Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings

Paperback | October 13, 2015

byRobert C. Solomon, Kathleen M. Higgins, Clancy Martin

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Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Eleventh Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core questions of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant worksin the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically,the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints - alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers.

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Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Eleventh Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core questions of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant worksin the history of philosophy with excerpts fr...

The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than forty books, including Honest Work, Third Edition (2013), Ethics Across the Professions (2009), and The Little ...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:736 pages, 9.88 × 7.99 × 1.3 inPublished:October 13, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190209453

ISBN - 13:9780190209452

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Table of Contents

*=New to this EditionPhilosopher BiographiesPrefaceHistory of PhilosophyINTRODUCTIONA. SocratesAristophanes, from CloudsPlato, from Apology; from Crito; from Phaedo; from RepublicB. What Is Philosophy?Plato, from ApologyKarl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"Laozi, from Dao De JingC. A Modern Approach to PhilosophyRene Descartes, from Discourse on MethodD. A Brief Introduction to LogicKey TermsBibliography and Further ReadingPART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND1. REALITYA. "The Way the World Really Is"Aristotle, from MetaphysicsB. The First Greek PhilosophersParmenides, from FragmentsC. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and ChinaFrom UpanishadsFrom Zend-AvestaFrom The Confucian AnalectsLaozi, from Dao De JingBuddha, from "Fire-Sermon"D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and AristotlePlato, from Symposium; from Republic; from MenoAristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from MetaphysicsE. Modern MetaphysicsRene Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI"Benedictus de Spinoza, from EthicsGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology* David Lewis, From CounterfactualsMartin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics"2. RELIGIONA. What Is Religion?John Wisdom, from "Gods"Albert Einstein, On the Design of the UniverseKeiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"B. The Western ReligionsC. Proving God: The Ontological ArgumentSt. Anselm, On The Ontological ArgumentRene Descartes, On the Ontological ArgumentImmanuel Kant, Against the Ontological ArgumentD. God as Creator: Intelligence and DesignSt. Thomas Aquinas, Five Arguments for the Existence of GodWilliam Paley, from "The Watch and the Watchmaker"St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way"David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion* Cory Juhl, On the "Fine-Tuning" ArgumentE. Religion, Morality, and EvilImmanuel Kant, On God and MoralityWilliam James, from "The Will to Believe"St. Augustine, from ConfessionsFrom the BhagavadgitaF. Beyond Reason: Faith and IrrationalityMohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from ErrorSoren Kierkegaard, On Subjective TruthPaul Tillich, On the Ultimate ConcernG. Doubts about God and ReligionFyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers KaramazovKarl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of RightFriedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay ScienceSigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion* Mary Daly, "Wanted: 'God' or 'the Goddess'?"* Victor A. Gunasekara, "The Buddhist Attitude to God"3. KNOWLEDGEBertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy* Plato, from RepublicPlato, from TheatetusA. The Rationalist's Confidence: DescartesRene Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI"B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John LockeJohn Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human UnderstandingC. Two Empiricist Theories of KnowledgeJohn Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingBishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human KnowledgeD. The Congenial Skeptic: David HumeDavid Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding* E. A Contemporary Conundrum: Knowledge as Justified True Belief4. TRUTH and RELATIVISMA. What Is Truth?B. Theories of Truth* Brand Blanshard, On The Coherence Theory* Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"* William James, On the Pragmatic Theory* Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth"C. Kant's RevolutionImmanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future MetaphysicsD. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and AbsolutismG. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in HistoryFriedrich Nietzsche, On TruthE. PhenomenologyEdmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris LecturesF. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism ReconsideredRichard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"G. The Analytic TurnBertrand Russell, from The Problems of PhilosophyW. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"H. Feminist EpistemologyElizabeth Grosz, On Feminist KnowledgeUma Narayan, On Feminist EpistemologyPART TWO. KNOW THYSELF5. MIND AND BODYA. What Is Consciousness?Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III"B. The Problem of DualismRene Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"C. The Rejection of DualismGilbert Ryle, from The Concept of MindJ. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity TheoryPaul M. Churchland, On Eliminative MaterialismDavid Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and CognitionJohn R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and ScienceD. The Problem of ConsciousnessSigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"Thomas Nagel, from Mortal QuestionsE. Changing Our Minds: Holism and ConsciousnessAristotle, from De AnimaGalen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"F. The Politics of the Mind-Body Problem* Elizabeth V. Spelman, from "Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views"6. SELFA. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to KantRene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"John Locke, On Personal IdentityDavid Hume, On the Idea of the SelfImmanuel Kant, Against the Soul as SubstanceMeredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity"* Derek Parfit, from Reasons and PersonsB. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of ChoiceJean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; * On Bad Faith; from No ExitC. The Individual and the CommunitySoren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and PassionMartin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They"David Reisman, On IndividualismMalcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon"Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny* Dierdre McClosky, from CrossingD. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"Hermann Hesse, from SteppenwolfLuce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not OneGenevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"From the DhammapadaLaozi, from Dao De Jing7. FREEDOMA. Fatalism and KarmaSophocles, from Oedipus the KingKeiji Nishitani, On FateB. PredestinationSt. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the WillMuhammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in IslamJacqueline Trimier, On the Yoruba OriJonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"C. DeterminismBaron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of NatureDaniel Dennett, from Elbow RoomRobert Kane, On IndeterminismJohn Stuart Mill, On Causation and NecessityDavid Hume, On Causation and CharacterRobert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"D. Compulsion and IgnoranceAristotle, On Voluntary ActionJudith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"B. F. Skinner, Beyond FreedomB. F. Skinner, from Walden TwoRobert Kane, Beyond SkinnerAnthony Burgess, from A Clockwork OrangeCatharine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's SexualityE. Freedom in Practice: Kant's SolutionF. Radical Freedom: ExistentialismJean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom"Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT8. ETHICSA. MoralityB. Is Morality Relative?Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa TheologicaJohn Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of HomosexualityC. Egoism and AltruismPlato, from Republic* Tara Smith, The Necessity of Egoism (Ayn Rand)D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A DebateMencius, On Human Nature: Man Is GoodXunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"Joseph Butler, Against EgoismE. Morality as Virtue: AristotleAristotle, from The Nicomachean EthicsF. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and RousseauDavid Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from EmileG. Morality and Practical Reason: KantImmanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of MoralsH. UtilitarianismJeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and LegislationJohn Stuart Mill, from UtilitarianismI. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and ExistentialismFriedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality"Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism* Simone de Beauvoir, from The Ethics of AmbiguityJ. Ethics and GenderVirginia Held, On Feminist Ethics9. JUSTICEA. The Problem of JusticeB. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and AristotlePlato, from RepublicAristotle, from The Nicomachean EthicsC. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and RightsDavid Hume, On "Justice and Utility"John Stuart Mill, from UtilitarianismD. The Social ContractThomas Hobbes, from LeviathanJean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social ContractThomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of IndependenceE. Fairness and EntitlementJohn Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and UtopiaF. Justice or Care: A Feminist PerspectiveCheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"* Maria Lugones, from "Playfulness, World-Traveling, and Loving Perception"G. Individual Rights and FreedomJohn Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; from On LibertyMalcolm X, On Civil and Human RightsAmartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil DisobedienceHenry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"Glossary: Index:

Editorial Reviews

"The writing style is beautiful, fluid, and very accessible. It's one of the main reasons that I use this text. The coverage is great. I especially appreciate the many sections, in several chapters, on existentialist philosophers and Eastern philosophers." --Ellen B. Stansell, Austin Community College