)Suggestions for further reading:Francis, D. and Toby Morantz, Furs: A History of the Fur Trade in Eastern James Bay, 1600-1870 (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1983). A history of the trade in one region sensitive to the First Nations involvement.Freeman, Donald and Arthur J. Ray, "Give Us Good Measure": An Economic Analysis of Relations between Indians and the Hudson's Bay Company before 1763 (Toronto: UTP, 1978). An insightful analysis of the early fur trade on Hudson Bay.Galbraith, John S., The Hudson's Bay Company as an Imperial Factor, 1821-1869 (Toronto: UTP, 1957). An institutional history that sees the fur trade in geo-political terms.Van Kirk, Sylvia, "Many Tender Ties": Women in Fur Trade Society in Western Canada, 1670-1870 (Winnipeg: Watson and Dwyer, 1980). The pioneering study of the role of women in the western fur trade.Chapter 8. Rebellions in Lower CanadaIntroductionDocument 1: The 92 Resolutions, Michael Bliss, ed., Canadian History in Documents (Toronto, 1967)Document 2: extract from a despatch from Lord Durham to Lord Glenelg, 9 August 1838, in The Report and Despatches of the Earl of Durham Her Majesty's High Commissioner and Governer-General of British North America (London: Ridgways, 1839)Reading 1: from Alfred G. Decelles, The "Patriotes" of 1837 (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook and Company, 1915)Reading 2: from Fernand Ouellet, "The Rebellions of 1837/8" (1968) in Bumsted, ed., Interpreting Canada's PastReading 3: from Allan Greer, The Patriots and the People: The Rebellion of 1837 in Rural Lower Canada (Toronto, UTP)Reading 4: excerpt Jean-Marie Fecteau, "'This Ultimate Resource': Martial Law and State Repression in Lower Canada, 1837-1838," in F. Murrary Greenwood and Barry Wright, eds., Rebellion and Invasion in the Canadas, 1837-1839 (Toronto: UTP)Suggestions for further reading:Donald Grant Creighton, The Empire of the St. Lawrence (Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1956). A classic analysis that sees the problem more in mercantile than in cultural terms.Helen Taft Manning, The Revolt of French Canada 1800-1835: A Chapter in the History of the British Commonwealth (Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1962). Still the standard account of the imperial background of French Canada's discontents.Ouellet, Fernand, Economic and Social History of Quebec, 1760-1850: "Structures" and "Conjunctures" (Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1980). A revisionist account by a historian pioneering in quantitiatve history in the global context.Senior, Elinor Kyte, Redcoats and Patriotes: The Rebellions in Lower Canada, 1837-38 (Stittsville, ON: Canada's Wings/National Museums of Canada, 1985). A balanced study with a heavy emphasis on the military side.Chapter 9. Assisted Immigration to Upper Canada in the 1820sIntroductionDocument 1: excerpt from Alexander Buchanan to Wilmot-Horton, 19 May 1827, Appendix to Third Report of the Select Committee on Emigration from the United Kingdom (London, 1827)Document 2: Testimony of Alexander Buchanan, Third Report of the Select Committee on Emigration from the United Kingdom (London, 1827)Reading 1: from Norman Macdonald, Canada 1763-1841: Immigration and Settlement: The Administration of the Imperial Land Regulations (London: Longmans, 1939)Reading 2: from Helen Cowan, British Immigration to British North America: The First Hundred Years (Toronto: UTP, 1961, rev.ed.)Reading 3: from Hugh Johnston, British Emigration Policy, 1815-1830: "Shovelling Out Paupers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972)Reading 4: from Wendy Cameron, "Selecting Peter Robinson's Irish Emigrants," Histoire Sociale/Social History 9/17 (May 1976)Suggestions for further reading:Akenson, D.H., The Irish in Ontario: A Study in Rural History (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1984). A study of the Irish in two townships of Upper Canada.Elliott, Bruce, Irish Migrants in the Canadas: A New Approach (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1988). This work focusses on the phenomenon of "chain migration."Guillet, E.C., The Great Migration: The Atlantic Crossing by Sailing-Ship since 1770 (2nd ed., Toronto: UTP, 1963). Often criticized for its scholarshp, this work remains the basic source for the Atlantic crossing to British North America.Houston, Cecil and W.J. Smyth, Irish Emigration and Canadian Settlement: Patterns, Links, and Letters (Toronto: UTP, 1990). A geographical approach, strong on maps, it includes a number of fascinating letters from emigrants.Chapter 10. Women and Politics in British North AmericaIntroductionDocument 1: "To the Electors of Quebec County," Le Canadien, 21 May 1808Document 2: Petitions to House of Assembly, Lower Canada, 4 Dec. 1828, in Arthur G. Doughty and Norah Story, eds., Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada 1819-1828 (Ottawa, King's Printer, 1935)Reading 1: John Garner, The Franchise and Politics in British North America 1755-1867 (Toronto: UTP, 1969)Reading 2: from Rusty Bittermann, "Women and the Escheat Movement: The Politics of Everyday Life on Prince Edward Island," in Janet Guildford and Suzanne Morton, eds., Separate Spheres: Women's Worlds in the 19th-century Maritimes (F'ton, Acadiensis Press, 1994)Reading 3: excerpt from Gail C. Campbell, "Disenfranchised But Not Quiescent: Women Petitioners in New Brunswich in the Mid-19th Century," Acadiensis, 18:2 (spring 1989)Reading 4: excerpt from Kim Klein, "A 'Petticoat Polity'? Women Voters in New Brunswick before Confederation," Acadiensis, 26:1 (Autumn 1996)Suggestions for further reading:Fellman, Anita, et al., eds., Rethinking Canada: The Promise of Women's History (3rd ed., Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997). A collection of recent historical writings on the history of Canadian women.Prentice, Alison, et al., Canadian Women: A History (Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1996). The most thorough overview of the history of women in Canada.Wilton, Carol, Popular Politics and Political Culture in Upper Canada, 1800-1850 (Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 2000). Provides a broad context for understanding early politics in Canada.Chapter 11. Science and the Canadian PartiesIntroductionDocument 1: excerpt from John Palliser, Journals, Detailed Reports and Observations Relative to the Exploration, by Captain Palliser (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1863)Document 2: excerpt from Reports of Progress: Together with a Preliminary and General Report on the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858 (Toronto: King's Printer, 1859)Document 3: excerpt from James Hector, "On the Capabilities for Settlement of the Central Part of British North Amerida," Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, new series, IV (1861)Reading 1: from Irene Spry, "The Palliser Expedition," in Richard C. Davis, ed., Rupert's Land: A Cultural Tapestry (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 1988)Reading 2: from William L. Morton, Henry Youle Hind (Toronto: UTP, 1980)Reading 3: Doug Owram, Promise of Eden: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Idea of the West, 1856-1900 (Toronto: UTP, 1980)Reading 4: from Susanne Zeller, Inventing Canada: Early Victorian Science and the Idea of a Transcontinental NationSuggestions for further reading:Hind, Henry Youle, Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858 (London: Longman, Green, 1860). The complete reports of the Canadian expeditions.Doug Owram, Promise of Eden: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Idea of the West, 1856-1900 (Toronto: UTP, 1980). An interpretation of Canadian expansionism.Spry, Irene, ed., The Papers of the Palliser Expedition, 1857-1860 (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1968). A collection of documents about the Palliser expedition.Susanne Zeller, Inventing Canada: Early Victorian Science and the Idea of a Transcontinental Nation (Toronto: UTP, 1987). Argues the importance of science for creating the backdrop for Canadian unification.Chapter 12. The British Columbia Gold RushIntroductionDocument 1: excerpt from Dr. Carl Friesach, Ein Ausflug nach Britisch-Columbien im Jahre 1858, translated and reprinted by Robie L. Reid in "Two Narratives of the Fraser River Gold-Rush," BCHQ 5 (1941)Document 2: Letter of Charles Major, 20 Sept. 1859, in Daily Globe, Toronto, 2 January 1860, reprinted in Reid, "Two Narratives"Reading 1: from T.A. Rickard, "Indian Participation in the Gold Discoveries," BCHQ 2 (Jan. 1938)Reading 3: from David Williams, "The Administration of Criminal and Civil Justice in the Mining Camps and Frontier Communities of B.C.," in L. Knafla, ed., Law and Justice in a New Land: Essays in Western Canadian History (Toronto: Carswell, 1986)Reading 4: excerpt from Tina Loo, "A Delicate Game': The Meaning of Law on Grouse Creek," BC Studies, 96 (winter 1992-3)Suggestions for further reading:Barman, Jean, The West beyond the West: A History of British Columbia (rev. ed., Toronto: UTP, 1996). A recent survey of the history of the province.Fetherling, George, The Gold Crusades: A Social History of Gold Rushes, 1849-1929 (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1988). A comparative study of the quest for gold in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.Loo, Tina, Making Law, Order and Authority in British Columbia, 1821-1871 (Toronto: UTP, 1994). A study focussing on the administration of justice in British Columbia.Williams, David, The Man for a New Country: Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie (Sidney, B.c.: Gray's Publishing, 1977). A biography of the "hanging judge."Chapter 13. Confederation and the Anti-ConfederatesIntroductionDocument 1: excerpt from speech of Joseph Howe at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 22 May 1867, in Joseph Andrew Chisholm, ed., The Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe, II (Halifax: Chronicle Publishing Company, 1909)Document 2: excerpt from speech of William Lawrence in Nova Scotia House of Assembly, 1866, in Janet Ajzenstat et al., eds., Canada's Founding Debates (Toronto: Stoddart, 1999)Document 3: excerpt from speech of Christopher Dunkin in Canadian House of Parliament, 27 February 1865, in Parliamentary Debates on the Subject of the Confederation of the British North American Provinces (Quebec: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1865)Reading 1: from P.B. Waite, The Life and Times of Confederation 1864-1867: Politics, Newspapers, and the Union of British North America (Toronto: UTP, 1962)Reading 2: from C.M. Wallace, "Albert Smith," in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 11 (Toronto: UTP, 1982)Reading 3: from J.M. Beck, Joseph Howe: Anti-Confederate (Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1968)Reading 4: excerpt from Ged Martin, "Painting the Other Picture: The Case against Confederation," in C.C. Eldridge, ed., From Rebellion to Patriation: Canada and Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Aberystwyth: Canadian Studies Group in Wales, 1989)Suggestions for further reading:Creighton, Donald G., The Road to Confederation: The Emergence of Canada, 1863-1867 (Toronto: Macmillan, 1964). A well-written and well-argued account from the nationalist perspective.Martin, Ged, Britain and the Origins of Canadian Confederation 1837-1867 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1995). A series of essays exploring the imperial context of Confederation.Moore, Christopher, 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (Toronto: MandS, 1997). A modern account influenced by the constitutional crises of the 1990s.Morton, W.L., The Critical Years: The Union of British North America 1857-1873 (Toronto: MandS, 1964). A balanced account of unification.