The last four decades have seen momentous changes in the Indian society, in terms of its structure, processes, and the dynamics of social institutions. Sociological study of stratification, identity, ethnicity, democratic processes, and urbanism and modernity, have been at the centre stage ofacademic engagement with this transition, and Indian sociologists have contributed significantly to this corpus of knowledge. This book brings together an Introduction and 11 essays, written by well-known experts and commentators on modern Indian society. They cover a wide range of thematic andtopical issues, from class constitution of Indian cities to social hierarchies; from the state of scheduled tribes to religion and politics; and from violence of law to health care in India. Compiled in the honour of Professor Dipankar Gupta, whose four-decade-long contribution to Indian sociology has shaped the way the discipline has evolved, is learnt, taught, and practiced in India, this volume brings to fore the key concerns of his scholarship. Going beyond Dipankar Gupta's work,the essays build an overarching theoretical framework, developing the threads of sociological scholarship in these areas.