Introduction To Biopsy Interpretation And Surgical Pathology by James C. UnderwoodIntroduction To Biopsy Interpretation And Surgical Pathology by James C. Underwood

Introduction To Biopsy Interpretation And Surgical Pathology

byJames C. Underwood

Paperback | July 2, 1987

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Preface to the Second Edition Since publication of the first edition, continuing developments in histopathology have motivated the inclusion of four new chapters: cytology, immunohistology, quality control and assessment, and the autopsy. The increasing use of cytology in clinical practice and advances in techniques and diagnostic interpretation justify the devotion of more space than formerly to this important topic. Immunohistology now merits a separate chapter because it has a status beyond that of being just another "special stain" and there are certain aspects of technique and interpretation that are peculiar to it. Quality control and assessment in histopathology are very topical and important now that greater attention is being paid to cost effectiveness and the auditing of many aspects of clinical practice. The autopsy is an integral part of the professional life of a histopathologist and, though it lacks the immediate clinical impact of the biopsy diagnosis, it nevertheless constitutes an important activity in all hospitals; without detailing dissection techniques I have provided some information and guidance about the autopsy which I believe will be useful to trainees and of interest to others. The remainder of the book has been thoroughly revised and updated, and illustrations and tables added where experience has shown that the text is insufficient. Sheffield, October 1986 J. C. E. Underwood Preface to the First Edition This book is primarily addressed to the needs of the trainee histopathologist.
Title:Introduction To Biopsy Interpretation And Surgical PathologyFormat:PaperbackPublished:July 2, 1987Publisher:Springer LondonLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540174958

ISBN - 13:9783540174950


Table of Contents

1 Diagnostic Histopathology.- Origins of Histopathology.- The Objectives of Histopathology.- Clinical Diagnosis.- Epidemiology.- Treatment Selection and Monitoring.- Clinical Research.- Autopsies and Clinicopathological Correlation.- Medicolegal Aspects.- The Histopathological Diagnosis.- Diagnosis and Disease.- Diagnostic Processes.- Diagnostic Fallibility.- Adverse Effects of Biopsy.- Prospects for Histopathology.- 2 Macroscopy, Microscopy and Sampling.- Sampling Error.- Sampling Biopsies and Surgical Resections.- Suspected or Proven Neoplasia.- Ischaemic and Vascular Lesions.- Infection and Inflammatory Lesions.- Metabolie and Degenerative Diseases.- Specific Types of Biopsy.- Needle Biopsies.- Mucosal Biopsies.- Curettings.- Cone Biopsies.- Specimen Radiology.- Section Thickness.- Thick Sections.- Thin Sections.- Imprints and Smears.- Information and Magnification.- 3 The Use of Stains.- Principles of Staining.- Indications for Special Stains.- Identification of Specific Substances and Cells.- Connective Tissues.- Carbohydrates.- Nucleic Acids.- Fats.- Minerals and Pigments.- Organisms.- Specific Cells.- Autoradiography.- 4 Immunohistology.- Techniques for Immunohistology.- Direct Method.- Indirect Method.- Tracer-Complex Method.- Avidin-Biotin Method.- Hapten Method.- Enzyme-Bridge Method.- Labelled-Antigen Method.- Primary Antibodies.- Bridging Reagents.- Tracer Substances.- Fluorochromes.- Enzymes.- Gold Particles.- Double-Labelling Techniques.- Fixation.- Use of Enzymes to Unmask Antigens.- Endogenous Peroxidase.- Controls.- Common Applications.- Investigation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders.- Determination of Tumour Histogenesis.- Renal Biopsies.- Problems of Interpretation.- Immuno-electron Microscopy.- 5 Interpretation of Histological Appearances.- Artifact of Sections.- Basic Microscopy.- Artifacts in Sections.- Methods of Interpretation.- Heuristic Analysis.- Pattern Recognition.- Clinicopathological Integration.- Morphology of Disease Processes.- Evolution of Lesions.- Modification by Treatment.- Significance of Specific Morphological Features.- Morphological Overlap Between Diseases.- 6 Cytology.- Relative Merits of Cytology and Histology.- Cytological Preparations.- Exfoliation.- Aspiration.- Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology.- Miscellaneous Methods.- Stains for Cytology.- Haematoxylin and Eosin.- Romanovsky Stains.- Papanicolaou.- Special Investigations.- Immunohistochemistry.- Electron Microscopy.- Flow Cytometry.- Interpretation.- Applications.- Epithelial "Dysplasias" and Malignancy.- Serous Effusions.- Infective Lesions.- Solid Tumours.- Fat Embolism.- Inflammatory Lung Diseases.- Living Cells.- Reporting Cytology.- 7 Borderline Lesions, Pseudomalignancy and Mimicry.- Borderline Lesions.- Discrete Versus Continuous Diagnostic Categories.- Use of Criteria.- Mimicry of Histological Features.- Pseudomalignancy and Related Diagnostic Problems.- Skin.- Soft Tissues.- Lymphoid Tissues.- Bone.- Breasts.- Urinary Tract.- Thyroid.- Male Genitalia.- Female Genital Tract.- Gastrointestinal Tract.- Respiratory Tract.- Serosal Surfaces.- Central Nervous System.- Conclusions.- 8 Rapid Frozen Section Diagnosis.- Clinical Indications.- Methods.- Interpretation.- Common Applications.- Breast Lesions.- Thyroid.- Parathyroid Glands.- Gastrointestinal Tract.- Respiratory Tract.- Urinary Tract.- Bone and Soft Tissues.- Skin.- Reliability.- 9 Diagnostic Electron Microscopy.- Principles of Transmission Electron Microscopy.- The Electron Microscope.- Specimen Processing.- Diagnostic Value of Electron Microscopy.- Renal Disease.- Tumour Histogenesis.- Virus Identification.- Miscellaneous Applications.- Scanning Electron Microscopy.- X-ray Microanalysis.- 10 Quantitative Methods.- Stereological Principles.- Stereological Methods.- Volumetrie Analysis.- Surface Area.- Surface-to-Volume Ratios.- Particle Size and Density.- Automatic and Semi-automatic Image Analysis.- Microspectrophotometry.- Flow Cytometry.- Practical Applications.- Metabolie Bone Disease.- Jejunal Biopsies.- Respiratory Tract.- Tumours.- 11 Reporting and Classification of Biopsy Diagnoses.- The Biopsy Report.- Gross Description.- Histology.- Other Investigations.- Summary.- Reporting Tumours.- Disease Classification.- "Lumping" and "Splitting".- Nomenclature and Codes.- Problems in Tumour Classification and Grading.- Data Storage and Retrieval.- Clinical Assimilation.- 12 Quality Assessment and Control.- Sources of Diagnostic Error.- The "Correct" Diagnosis.- Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods.- Evaluation of Performance.- Illustrative Examples.- Liver Biopsy Interpretation.- Bladder Tumour Grading.- Breast Carcinoma Grading.- National and Institutional Schemes.- Self Assessment.- Assessment of Errors of Procedure and Communication.- Conclusions.- 13 The Autopsy.- History of the Autopsy.- The Autopsy and Clinical Audit.- Role in Medical Education.- Hazards in the Autopsy Room.- Consent.- General Techniques.- Special Methods.- Microbiology.- Post-mortem Biochemistry.- The Needle Autopsy.- The Frozen Section Autopsy.- Post-mortem Histology.